Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics on postmortem interval estimation based on pericardial fluids.
ABSTRACT: Postmortem interval (PMI) evaluation remains a challenge in the forensic community due to the lack of efficient methods. Studies have focused on chemical analysis of biofluids for PMI estimation; however, no reports using spectroscopic methods in pericardial fluid (PF) are available. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory was applied to collect comprehensive biochemical information from rabbit PF at different PMIs. The PMI-dependent spectral signature was determined by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. The partial least square (PLS) and nu-support vector machine (nu-SVM) models were then established based on the acquired spectral dataset. Spectral variables associated with amide I, amide II, COO-, C-H bending, and C-O or C-OH vibrations arising from proteins, polypeptides, amino acids and carbohydrates, respectively, were susceptible to PMI in 2D correlation analysis. Moreover, the nu-SVM model appeared to achieve a more satisfactory prediction than the PLS model in calibration; the reliability of both models was determined in an external validation set. The study shows the possibility of application of ATR-FTIR methods in postmortem interval estimation using PF samples.
Project description:Estimating PMI is of great importance in forensic investigations. Although many methods are used to estimate the PMI, a few investigations focus on the postmortem redistribution. In this study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) measurement combined with visual inspection indicated a regular diffusion of hemoglobin into plasma after death showing the redistribution of postmortem components in blood. Thereafter, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the variations caused by this phenomenon. First, full-spectrum partial least-squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm combined with PLS (GA-PLS) models were constructed to predict the PMI. The performance of GA-PLS model was better than that of full-spectrum PLS model based on its root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.95) and the RMSE of prediction of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.94). The investigation on the similarity of spectra between blood plasma and formed elements also supported the role of redistribution of components in spectral changes in postmortem plasma. These results demonstrated that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with the advanced mathematical methods could serve as a convenient and reliable tool to study the redistribution of postmortem components and estimate the PMI.
Project description:Due to the existence of Lingzhi adulteration, there is a growing demand for species classification of medicinal mushrooms by various techniques. The objective of this study was to explore a rapid and reliable way to distinguish between different Lingzhi species and compare the influence of data pretreatment methods on the recognition results. To this end, 120 fresh fruiting bodies of Lingzhi were collected, and all of them were analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification models were established for raw and pretreated second derivative (SD) spectral matrices to authenticate different Lingzhi species. The results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the SD preprocessing method displayed a higher classification ability, which may be attributed to the analysis of powder samples that requires removal of overlapping peaks and baseline shifts. Compared with RF, the results of the SVM and PLS-DA methods were more satisfying, and their accuracies for the test set were both 100%. Among SVM and PLS-DA, the training set and test set accuracy of PLS-DA were both 100%. In conclusion, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data pretreated by SD combined with PLS-DA is a simple, rapid, non-destructive and relatively inexpensive method to discriminate between mushroom species and provide a good reference to quality assessment.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-bounded particles that are actively synthesized and released by cells. The main components of EVs are lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and their composition is characteristic to their type and origin, and it reveals the physiological and pathological conditions of the parent cells. The concentration and protein composition of EVs closely relate to their functions; therefore, total protein determination can assist in EV-based diagnostics and disease prognosis. Here, we present a simple, reagent-free method based on attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to quantify the protein content of EV samples without any further sample preparation. After calibration with bovine serum albumin, the protein concentration of red blood cell-derived EVs (REVs) were investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The integrated area of the amide I band was calculated from the IR spectra of REVs, which was proportional to the protein quantity in the sample' regardless of its secondary structure. A spike test and a dilution test were performed to determine the ability to use ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for protein quantification in EV samples, which resulted in linearity with R<sup>2</sup> values as high as 0.992 over the concentration range of 0.08 to 1 mg/mL. Additionally, multivariate calibration with the partial least squares (PLS) regression method was carried out on the bovine serum albumin and EV spectra. R<sup>2</sup> values were 0.94 for the calibration and 0.91 for the validation set. The results indicate that ATR-FTIR measurements provide a reliable method for reagent-free protein quantification of EVs. Graphical abstract.
Project description:Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ?2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ?4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein ?-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with time. Cluster-analyses of data from Raman microscopic imaging reconstructed histo-anatomical features in comparison to the light microscopic image and finally, by application of principal component analyses (PCA), it was possible to see a clear distinction between forensic and archaeological bone samples. Hence, the spectral characterization of inorganic and organic compounds by the afore mentioned techniques, followed by analyses such as multivariate imaging analysis (MIAs) and principal component analyses (PCA), appear to be suitable for the post mortem interval (PMI) estimation of human skeletal remains.
Project description:Clarification of postmortem metabolite changes can help characterize the process of biological degradation and facilitate investigations of forensic casework, especially in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Metabolomics can provide information on the molecular profiles of tissues, which can aid in investigating postmortem metabolite changes. In this study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the metabolic profiles of rat femoral muscle at ten periods of time after death within 168 h. The results obtained by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)- and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)- electrospray ionization (ESI±) have revealed more than 16,000 features from all four datasets. Furthermore, 915 of these features were identified using an in-house database. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated the time-specific features of molecular profiling at each period of time after death. Moreover, results from partial least squares projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) disclosed a strong association of metabolic alterations of at least 59 metabolites with the time since death, especially within 48 h after death, which expounds these metabolites as potential indicators in PMI estimation. Altogether, our results illustrate the potentiality of metabolic profiling in the evaluation of PMI and provide candidate metabolite markers with strong correlation with time since death for forensic purpose.
Project description:Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a vibrational technique that gives information on the chemical composition of a sample, providing a "molecular fingerprint" of it. It is a powerful approach to study intact cells. The aim of the present study was to analyse and quantify apoptotic cells by using a FTIR approach based on attenuated total reflection (ATR). We incubated human HL60 leukaemic cells with camptothecin, a cytotoxic drug, and monitored apoptosis induction over a period of time. Several ATR-FTIR spectral changes occurred during the apoptotic process. In particular, we observed that the apoptotic index was inversely correlated with the spectral area in the region 1200-900 cm(-1), assigned to the absorption of nucleic acids. We therefore propose that ATR-FTIR spectral features may be used as a diagnostic marker of apoptotic cells.
Project description:Meningiomas are the commonest types of tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). It is a benign type of tumour divided into three WHO grades (I, II and III) associated with tumour growth rate and likelihood of recurrence, where surgical outcomes and patient treatments are dependent on the meningioma grade and histological subtype. The development of alternative approaches based on attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy could aid meningioma grade determination and its biospectrochemical profiling in an automated fashion. Herein, ATR-FTIR in combination with chemometric techniques is employed to distinguish grade I, grade II and grade I meningiomas that re-occurred. Ninety-nine patients were investigated in this study where their formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissue samples were analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Subsequent classification was performed via principal component analysis plus linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) and partial least squares plus discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PLS-DA gave the best results where grade I and grade II meningiomas were discriminated with 79% accuracy, 80% sensitivity and 73% specificity, while grade I versus grade I recurrence and grade II versus grade I recurrence were discriminated with 94% accuracy (94% sensitivity and specificity) and 97% accuracy (97% sensitivity and 100% specificity), respectively. Several wavenumbers were identified as possible biomarkers towards tumour differentiation. The majority of these were associated with lipids, protein, DNA/RNA and carbohydrate alterations. These findings demonstrate the potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy towards meningioma grade discrimination as a fast, low-cost, non-destructive and sensitive tool for clinical settings. Graphical abstract Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate meningioma WHO grade I, grade II and grade I recurrence tumours.
Project description:Genomic prediction benefits hybrid rice breeding by increasing selection intensity and accelerating breeding cycles. With the rapid advancement of technology, other omic data, such as metabolomic data and transcriptomic data, are readily available for predicting breeding values for agronomically important traits. In this study, the best prediction strategies were determined for yield, 1000 grain weight, number of grains per panicle, and number of tillers per plant of hybrid rice (derived from recombinant inbred lines) by comprehensively evaluating all possible combinations of omic datasets with different prediction methods. It was demonstrated that, in rice, the predictions using a combination of genomic and metabolomic data generally produce better results than single-omics predictions or predictions based on other combined omic data. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) appears to be the most efficient prediction method compared to the other commonly used approaches, including least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), stochastic search variable selection (SSVS), support vector machines with radial basis function and epsilon regression (SVM-R(EPS)), support vector machines with radial basis function and nu regression (SVM-R(NU)), support vector machines with polynomial kernel and epsilon regression (SVM-P(EPS)), support vector machines with polynomial kernel and nu regression (SVM-P(NU)) and partial least squares regression (PLS). This study has provided guidelines for selection of hybrid rice in terms of which types of omic datasets and which method should be used to achieve higher trait predictability. The answer to these questions will benefit academic research and will also greatly reduce the operative cost for the industry which specializes in breeding and selection.
Project description:Lignin is an attractive material for the production of renewable chemicals, materials and energy. However, utilization is hampered by its highly complex and variable chemical structure, which requires an extensive suite of analytical instruments to characterize. Here, we demonstrate that straightforward attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR analysis combined with principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) modelling can provide remarkable insight into the structure of technical lignins, giving quantitative results that are comparable to standard gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC)?NMR methods. First, a calibration set of 54 different technical (fractionated) lignin samples, covering kraft, soda and organosolv processes, were prepared and analyzed using traditional GPC and NMR methods, as well as by readily accessible ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. PLS models correlating the ATR-FTIR spectra of the broad set of lignins with GPC and NMR measurements were found to have excellent coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup> Cal.>0.85) for molecular weight (M<sub>n</sub> , M<sub>w</sub> ) and inter-unit abundances (?-O-4, ?-5 and ?-?), with low relative errors (6.2-14?%) as estimated from cross-validation results. PLS analysis of a second set of 28 samples containing exclusively (fractionated) kraft lignins showed further improved prediction ability, with relative errors of 3.8-13?%, and the resulting model could predict the structural characteristics of an independent validation set of lignins with good accuracy. The results highlight the potential utility of this methodology for streamlining and expediting the often complex and time consuming technical lignin characterization process.
Project description:Invasive fungal infections by opportunistic yeasts have increased concomitantly with the growth of an immunocompromised patient population. Misidentification of yeasts can lead to inappropriate antifungal treatment and complications. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a promising method for rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a standalone, inexpensive, reagent-free technique that provides results within minutes after initial culture. In this study, a comprehensive spectral reference database of 65 clinically relevant yeast species was constructed and tested prospectively on spectra recorded (from colonies taken from culture plates) for 318 routine yeasts isolated from various body fluids and specimens received from 38 microbiology laboratories over a 4-month period in our clinical laboratory. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy attained comparable identification performance with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a preliminary validation of the ATR-FTIR method, correct identification rates of 100% and 95.6% at the genus and species levels, respectively, were achieved, with 3.5% unidentified and 0.9% misidentified. By expanding the number of spectra in the spectral reference database for species for which isolates could not be identified or had been misidentified, we were able to improve identification at the species level to 99.7%. Thus, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy provides a new standalone method that can rival MALDI-TOF MS for the accurate identification of a broad range of medically important yeasts. The simplicity of the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy workflow favors its use in clinical laboratories for timely and low-cost identification of life-threatening yeast strains for appropriate treatment.