Green Synthesis of Halogenated Thiophenes, Selenophenes and Benzo[b]selenophenes Using Sodium Halides as a Source of Electrophilic Halogens.
ABSTRACT: Herein, we report the first synthesis of chlorinated benzo[b]selenophenes via environmentally friendly electrophilic chlorocyclization reaction using "table salt" as a source of "electrophilic chlorine" and ethanol as a solvent. In addition, the synthesis of diverse halogenated heterocycles, including 3-chloro, 3-bromo and 3-iodo thiophenes, selenophenes, and benzo[b]selenophenes was successfully accomplished under the same environmentally benign reaction conditions. This methodology has several advantages over other previously reported reactions as it employs simple starting compounds, an environmentally friendly solvent, ethanol, and non-toxic inorganic reagents under mild reaction conditions, resulting in the high product yields.
Project description:2,3-Disubstituted benzo[b]selenophenes have been prepared by the electrophilic cyclization of various 1-(1-alkynyl)-2-(methylseleno)arenes by Br2, NBS, I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSeBr, and Hg(OAc)2. This method tolerates a wide variety of functional groups, including alcohol, ester, nitrile, nitro, and silyl groups, and proceeds under exceptionally mild reaction conditions.
Project description:We describe herein an alternative transition-metal-free procedure to access 3,4-bis(butylselanyl)selenophenes and the so far unprecedented 3-(butylselanyl)-4-alkoxyselenophenes. The protocol involves the 5-<i>endo</i>-dig electrophilic cyclization of 1,3-diynes promoted by electrophilic organoselenium species, generated in situ through the oxidative cleavage of the Se-Se bond of dibutyl diselenide using Oxone<sup>®</sup> as a green oxidant. The selective formation of the title products was achieved by controlling the solvent identity and the amount of dibutyl diselenide. By using 4.0 equiv of dibutyl diselenide and acetonitrile as solvent at 80 °C, four examples of 3,4-bis(butylselanyl)selenophenes were obtained in moderate to good yields (40-78%). When 3.0 equiv of dibutyl diselenide were used, in the presence of aliphatic alcohols as solvent/nucleophiles under reflux, 10 3-(butylselanyl)-4-alkoxyselenophenes were selectively obtained in low to good yields (15-80%).
Project description:The global health concern of antimicrobial resistance has harnessed research interest to find new classes of antibiotics to combat disease-causing pathogens. In our studies, 3-halobenzo[<i>b</i>]thiophene derivatives were synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial activities using the broth microdilution susceptibility method. The 3-halo substituted benzo[<i>b</i>]thiophenes were synthesized starting from 2-alkynyl thioanisoles using a convenient electrophilic cyclization methodology that utilizes sodium halides as the source of electrophilic halogens when reacted along with copper(II) sulfate. This environmentally benign methodology is facile, uses ethanol as the solvent, and results in 3-halo substituted benzo[<i>b</i>]thiophene structures in very high yields. The cyclohexanol-substituted 3-chloro and 3-bromobenzo[<i>b</i>]thiophenes resulted in a low MIC of 16 µg/mL against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. Additionally, in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of the compounds were determined. The compounds with the lowest MIC values showed excellent drug-like properties with no violations to Lipinski, Veber, and Muegge filters. The time-kill curve was obtained for cyclohexanol-substituted 3-chlorobenzo[<i>b</i>]thiophenes against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, which showed fast bactericidal activity at MIC.
Project description:A convenient methodology for the synthesis of mono- and di-halogenated benzo[b]thiophenes is described herein, which utilizes copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and various sodium halides in the presence of substituted 2-alkynylthioanisoles. The proposed method is facile, uses ethanol as a green solvent, and results in uniquely substituted benzo[b]thiophene structures with isolated yields up to 96%. The most useful component of this methodology is the selective introduction of bromine atoms at every available position (2-7) around the benzo[b]thiophene ring, while keeping position 3 occupied by a specific halogen atom such as Cl, Br or I. Aromatic halogens are useful reactive handles; therefore, the selective introduction of halogens at specific positions would be valuable in the targeted synthesis of bioactive molecules and complex organic materials via metal-catalyzed cross coupling reactions. This work is a novel approach towards the synthesis of dihalo substituted benzo[b]thiophene core structures, which provides a superior alternative to the current methods discussed herein.
Project description:The importance of the heterocyclic core elements with peripheral phenolic and alkyl substituents as a dominant structural motif of ligands for the estrogen receptor (ER) has been well recognized. In this study we expanded the structural diversity of core elements by preparing selenium-containing heterocycles and exploring the activities of these selenophenes on the two ERs, ER? and ER?. Careful structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of their ER binding affinities showed that most selenophenes are ER?-selective, with the position of the phenol substituents on the selenophene core and the nature of these substituents having a marked effect on their binding affinities. The compound bis(2-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)selenophene (2?f) has the highest relative binding affinity (RBA) of 24.3 for ER?. In transcription assays, most selenophenes were found to exhibit partial to full agonist activity for both ER subtypes, with compounds bis(2-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)selenophene (2?b), bis(4-fluoro-3-hydroxyphenyl)3-bromoselenophene (6?f), and 2,3,5-tris(hydroxyphenyl)thiophenes (8?b and 8?d) profiling as superagonists for ER?; however, several compounds display a range of ER? or ER? antagonistic activities. A few selenophenes exhibited antiproliferative activity, with compound 8?c showing antiproliferative effects similar to that of 4-hydroxytamoxifen in breast cancer MCF-7 cells while being nontoxic to normal VERO cells. These new ligands could act as models for the development of novel agents leading to improved therapeutics that target the estrogen receptor.
Project description:A concise and environmentally friendly route for the synthesis of diverse indenodihydropyridines (3) via a cascade reaction of 1,1-eneamines (1) with benzylidene-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-diones (BIDs) (2) in ethanol media was developed. The targeted compounds were efficiently obtained by only filtration without any further post-treatment. In the one-step cascade reaction, C-C and C-N bonds were constructed. In addition, when 1,4-dioxane was used as a solvent and the mixture of 1,1-eneamines (1) was refluxed with benzylidene-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-diones (BIDs) (2) for about 12 h, indenopyridine compounds (4) were produced. Two kinds of indenopyridine derivatives 3-4 resulted from alternative solvents and temperatures. The reaction had the following features: mild temperature, atom economy, high yields, and potential biological activity of the product.
Project description:The synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted benzo[<i>b</i>]thiophenes with selective placement of a chlorine moiety at the 3 position while maintaining diversity at the 2 position has only been accomplished by a handful of conditions in the past. The development of a greener, less expensive, and simpler method is paramount for the exploration of innovative compounds for application in medicinal and materials chemistry. Herein, the first reported copper-catalyzed electrophilic chlorocyclization method was developed and employed across diverse substrates to generate highly functionalized 2,3-disubstituted benzo[<i>b</i>]thiophenes and 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes in very high yields. This method was optimized in both ethanol and acetonitrile in a comparative solvent study. The utility of this method was further expanded beyond chlorocyclization by changing the sodium halide to generate bromo- and iodocyclization products in excellent yields.
Project description:4H-chromenes play a significant role in natural and pharmacological products. Despite continuous advances in the synthesis methodology of these compounds, there is still a lack of a green and efficient method. In this study, we have designed cysteic acid chemically attached to magnetic graphene oxide (MNPs·GO-CysA) as an efficient and reusable solid acid catalyst to synthesize 4H-chromene skeletons via a one-pot three components reaction of an enolizable compound, malononitrile, an aldehyde or isatin, and a mixture of water-ethanol as a green solvent. This new heterogeneous catalyst provides desired products with a good to excellent yield, short time, and mild condition. This procedure presents an environmentally friendly approach for the synthesis of a great number of 4H-chromene derivatives.
Project description:Furfural is considered to be an essential biobased platform molecule. Recently, its electrocatalytic hydrogenation is regarded as a more environmentally friendly process compared to traditional catalytic hydrogenation. In this study, a new, continuous-flow approach enabling furfural electrocatalytic reduction was developed. In an undivided multichannel electrochemical flow reactor at ambient temperature and pressure in basic reaction conditions, the yield of furfuryl alcohol reached up to 90% in only 10 min residence time. Interestingly, the faradaic efficiency was 90%, showing a good effectiveness of the consumed electrons in the generation of the targeted compound. Furthermore, the innovation lies in the direct electrolysis using the green solvent ethanol without the need for membrane separation or catalyst modification, which offers further proof for continuous and sustainable production in industry.
Project description:Friedel-Crafts (FC) acylation reactions were exploited in the preparation of ketone-functionalized aromatics. Environmentally more friendly, solvent-free mechanochemical reaction conditions of this industrially important reaction were developed. Reaction parameters such as FC catalyst, time, ratio of reagents and milling support were studied to establish the optimal reaction conditions. The scope of the reaction was explored by employment of different aromatic hydrocarbons in conjunction with anhydrides and acylation reagents. It was shown that certain FC-reactive aromatics could be effectively functionalized by FC acylations carried out under ball-milling conditions without the presence of a solvent. The reaction mechanism was studied by in situ Raman and ex situ IR spectroscopy.