Influence of solubilization and AD-mutations on stability and structure of human presenilins.
ABSTRACT: Presenilin (PS1 or PS2) functions as the catalytic subunit of ?-secretase, which produces the toxic amyloid beta peptides in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dependence of folding and structural stability of PSs on the lipophilic environment and mutation were investigated by far UV CD spectroscopy. The secondary structure content and stability of PS2 depended on the lipophilic environment. PS2 undergoes a temperature-dependent structural transition from ?-helical to ?-structure at 331?K. The restructured protein formed structures which tested positive in spectroscopic amyloid fibrils assays. The AD mutant PS1L266F, PS1L424V and PS1?E9 displayed reduced stability which supports a proposed 'loss of function' mechanism of AD based on protein instability. The exon 9 coded sequence in the inhibitory loop of the zymogen was found to be required for the modulation of the thermal stability of PS1 by the lipophilic environment.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. Familial AD (FAD) mutations in presenilins have been linked to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling abnormalities. To explain these results, we previously proposed that presenilins function as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) passive Ca(2+) leak channels. To directly investigate the role of presenilins in neuronal ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, we here performed a series of Ca(2+) imaging experiments with primary neuronal cultures from conditional presenilin double-knock-out mice (PS1(dTAG/dTAG), PS2(-/-)) and from triple-transgenic AD mice (KI-PS1(M146V), Thy1-APP(KM670/671NL), Thy1-tau(P301L)). Obtained results provided additional support to the hypothesis that presenilins function as ER Ca(2+) leak channels in neurons. Interestingly, we discovered that presenilins play a major role in ER Ca(2+) leak function in hippocampal but not in striatal neurons. We further discovered that, in hippocampal neurons, loss of presenilin-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak function was compensated by an increase in expression and function of ryanodine receptors (RyanRs). Long-term feeding of the RyanR inhibitor dantrolene to amyloid precursor protein-presenilin-1 mice (Thy1-APP(KM670/671NL), Thy1-PS1(L166P)) resulted in an increased amyloid load, loss of synaptic markers, and neuronal atrophy in hippocampal and cortical regions. These results indicate that disruption of ER Ca(2+) leak function of presenilins may play an important role in AD pathogenesis.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) account for approximately 40% of familial AD (FAD) cases. FAD mutations and genetic deletions of presenilins have been associated with calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling abnormalities. We demonstrate that wild-type presenilins, but not PS1-M146V and PS2-N141I FAD mutants, can form low-conductance divalent-cation-permeable ion channels in planar lipid bilayers. In experiments with PS1/2 double knockout (DKO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we find that presenilins account for approximately 80% of passive Ca(2+) leak from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deficient Ca(2+) signaling in DKO MEFs can be rescued by expression of wild-type PS1 or PS2 but not by expression of PS1-M146V or PS2-N141I mutants. The ER Ca(2+) leak function of presenilins is independent of their gamma-secretase activity. Our data suggest a Ca(2+) signaling function for presenilins and provide support for the "Ca(2+) hypothesis of AD."
Project description:The two presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin-2 (PS2) homologs are the catalytic core of the ?-secretase complex, which has a major role in cell fate decision and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Understanding the precise contribution of PS1- and PS2-dependent ?-secretases to the production of ?-amyloid peptide (A?) from amyloid precursor protein (APP) remains an important challenge to design molecules efficiently modulating A? release without affecting the processing of other ?-secretase substrates. To that end, we studied PS1- and PS2-dependent substrate processing in murine cells lacking presenilins (PSs) (PS1KO, PS2KO or PS1-PS2 double-KO noted PSdKO) or stably re-expressing human PS1 or PS2 in an endogenous PS-null (PSdKO) background. We characterized the processing of APP and Notch on both endogenous and exogenous substrates, and we investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibitors targeting the PSs activity (DAPT and L-685,458). We found that murine PS1 ?-secretase plays a predominant role in APP and Notch processing when compared to murine PS2 ?-secretase. The inhibitors blocked more efficiently murine PS2- than murine PS1-dependent processing. Human PSs, especially human PS1, expression in a PS-null background efficiently restored APP and Notch processing. Strikingly, and contrary to the results obtained on murine PSs, pharmacological inhibitors appear to preferentially target human PS1- than human PS2-dependent ?-secretase activity.
Project description:Presenilins (PS1 and PS2) are multifunctional proteins involved in a diverse array of molecular and cellular functions, including proteolysis, development, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, ion channel regulation and phospholipid metabolism. Mutations in presenilin genes are responsible for the majority of Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). Consequently, FAD-associated mutations in genes encoding PS1 or PS2 lead to several key cellular phenotypes, including alterations in proteolysis of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Ca(2+) entry. The mechanism underlying presenilin (PS)-mediated modulation of Ca(2+) entry remains to be determined. Our previous studies showed that the PS-dependent down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is attributable to the observed Ca(2+) deficits. In this study, we attempted to identify the ion channel that is subject to the PIP2 and PS-dependent modulation. We found that Ca(2+) or Zn(2+) entry via the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channel was attenuated by the presence of FAD-associated PS1 mutants, such as ΔE9 and L286V. TRPM7 has been implicated in Mg(2+) homeostasis and embryonic development. The intracellular delivery of PIP2 restored TRPM7-mediated Ca(2+) influx, indicating that the observed deficits in Ca(2+) entry are due to downregulation of PIP2. Conversely, PS1 and PS2 deficiency, previously shown to upregulate PIP2 levels, potentiated TRPM7-mediated Ca(2+) influx. PS-dependent changes in Ca(2+) influx could be neutralized by a TRPM7 channel blocker. Collectively, these results indicate that TRPM7 may underlie the Ca(2+) entry deficits observed in FAD-associated PS mutants and suggest that the normal function of PS involves regulation of TRPM7 through a PIP2-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, inflammation and synaptic and neuronal loss are some of the major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While genetic mutations in amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 and -2 (PS1 and PS2) genes cause early-onset familial AD, the etiology of sporadic AD is not fully understood. Our current study shows that changes in conformation of endogenous wild-type PS1, similar to those found with mutant PS1, occur in sporadic AD brain and during normal aging. Using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (Tg2576) that overexpresses the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein but has normal levels of endogenous wild-type presenilin, we report that the percentage of PS1 in a pathogenic conformation increases with age. Importantly, we found that this PS1 conformational shift is associated with amyloid pathology and precedes amyloid-? deposition in the brain. Furthermore, we found that oxidative stress, a common stress characteristic of aging and AD, causes pathogenic PS1 conformational change in neurons in vitro, which is accompanied by increased A?42/40 ratio. The results of this study provide important information about the timeline of pathogenic changes in PS1 conformation during aging and suggest that structural changes in PS1/?-secretase may represent a molecular mechanism by which oxidative stress triggers amyloid-? accumulation in aging and in sporadic AD brain.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Even though most AD cases are sporadic, a small percentage is familial due to autosomal dominant mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin-1 (PSEN1), and presenilin-2 (PSEN2) genes. AD mutations contribute to the generation of toxic amyloid ? (A?) peptides and the formation of cerebral plaques, leading to the formulation of the amyloid cascade hypothesis for AD pathogenesis. Many drugs have been developed to inhibit this pathway but all these approaches currently failed, raising the need to find additional pathogenic mechanisms. Alterations in cellular calcium (Ca2+) signaling have also been reported as causative of neurodegeneration. Interestingly, A? peptides, mutated presenilin-1 (PS1), and presenilin-2 (PS2) variously lead to modifications in Ca2+ homeostasis. In this contribution, we focus on PS2, summarizing how AD-linked PS2 mutants alter multiple Ca2+ pathways and the functional consequences of this Ca2+ dysregulation in AD pathogenesis.
Project description:Presenilin-1 (PS1) and -2 (PS2), which when mutated cause familial Alzheimer disease, have been localized to numerous compartments of the cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, nuclear envelope, endosomes, lysosomes, the plasma membrane, and mitochondria. Using three complementary approaches, subcellular fractionation, gamma-secretase activity assays, and immunocytochemistry, we show that presenilins are highly enriched in a subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum that is associated with mitochondria and that forms a physical bridge between the two organelles, called endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria-associated membranes. A localization of PS1 and PS2 in mitochondria-associated membranes may help reconcile the disparate hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and may explain many seemingly unrelated features of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder.
Project description:The ?-secretase complex cleaves the carboxy-terminal 99 residue (C99) fragment of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to generate the amyloid-? (A?) peptide. The catalytic activity of this complex is mediated either by the presenilin- 1 (PS1) or the presenilin-2 (PS2) subunit. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that PS1-containing complexes generate more total A? product than PS2-containing complexes, indicating greater cleavage activity by PS1- containing ?-secretase complexes at the APP ?-site. However, it remains untested whether ?-secretase cleavage at the APP -site, which precedes ?-site cleavage and produces the physiologically active APP intracellular domain (AICD), follows the same rule. Using a novel Swedish APP-GVP substrate to facilitate the parallel detection of A? and AICD products from PS1-/-/PS2-/- cells co-transfected with either PS1 or PS2, we observed that while PS1 generates more total A? product than PS2, consistent with published reports, PS1 and PS2 unexpectedly generate equal amounts of AICD product. We also observed that PS1 and PS2 produce equivalent amounts of Notch intracellular domain (NICD), indicating equal cleavage activity at the Notch S3-site (the corollary of the APP -site). Our findings suggest that processivity differences between PS1 and PS2 underlie the differential production of A? peptide. Taken together these findings offer novel insights into ?- secretase biology and have important implications for therapeutically targeting ?-secretase.
Project description:Presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and 2) are the catalytic subunits of ?-secretase, a multiprotein protease that cleaves amyloid protein precursor and other type I transmembrane proteins. Previous studies with mouse models or cells have indicated differences in PS1 and PS2 functions. We have recently reported that clinical ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), initially developed to manage Alzheimer's disease and now being considered for other therapeutic interventions, are both pharmacologically and functionally distinct. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing, we established human HEK 293T cell lines in which endogenous PS1, PS2, or both have been knocked out. Using these knockout lines to examine differences in PS1- and PS2-mediated cleavage events, we confirmed that PS2 generates more intracellular ?-amyloid than does PS1. Moreover, we observed subtle differences in PS1- and PS2-mediated cleavages of select substrates. In exploring the question of whether differences in activity among clinical GSIs could be attributed to differential inhibition of PS1 or PS2, we noted that select GSIs inhibit PS1 and PS2 activities on specific substrates with slightly different potencies. We also found that endoproteolysis of select PS1 FAD-linked variants in human cells is more efficient than what has been previously reported for mouse cell lines. Overall, these results obtained with HEK293T cells suggest that selective PS1 or PS2 inhibition by a given GSI does not explain the previously observed differences in functional and pharmacological properties among various GSIs.
Project description:?-Secretase plays a pivotal role in the production of neurotoxic amyloid ?-peptides (A?) in Alzheimer disease (AD) and consists of a heterotetrameric core complex that includes the aspartyl intramembrane protease presenilin (PS). The human genome codes for two presenilin paralogs. To understand the causes for distinct phenotypes of PS paralog-deficient mice and elucidate whether PS mutations associated with early-onset AD affect the molecular environment of mature ?-secretase complexes, quantitative interactome comparisons were undertaken. Brains of mice engineered to express wild-type or mutant PS1, or HEK293 cells stably expressing PS paralogs with N-terminal tandem-affinity purification tags served as biological source materials. The analyses revealed novel interactions of the ?-secretase core complex with a molecular machinery that targets and fuses synaptic vesicles to cellular membranes and with the H(+)-transporting lysosomal ATPase macrocomplex but uncovered no differences in the interactomes of wild-type and mutant PS1. The catenin/cadherin network was almost exclusively found associated with PS1. Another intramembrane protease, signal peptide peptidase, predominantly co-purified with PS2-containing ?-secretase complexes and was observed to influence A? production.