A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class.
ABSTRACT: Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended "research weeks" at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany). The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI). At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor teaching, be it during a residential week, or during occasional but regular sessions as integral part of the "normal" teaching, fosters intrinsic motivational behavior in science with lower secondary students.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical activity-based intervention conducted during recess time for Spanish students with special needs. The intervention was designed to utilize an autonomy-supportive motivational style to promote feelings of autonomy and to contribute to increased physical activity involvement in these students. Participants were 62 students in the fifth and sixth year of elementary school, with ages between 10 and 12 years (M = 10.75 years, SD = 0.80 years). Students' perceptions of autonomy support, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, sport and physical activity motivation and actual physical activity level were assessed. A quasi-experimental design was employed with two intervention groups (autonomy-supportive and controlling styles), as well as a control group. Results indicated that students in the autonomy-supportive condition demonstrated a significant increase in feelings of autonomy and increased their physical activity levels while demonstrating a significant decrease in extrinsic motivation over the course of the intervention. The results provide support for the expectation that well-designed and theoretically based physical activity interventions can optimize learning and motivational outcomes for students in inclusive physical education settings.
Project description:The analysis of disciplined behaviors and academic performance in a school context has become one of the main concerns within the educational community. Physical Education is highlighted as a key subject to analyze students' behavior. Researchers and Physical Education teachers are interested on the motivational processes that predict positive student outcomes in order to support them. Thus, the main purpose was to determine a predictive model of disciplined behaviors and academic performance in Physical Education students. The Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory acted as the theoretical framework. A total of 919 Spanish secondary school students participated in the study. The studied variables were task-oriented motivational climate, basic psychological needs, autonomous motivation, disciplined behavior, and academic performance. Data collection included Spanish validated questionnaires. The Mplus statistical program was used to perform a structural equation model of prediction. It included antecedents (task-oriented climate), motivational processes (basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation), and consequences (disciplined behavior, Physical Education and overall students' performance). The results revealed that positive outcomes (discipline and academic performance in Physical Education) were positively predicted by autonomous motivation; autonomous motivation was positively predicted by basic psychological needs and these, in addition, by the task-oriented climate. The results highlighted the importance of the task-oriented motivational climate and the mediating role of the basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation in order to generate these positive student outcomes in Physical Education. This study could be a useful resource for teachers, since it offers the motivational variables that lead students to achieve disciplined behaviors and academic performance in Physical Education. Intervention programs based on the results of the present study could be applied in Physical Education classes in order to obtain better behavioral as well as cognitive positive student outcomes.
Project description:Teacher-endorsed supporting behaviors present themselves as key influencers of student adaptive academic and social functions. The objective of this paper was twofold. First, this study sought to test a model in which student-perceived autonomy support was associated with group cohesion, considering the mediating role of basic psychological needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. Second, the current study examined the dimensionality of the model across five Western countries, namely Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. A convenience sample of 3033 college students (Mage = 21.51 ± SD = 3.71) were recruited for the analysis. The results revealed that perceived autonomy support was positively associated with needs satisfaction, being consequently associated with intrinsic motivation and, ultimately, with group cohesion. Additionally, a multigroup analysis revealed that the model was invariant across college students from the different countries. The current results are discussed around the promotion of teacher uses of autonomy-supportive behaviors fostering adaptive outcomes in students regarding positive social relations and that the cultures of Ibero-American countries are equivalent in this process.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Given a suboptimal state of mental health among children, an urgent need exists to seek approaches related to health promotion in this population's settings, such as in schools. Increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and improved school motivation could be crucial for children's mental health. Based on self-determination theory, paths can be identified that could lead to such improvements by strengthening the basic psychological needs (BPN). This study aimed to examine the impact on and the relationships among HRQoL, school motivation and BPN within the promising concept of education outside the classroom (EOtC).<h4>Methods</h4>In this exploratory study, we employed a between-subjects cohort study design with no blinding or randomisation. We surveyed fifth graders (mean = 10.1 years) attending EOtC (experimental group [EG], n = 25) and normal indoor lessons (control group, [CG], n = 41) at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of a semester. We used the translations of validated questionnaires and established linear mixed-effects models to evaluate whether the students in EOtC show higher scores of HRQoL and school motivation and, whether the satisfaction of BPN of autonomy (PAut), competence (PCom), social relatedness with classmates (PSRC) and teachers (PSRT) show associations with these outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>Regarding intrinsic and identified motivational regulation, results showed significant increases over time in the overall sample and significant higher scores in the EG than in the CG. For HRQoL, no group differences were found, but a significant decrease over time in the EG. Regarding possible associations between the outcomes and BPN, such could only be found between HRQoL and PSRC, but not for the other BPN and not for motivational regulation and BPN.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Without having been able to explain this on the basis of increased BPN values, our results show that EOtC can support improvements in specific regulation types of school motivation. This could contribute to an improvement in the mental health situation in children, as school represents a major stressor for them. Future steps in terms of researching HRQoL in this setting are discussed, as this pilot study does preliminary work for necessary examinations, e.g. in structural equation approaches.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tobacco use disorder is critical among people aged 16 to 25 years. College campuses are prime locations for smoking cessation interventions for young adults. The vast majority of the smoking research with college students has been epidemiological in nature. This study examined a novel motivational interviewing intervention designed for college students, and explored predictors of smoking behavior change. METHODS:A quasi-experimental one group pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to evaluate a novel text message-based brief motivational interviewing intervention. The data were collected from undergraduate students (N=33) who smoked cigarettes in Fall 2015. RESULTS:Students' level of autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and smoking cessation self-efficacy increased (p < 0.05), and their rate of daily smoking declined (p <0 .05) over time. However, competence need satisfaction, readiness to quit smoking and severity of nicotine addiction remained unchanged. Smoking cessation self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of smoking behavior change in college students. CONCLUSIONS:This study adds to the knowledge on smoking behavior among college students. Preliminary evidence indicates that text message-based motivational interviewing and smoking cessation self-efficacy may help guide successful smoking behavior interventions for college students.
Project description:PURPOSE: Internalization of students' motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students' basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more 'human centred' teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. CONCLUSION: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students' self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.
Project description:Considering the benefits that students report when evaluating physical education classes, the purpose of the present study was to analyse the relationships between the assignment of student responsibility in the evaluation, motivational variables and the satisfaction with the physical education classes, using The Theory of Self-determination as a support method. The sample for this study was 922 students, of both genres and in Compulsory Secondary Education, aged between 14 and 18 years. To carry out the study, the Student's Scale of Responsibility was used in the physical education assessment, the Basic Psychological Needs Measuring Scale, the Percentage Scale for Physical Education Causality and the Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education. The results of the structural equations model revealed a good adjustment to the data. This finding highlights the importance of giving responsibilities to the students in the evaluation process, in order to satisfy the psychological needs of the students and, therefore, self-determined motivation. Additionally, the satisfaction of psychological needs and self-determined motivation increase satisfaction towards physical education classes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Individuals who possess passion and perseverance to extensively work and study through challenges and adversity to achieve a set of goals are likely to reach higher achievement compared to others who lack similar facets. However, an under-researched question lingers over the effect of teacher-induced behaviors on academic outcomes such as grades and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between teacher-induced autonomy support and student academic performance considering the mediating effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and grit as two-independent factors. METHODS:A convenience sample of 474 Sports Science students (Mage = 21.83 years; SD = 3.91) participated in the study. All participants completed a multi-section survey assessing the variables under analysis. RESULTS:The measurement and structural model displayed acceptable fit, hence direct and indirect effects were examined among the variables of interest. Basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation seem to display a mediating role between perceived autonomy support and academic performance, through perseverance. Contrarily, grit-passion did not exhibit a significant indirect effect. CONCLUSIONS:Current results shed new insights on how perseverance can shape student motivation and school success considering the autonomy support induced by teachers.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Using a self-determination theory framework, we investigated burnout and engagement among PhD students in medicine, and their association with motivation, work-life balance and satisfaction or frustration of their basic psychological needs.<h4>Method</h4>This cross-sectional study was conducted among PhD students at a university medical centre (n = 990) using an electronic survey on background characteristics and validated burnout, engagement, motivation and basic psychological needs questionnaires. Cluster analysis was performed on the burnout subscale scores to find subgroups within the sample which had similar profiles on burnout. Structural equation modelling was conducted on a hypothesized model of frustration of basic psychological needs and burnout.<h4>Results</h4>The response rate was 47% (n = 464). We found three clusters/subgroups which were composed of PhD students with similar burnout profiles within the cluster and different profiles between the clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 199, 47%) had low scores on burnout. Clusters 2 (n = 168, 40%) and 3 (n = 55, 13%) had moderate and high burnout scores, respectively, and were associated with low engagement scores. Cluster 3, with the highest burnout scores, was associated with the lowest motivational, engagement, needs satisfaction and work-life balance scores. We found a good fit for the "basic psychological needs frustration associated with burnout" model.<h4>Discussion</h4>The most important variables for burnout among PhD students in medicine were lack of sleep and frustration of the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. These add to the factors found in the literature.
Project description:Students' engagement in Physical Education has been linked to several adaptive consequences. Even though the existing literature suggests that perceived autonomy support can predict engagement, research is scarce on how teachers' antecedents might influence this behavioural outcome. This study sought to compare the influence of teachers' basic psychological needs' satisfaction and basic psychological needs' thwarting on students' behavioural engagement and on the relationship between perceived autonomy-support and the students' behavioural engagement. The sample included 29 Physical Education teachers and 644 students who were taught by the participants teachers. Data were collected using both paper and online surveys and they were analysed using multilevel modelling techniques. The results revealed that, while teachers' autonomy satisfaction might be significant in the explanation of students' engagement (? = 0.33, <i>p</i> < 0.01), it seems that needs thwarting could be a better predictor of this outcome (? autonomy thwarting = -0.17, <i>p</i> < 0.01; ? competence thwarting = -0.06, <i>p</i> < 0.05). These findings suggest the impact of certain external pressures on teachers' practices which, in turn, might affect students' behavioural outcomes.