Human Cytomegalovirus Encoded miR-US25-1-5p Attenuates CD147/EMMPRIN-Mediated Early Antiviral Response.
ABSTRACT: Cellular receptor-mediated signaling pathways play critical roles during the initial immune response to Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. However, the involvement of type-I transmembrane glycoprotein CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) in the antiviral response to HCMV infection is still unknown. Here, we demonstrated the specific knockdown of CD147 significantly decreased HCMV-induced activation of NF-?B and Interferon-beta (IFN-?), which contribute to the cellular antiviral responses. Next, we confirmed that HCMV-encoded miR-US25-1-5p could target the 3' UTR (Untranslated Region) of CD147 mRNA, and thus facilitate HCMV lytic propagation at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI). The expression and secretion of Cyclophilin A (sCyPA), as a ligand for CD147 and a proinflammatory cytokine, were up-regulated in response to HCMV stimuli. Finally, we confirmed that CD147 mediated HCMV-triggered antiviral signaling via the sCyPA-CD147-ERK (extracellular regulated protein kinases)/NF-?B axis signaling pathway. These findings reveal an important HCMV mechanism for evading antiviral innate immunity through its encoded microRNA by targeting transmembrane glycoprotein CD147, and a potential cause of HCMV inflammatory disorders due to the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine CyPA.
Project description:Global gene expression data combined with bioinformatic analysis provides strong evidence that mammalian miRNAs mediate repression of gene expression primarily through binding sites within the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Using RNA induced silencing complex immunoprecipitation (RISC-IP) techniques we have identified multiple cellular targets for a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) miRNA, miR-US25-1. Strikingly, this miRNA binds target sites primarily within 5'UTRs, mediating significant reduction in gene expression. Intriguingly, many of the genes targeted by miR-US25-1 are associated with cell cycle control, including cyclin E2, BRCC3, EID1, MAPRE2, and CD147, suggesting that miR-US25-1 is targeting genes within a related pathway. Deletion of miR-US25-1 from HCMV results in over expression of cyclin E2 in the context of viral infection. Our studies demonstrate that a viral miRNA mediates translational repression of multiple cellular genes by targeting mRNA 5'UTRs.
Project description:CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) plays an important role in tumor progression and a number of studies have suggested that it is an indicator of tumor prognosis. This current meta-analysis systematically reevaluated the predictive potential of CD147/EMMPRIN in various cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase databases to screen the literature. Fixed-effect and random-effect meta-analytical techniques were used to correlate CD147 expression with outcome measures. A total of 53 studies that included 68 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. We found a significant association between CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression and adverse tumor outcomes, such as overall survival, disease-specific survival, progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival or recurrence-free survival, irrespective of the model analysis. In addition, CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression predicted a high risk for chemotherapy drugs resistance. CD147/EMMPRIN is a central player in tumor progression and predicts a poor prognosis, including in patients who have received chemo-radiotherapy. Our results provide the evidence that CD147/EMMPRIN could be a potential therapeutic target for cancers.
Project description:The transmembrane glycoprotein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), and the pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18, play critical roles in myocardial remodeling, by inducing matrix degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs). Previously we showed that IL-18 induces EMMPRIN expression in cardiomyocytes via MyD88/IRAK4/TRAF6/JNK-dependent Sp1 activation. Here in reciprocal studies we demonstrate that EMMPRIN is a potent inducer of IL-18 transcription, protein expression and protein secretion in primary mouse cardiomyocytes. We show for the first time that EMMPRIN stimulates the activation of NF-kappaB, AP-1, CREB, and ATF-2 in cardiomyocytes, and induces IL-18 expression via Rac1-dependent PI3K/Akt/IKK/NF-kappaB and MKK7/JNK/AP-1 signaling. Moreover, EMMPRIN induces robust time-dependent induction of various MMP mRNAs. EMMPRIN also induces the mRNA of TIMPs 1 and 3, but in a delayed fashion. These results suggest that IL-18-induced EMMPRIN expression may favor net MMP expression and ECM destruction, and thus identify both as potential therapeutic targets in countering adverse myocardial remodeling.
Project description:The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is the causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), for which cytotoxic chemotherapy represents the standard of care. The high mortality associated with PEL may be explained in part by resistance of these tumors to chemotherapy. The membrane-bound glycoprotein emmprin (CD147) enhances chemoresistance in tumors through effects on transporter expression, trafficking and interactions. Interactions between hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors on the cell surface also facilitate emmprin-mediated chemoresistance. Whether emmprin or hyaluronan-receptor interactions regulate chemotherapeutic resistance for virus-associated malignancies is unknown. Using human PEL tumor cells, we found that PEL sensitivity to chemotherapy is directly proportional to expression of emmprin, the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) and a drug transporter known as the breast cancer resistance protein/ABCG2 (BCRP), and that emmprin, LYVE-1 and BCRP interact with each other and colocalize on the PEL cell surface. In addition, we found that emmprin induces chemoresistance in PEL cells through upregulation of BCRP expression, and RNA interference targeting of emmprin, LYVE-1 or BCRP enhances PEL cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. Finally, disruption of hyaluronan-receptor interactions using small hyaluronan oligosaccharides reduces expression of emmprin and BCRP while sensitizing PEL cells to chemotherapy. Collectively, these data support interdependent roles for emmprin, LYVE-1 and BCRP in chemotherapeutic resistance for PEL.
Project description:Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), which is also called BASIGIN/CD147, is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays a significant role in intercellular recognition in immunology, cellular differentiation and development. Apart from ACE-2, recently EMMPRIN, has been regarded as a target for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attachment and entry into the host cell. Since one of the routes of entry for the virus is the oral cavity, it becomes imperative to percept oral comorbidities such oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) in terms of EMMPRIN as a target for SARS-CoV-2. In the present paper, it is proposed that OSCC, by the virtue of upregulation of EMMPRIN expression, increases the susceptibility to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In turn, COVID-19 in OSCC patients causes exhaustion of EMMPRIN receptor due to binding with 'S' receptor leading to a downregulation of related carcinogenesis events. We proposed that in the ACE-2 depleted situation in OSCC, EMMPRIN receptor might get high jacked by the COVID-19 virus for the entry into the host cells. Apart from the anti-monoclonal antibody, it is recommended to explore the use of grape seed and skin containing mouthwash as an adjunct, which could also have anti EMMPRIN effects in patients with OSCC and OPMDs.
Project description:Interactions of hyaluronan with CD44 in tumor cells play important cooperative roles in various aspects of malignancy and drug resistance. Emmprin (CD147; basigin) is a cell surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is highly up-regulated in malignant cancer cells and stimulates hyaluronan production, as well as several downstream signaling pathways. Emmprin also interacts with various monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Malignant cancer cells use the glycolytic pathway and require MCTs to efflux lactate that results from glycolysis. Glycolysis and lactate secretion contribute to malignant cell behaviors and drug resistance in tumor cells. In the present study, we find that perturbation of endogenous hyaluronan, using small hyaluronan oligosaccharides, rapidly inhibits lactate efflux from breast carcinoma cells; down-regulation of emmprin, using emmprin small interfering RNA, also results in decreased efflux. In addition, we find that CD44 coimmunoprecipitates with MCT1, MCT4, and emmprin and colocalizes with these proteins at the plasma membrane. Moreover, after treatment of the cells with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, CD44, MCT1, and MCT4 become localized intracellularly whereas emmprin remains at the cell membrane. Together, these data indicate that constitutive interactions among hyaluronan, CD44, and emmprin contribute to regulation of MCT localization and function in the plasma membrane of breast carcinoma cells.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta-hersvirinae that has a high latent infection rate worldwide and can cause serious consequences in immunocompromised patients when reactivation; however, the mechanism of how HCMV convert from latent to reactivation has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of the HCMV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) profile in serum of patients upon HCMV reactivation from latency and to further evaluate its clinical significance for the disease monitoring and preventing usefulness.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Serum samples from 59 viremia patients and 60 age-gender matched controls were enrolled in this study for screening and validation of different expression of HCMV miRNAs. Serum concentrations of 22 known HCMV miRNAs were determined by a hydrolysis probe-based stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. HCMV DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with the whole blood sample. Serum HCMV IgG and IgM were assessed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Another 47 samples from 5 patients at different time points were collected to evaluate the monitoring effectiveness and disease prediction ability of differential expression HCMV-miRNAs during the antiviral treatment.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the serum levels of 16 of the 22 examined HCMV miRNAs were elevated in HCMV viremia patients compared with controls, and a profile of 8 HCMV miRNAs including hcmv-miR-US25-2-3p, hcmv-miR-US4-5p, hcmv-miR-US25-2-5p, hcmv-miR-US25-1-3p, hcmv-miR-US25-1, hcmv-miR-UL36, hcmv-miR-UL148D, hcmv-miR-US29-3p were markedly elevated (fold change?>?2, P?<?0.01). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were performed on the selected HCMV-miRNAs in all of the patients and controls that enrolled in this study, and which ranged from 0.72 to 0.80 in the autoimmune patients. In addition, hcmv-miR-US25-1-3p levels were significantly correlated with HCMV DNA load (r?=?0.349, P?=?0.007), and were obviously higher in the reactivation set than the latency set in the autoimmune patients, which could be a predictor for the monitoring of the antiviral treatment.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>HCMV miRNAs profile showed markedly shift-switch from latency to reactivation in circulation from HCMV infected patients and hcmv-miR-US25-1-3p may be served as a predictor for the switch upon reactivation from latency in patients suffered with autoimmune diseases.
Project description:EMMPRIN (CD147), originally described as an inducer of the expression of MMPs, has gained attention in its involvement in various immunologic diseases, such that anti-EMMPRIN antibodies are considered as potential therapeutic medications. Given that MMPs are involved in the pathogenesis of various disease states, it is relevant that targeting an upstream inducer would make for an effective therapeutic strategy. Additionally, EMMPRIN is now appreciated to have multiple roles apart from MMP induction, including in cellular functions, such as migration, adhesion, invasion, energy metabolism, as well as T cell activation and proliferation. Here, we review what is known about EMMPRIN in numerous immunologic/inflammatory disease conditions with a particular focus on its complex roles in T cell biology.
Project description:Emmprin (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) is a multifunctional glycoprotein expressed by cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Through both direct effects within tumor cells and promotion of tumor-stroma interactions, emmprin induces tumor cell invasiveness and regional angiogenesis. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a common etiology for cancers arising in the setting of immune suppression, including Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. However, whether emmprin expression and function are regulated by KSHV or other oncogenic viruses in the tumor microenvironment to promote viral cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells support latent KSHV infection and represent cellular components of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. Therefore, we used primary human fibroblasts and endothelial cells to determine whether KSHV itself regulates emmprin expression, and whether KSHV-emmprin interactions mediate cell invasiveness. We found that KSHV promotes fibroblast and endothelial cell invasiveness following de novo infection through the upregulation of emmprin, and that this effect is mediated by the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen. We also found that emmprin promotes invasiveness, as well as colony formation, by primary effusion lymphoma cells derived from human tumors. Collectively, these data implicate KSHV activation of emmprin as an important mechanism for cancer progression and support the potential utility of targeting emmprin as a novel therapeutic approach for KSHV-associated tumors.
Project description:EMMPRIN/CD147 is mainly known for its protease inducing function but a role in promoting tumor angiogenesis has also been demonstrated. This study provides evidence that EMMPRIN is a new coreceptor for the VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase receptor in both endothelial and tumor cells, as it directly interacts with it and regulates its activation by its VEGF ligand, signalling and functional consequences both in vitro and in vivo. Computational docking analyses and mutagenesis studies identified a molecular binding site in the extracellular domain of EMMPRIN located close to the cell membrane and containing the amino acids 195/199. EMMPRIN is overexpressed in cancer and hence is able to further potentiate VEGFR-2 activation, suggesting that a combinatory therapy of an antiangiogenic drug together with an inhibitor of EMMPRIN/VEGFR-2 interaction may have a greater impact on inhibiting angiogenesis and malignancy.