Acupuncture for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition affecting men of all ages. Acupuncture may be an effective treatment option for CP/CPPS, but evidence is limited. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in a rigorously conducted trial. METHODS:Ten hospitals will recruit 440 participants with CP/CPPS in China from October 2017 to December 2019. Participants will be randomly allocated to acupuncture or sham acupuncture with a 1:1 ratio using computerized simple random sampling. The whole study consists of 2-week baseline, 8-week treatment, and 24-week follow up. Twenty 30-mintute sessions of acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment will be provided between week 1 and 8. The two co-primary outcomes are the proportion of responders at week 8 and week 32. Secondary outcomes include proportion of responders in the two groups at different time points; change in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score; change in the NIH-CPSI subscales; change in the International Prostate Symptom Score; change in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; expectation assessments; proportions of participants in each response category of the Global Response Assessment; change in the International Index of Erectile Function 5; change in the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire and a visual analogue scale; and changes in peak and average urinary flow rate. DISCUSSION:This study will provide robust evidence on whether acupuncture is effective for relieving symptoms of CP/CPPS. TRIALS REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03213938. Registered on 5 July 2017.
Project description:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects many adult men worldwide. The currently available therapies offer little or no proven benefit for CP/CPPS. We designed this study to assess the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for the treatment of CP/CPPS.This study is designed as a randomized, sham acupuncture-controlled trial. We will compare patients with CP/CPPS in an acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Sixty-eight patients will be randomly allocated to receive acupuncture or sham acupuncture. The treatments will consist of 30-min sessions, three times weekly, for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is change in the weekly mean National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score from baseline through the 8-week treatment period. Secondary measures include the NIH-CPSI subscale scores, the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), patients' response rate, and patient satisfaction after treatment. We will also assess changes in the NIH-CPSI total score from baseline at the 20th and 32nd week of follow-up.This is a randomized, sham-controlled trial of acupuncture treatment for CP/CPPS. The results of this trial will provide more evidence on whether acupuncture is efficacious for treating CP/CPPS.Clinical Trials.gov NCT02588274.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common disorder. Some studies have indicated that acupuncture may ameliorate the symptoms of CP/CPPS. However, results are varied and range widely, perhaps due to different modes of assessment including timepoints, places of assessment, and especially subjective scales. We propose to determine the efficacy of acupuncture relative to sham acupuncture for patients with CP/CPPS, and compare different modes of assessment regarding the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. METHODS:Sixty patients with CP/CPPS will be randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture or sham-acupuncture (30 patients, each). Treatment will be conducted 3 times/week, for 4 weeks. The coprimary outcomes will each be the change from baseline of the total NIH (National Institutes of Health) CPSI (Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) score associated with 3 modes of assessment: Mode 1, the scale recorded at the hospital within 10?minutes after the last session of 4 weeks of acupuncture treatment, in the company of the outcome assessors; Mode 2, the scale recorded the same day, but not at the hospital; and Mode 3, the scale recorded at the hospital 1 to 3 days after the last acupuncture session. The 3 key secondary outcomes include will be the 3 modes assessment of the changes from baseline of the NIH-CPSI total scores in the acupuncture group at week 4 after treatment. Analysis was by intention-to-treat, and multiplicity was controlled for with a step-down closed-testing procedure. DISCUSSION:To our knowledge, previous studies did not include the details of assessment scales when determining the efficacy of acupuncture in CP/CPPS. Furthermore, it is not clear which mode was used to assess the effect. The answers provided by the proposed study may improve the reproducibility of acupuncture research and the reliability of results.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). A search of PUBMED, EMBASE, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine Literature (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wang-Fang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and other available resources was made for studies (up to February 2019). Searches were limited to studies published in English and Chinese. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to the efficacy and/or safety of acupuncture for CP/CPPS were included. Two investigators independently evaluated the quality of the studies. A total of 11 studies were included, involving 748 participants. The results revealed that compared with sham acupuncture (MD: -6.53 [95% CI: -8.08 to -4.97]) and medication (MD: -4.72 [95% CI: -7.87 to -1.56]), acupuncture could lower total NIH-CPSI score more effectively. However, there are no significant differences between acupuncture and sham acupuncture in terms of IPSS score. In terms of NIH-CPSI voiding domain subscore, no significant differences were found between acupuncture and medication. Compared with sham acupuncture (OR: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.04 to 0.40) and medication (OR: 3.71 [95% CI: 1.83 to 7.55]), the results showed favorable effects of acupuncture in improving the response rate. Acupuncture plus medication is better than the same medication in improving NIH-CPSI total score and NIH-CPSI pain domain subscore. In conclusion, the evidence suggests that acupuncture may be an effective intervention for patients with CP/CPPS. However, due to the heterogeneity of the methods and high risk of bias, we cannot draw definitive conclusions about the entity of the acupuncture's effect on alleviating the symptoms of CP/CPPS. The adverse events of acupuncture are mild and rare.
Project description:Alpha-blockers and antibiotics are most commonly used to treat chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in clinical practice. Currently, increasing evidence also suggests acupuncture as an effective strategy. This network meta-analysis intended to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of acupuncture, alpha-blockers and antibiotics for CP/CPPS. Twelve trials involving 1203 participants were included. Based on decreases in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, a network meta-analysis indicated that electro-acupuncture (standard mean difference [SMD]: 4.29; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.96-6.65), acupuncture (SMD: 3.69; 95% CrI, 0.27-7.17), alpha-blockers (SMD: 1.85; 95% CrI, 1.07-2.64), antibiotics (SMD: 2.66; 95% CrI, 1.57-3.76), and dual therapy (SMD: 3.20; 95% CrI, 1.95-4.42) are superior to placebo in decreasing this score. Additionally, electro-acupuncture (SMD: 2.44; 95% CrI, 0.08-4.83) and dual therapy (SMD: 1.35; 95% CrI, 0.07-2.62) were more effective than alpha-blockers in decreasing the total NIH-CPSI total score. Other network meta-analyses did not show significant differences between interventions other placebo. The incidence of adverse events of acupuncture was relatively rare (5.4%) compared with placebo (17.1%), alpha-blockers (24.9%), antibiotics (31%) and dual therapy (48.6%). Overall, rank tests and safety analyses indicate that electro-acupuncture/acupuncture may be recommended for the treatment of CP/CPPS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) has been treated with several different interventions with limited success. This meta-analysis aims to review all trials reporting on therapeutic intervention for CP/CPPS using the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Pain, Palliative & Supportive Care Trials, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the NIDDK website between 1947 and December 31, 2011 without language or study type restrictions. All RCTs for CP/CPPS lasting at least 6 weeks, with a minimum of 10 participants per arm, and using the NIH-CPSI score, the criterion standard for CP/CPPS, as an outcome measure were included. Data was extracted from each study by two independent reviewers. Gillbraith and I-squared plots were used for heterogeneity testing and Eggers and Peters methods for publication bias. Quality was assessed using a component approach and meta-regression was used to analyze sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Mepartricin, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), and triple therapy comprised of doxazosin + ibuprofen + thiocolchicoside (DIT) resulted in clinically and statistically significant reduction in NIH-CPSI total score. The same agents and aerobic exercise resulted in clinically and statistically significant NIH-CPSI pain domain score reduction. Acupuncture, DIT, and PTNS were found to produce statistically and clinically significant reductions in the NIH-CPSI voiding domain. A statistically significant placebo effect was found for all outcomes and time analysis showed that efficacy of all treatments increased over time. Alpha-blockers, antibiotics, and combinations of the two failed to show statistically or clinically significant NIH-CPSI reductions. CONCLUSION: Results from this meta-analysis reflect our current inability to effectively manage CP/CPPS. Clinicians and researchers must consider placebo effect and treatment efficacy over time and design studies creatively so we can more fully elucidate the etiology and role of therapeutic intervention in CP/CPPS.
Project description:Acupuncture is a promising therapy for relieving symptoms in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), which affects >15% of adult men worldwide. The aim of the study was to assess the effects and safety of the use of acupuncture for CP/CPPS. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wang-Fang Database, JCRM, and CiNii were searched from their inception through 30 November 2015. Grey literature databases and websites were also searched. No language limits were applied. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with CP/CPPS treated by acupuncture were included. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of RCTs using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tools, respectively. Seven trials were included, involving 471 participants. The result of meta-analysis indicated that compared with sham acupuncture (MD: -6.09 [95%CI: -8.12 to -5.68]) and medicine (Levofloxacinand, Ibuprofen, and Tamsulosin) (MD: -4.57 [95%CI: -7.58 to -1.56]), acupuncture was more effective at decreasing the total NIH-CPSI score. Real acupuncture was superior to sham acupuncture in improving symptoms (pain, voiding) and quality of life (Qof) domain subscores. Compared to sham acupuncture and medicine, acupuncture appears to be more effective at improving the global assessment. Two trials found that there is no significant difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture in decreasing the IPSS score. Acupuncture failed to show more favorable effects in improving both symptoms and the Qof domain compared with medicine. Overall, current evidence supports acupuncture as an effective treatment for CP/CPPS-induced symptoms, particularly in relieving pain. Based on the meta-analysis, acupuncture is superior to sham acupuncture in improving symptoms and Qof. Acupuncture might be similar to medicine (Levofloxacinand, Ibuprofen, and Tamsulosin) in its long-term effects, but evidence was limited due to high ROB among included trials as well as potential heterogeneity. Acupuncture is associated with rare and slightly adverse events. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42015027522.
Project description:The immune system has been implicated as one mechanism underlying the benefits of acupuncture therapy. Evidence suggests that acupuncture can ameliorate symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), but the association between clinical response and the immune system has not been investigated.We investigated 12 CP/CPPS patients participating in a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for effects on cellular immunity. Blood samples were taken before the first needling and after the last of 20 treatment sessions (week 10). Patients also completed questionnaires examining their CP/CPPS symptoms and mood status at the baseline and end of study visits.At the end of study 8 of 12 participants (67%) were classified as treatment responders, four participants each from the acupuncture and sham groups. The acupuncture group averaged a 5% increase in natural killer cell levels compared to corresponding sham (-13%; p=0.03). Similarly, patients randomized to acupuncture reported a reduction in other white blood cell parameters examined, supporting the possibility that immunity might be important in the pathophysiology of CP/CPPS.The specific effect of acupuncture on CP/CPPS remains unclear. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms by which acupuncture therapy may improve clinical symptoms in patients with CP/CPPS.ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00260637).
Project description:Evidence suggests that the urogenital pain of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) may be neuropathic.This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted across 10 tertiary care centers in North America to determine whether pregabalin, which has been proved effective in other chronic pain syndromes, is effective in reducing CP/CPPS symptoms. In 2006-2007, 324 men with pelvic pain for at least 3 of the previous 6 months were enrolled in this study. Men were randomly assigned to receive pregabalin or placebo in a 2:1 ratio and were treated for 6 weeks. Pregabalin dosage was increased from 150 to 600 mg/d during the first 4 weeks. The primary outcome was a 6-point decrease in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score. Multiple secondary outcomes were assessed.Of 218 men assigned to receive pregabalin, 103 (47.2%) reported at least a 6-point decrease in the NIH-CPSI total score at 6 weeks compared with 35.8% (38 of 106 men) assigned to receive placebo (P = .07, exact Mantel-Haenszel test, adjusting for clinical sites). Compared with the placebo group, men assigned to receive pregabalin experienced reductions in the NIH-CPSI total score and subscores (P < .05), a higher Global Response Assessment response rate (31.2% and 18.9%; P = .02), and improvement in total McGill Pain Questionnaire score (P = .01). Results for the other outcomes did not differ between groups.Pregabalin therapy for 6 weeks was not superior to placebo use in the rate of a 6-point decrease (improvement) in the NIH-CPSI total score in men with CP/CPPS.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00371033.
Project description:To assess the efficacy and safety of sono-electro-magnetic therapy compared to placebo in men with refractory CPPS.In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind single center trial, we assessed the effect of sono-electro-magnetic therapy in men with treatment refractory CPPS. Sixty male patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either sono-electro-magnetic (n?=?30) or placebo therapy (n?=?30) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) from baseline to 12 weeks.The 12-week difference between sono-electro-magnetic and placebo therapy in changes of the NIH-CPSI total score was -3.1 points (95% CI -6.8 to 0.6, p?=?0.11). In secondary comparisons of NIH-CPSI sub-scores, we found differences between groups most pronounced for the quality-of-life sub-score (difference at 12 weeks -1.6, 95% CI -2.8 to -0.4, p?=?0.015). In stratified analyses, the benefit of sono-electro-magnetic therapy appeared more pronounced among patients who had a symptom duration of 12 months or less (difference in NIH-CPSI total score -8.3, 95% CI -14.5 to 2.6) than in patients with a longer symptom duration (-0.8, 95% CI -4.6 to 3.1; p for interaction?=?0.023).Sono-electro-magnetic therapy did not result in a significant improvement of symptoms in the overall cohort of treatment refractory CPPS patients compared to placebo treatment. Subgroup analysis indicates, however, that patients with a symptom-duration of 12 months or less may benefit from sono-electro-magnetic therapy, warranting larger randomized controlled trials in this subpopulation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00688506.
Project description:To determine the effect of reported sexual, physical, or emotional abuse on the symptoms suggestive of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and to determine the effect of race/ethnicity on these patterns.The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey used a multi-stage stratified cluster sample to randomly sample 5,506 adults aged 30-79 from the city of Boston. BACH recruited 2,301 men (700 Black, 766 Hispanic, and 835 White). Interviewers administered questions approximating the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (CPSI), and symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS were measured by the definition of perineal and/or ejaculatory pain and CPSI pain score of 4+. Questions about previous abuse were obtained from a validated self-administered questionnaire during the home visit. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of abuse on the likelihood of a man having symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS.The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS was 6.5%. Men who reported having experienced sexual, physical, or emotional abuse had increased odds (1.7-3.3) for symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS. Previous abuse increased both the pain and urinary scores from the CPSI.Symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS are not uncommon in a community-based population of men. For men presenting with symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS, clinicians may wish to consider screening for abuse.