Defining the Neural Substrate of the Adult Outcome of Childhood ADHD: A Multimodal Neuroimaging Study of Response Inhibition.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Understanding the neural processes tied to the adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could guide novel interventions to improve its clinical course. It has been argued that normalization of prefrontal cortical activity drives remission from ADHD, while anomalies in subcortical processes are "fixed," present even in remission. Using multimodal neuroimaging of inhibitory processes, the authors tested these hypotheses in adults followed since childhood, contrasting remitted against persistent ADHD. METHOD:Adult participants (persistent ADHD, N=35; remit-ted ADHD, N=47; never affected, N=99) were scanned with functional MRI (fMRI) (N=85), magnetoencephalography (N=33), or both (N=63) during a response inhibition task. RESULTS:In fMRI analyses, during inhibition, right caudate anomalies reflected a childhood ADHD history and were present even among those who remitted. By contrast, differences related to adult outcome emerged in cortical (right inferior frontal and inferior parietal/precuneus) and cerebellar regions. The persistent ADHD group showed under-activation, whereas the remitted ADHD group did not differ significantly from the never-affected group. Magnetoencephalography showed that the association between adult symptom severity and prefrontal neuronal activity was confined to the time window covering the act of inhibition (300 ms-350 ms). Group differences in cerebellar and parietal neuronal activity occurred during the time window of performance monitoring processes (500 ms-600 ms). CONCLUSIONS:By combining fMRI and magnetoencephalography, the location and time window of neuronal activity that underpins the adult outcome of ADHD was pinpointed. Thus, the cortico-cerebellar processes tied to the clinical course of ADHD are separated from the subcortical processes that are not.
Project description:The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD. Response speed and accuracy for stimulus, response, and combined conflicts did not differ across groups. Orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and parietal activation was lower in probands than comparison subjects, but only for combined conflicts, when demand for cognitive control was highest. Reduced activation for combined conflicts in probands was almost wholly attributable to the persistence of ADHD; orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, anterior cingulate and parietal activation was lower in probands with persistent ADHD than both probands with remitted ADHD and comparison subjects, but did not differ between probands with remitted ADHD and comparison subjects. These data provide the first evidence that prefrontal and parietal activation during cognitive control parallels the adult outcome of ADHD diagnosed in childhood, with persistence of symptoms linked to reduced activation and symptom recovery associated with activation indistinguishable from adults with no history of ADHD.
Project description:Changes in cerebral cortical anatomy have been tied to the clinical course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We now ask if alterations in white matter tract microstructure are likewise linked with the adult outcome of childhood ADHD. Seventy-five young adults, 32 with ADHD persisting from childhood and 43 with symptom remission were contrasted against 74 never-affected comparison subjects. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we defined fractional anisotropy, a metric related to white matter microstructure, along with measures of diffusion perpendicular (radial) and parallel (axial) to the axon. Analyses were adjusted for head motion, age and sex, and controlled for multiple comparisons and medication history. Tract-based analyses showed that greater adult inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, was associated with significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the left uncinate (standardized ?=-0.37, t=3.28, p=0.002) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (standardized ?=-0.37, t=3.29, p=0.002). The ADHD group with symptoms persisting into adulthood had significantly lower fractional anisotropy than the never-affected controls in these tracts, differences associated with medium to large effect sizes. By contrast, the ADHD group that remitted by adulthood did not differ significantly from controls. The anomalies were found in tracts that connect components of neural systems pertinent to ADHD, such as attention control (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) and emotion regulation and the processing of reward (the uncinate fasciculus). Change in radial rather than axial diffusivity was the primary driver of this effect, suggesting pathophysiological processes including altered myelination as future targets for pharmacological and behavioral interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, complex disorder which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Convergent evidence from neurobiological studies of ADHD identifies dysfunction in fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuitry as the source of behavioural deficits. Recent studies have shown that regions governing basic sensory processing, such as the somatosensory cortex, show abnormalities in those with ADHD suggesting that these processes may also be compromised. METHODS: We used event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine patterns of cortical rhythms in the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices in response to median nerve stimulation, in 9 adults with ADHD and 10 healthy controls. Stimuli were brief (0.2 ms) non-painful electrical pulses presented to the median nerve in two counterbalanced conditions: unpredictable and predictable stimulus presentation. We measured changes in strength, synchronicity, and frequency of cortical rhythms. RESULTS: Healthy comparison group showed strong event-related desynchrony and synchrony in SI and SII. By contrast, those with ADHD showed significantly weaker event-related desynchrony and event-related synchrony in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands, respectively. This was most striking during random presentation of median nerve stimulation. Adults with ADHD showed significantly shorter duration of beta rebound in both SI and SII except for when the onset of the stimulus event could be predicted. In this case, the rhythmicity of SI (but not SII) in the ADHD group did not differ from that of controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that somatosensory processing is altered in individuals with ADHD. MEG constitutes a promising approach to profiling patterns of neural activity during the processing of sensory input (e.g., detection of a tactile stimulus, stimulus predictability) and facilitating our understanding of how basic sensory processing may underlie and/or be influenced by more complex neural networks involved in higher order processing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in around half of those affected, constituting a major public health challenge. No known demographic, clinical, or neuropsychological factors robustly explain the clinical course, directing our focus to the brain. Herein, we link the trajectories of cerebral cortical development during childhood and adolescence with the severity of adult ADHD. METHODS:Using a longitudinal study design, 92 participants with ADHD had childhood (mean 10.7 years, SD 3.3) and adult clinical assessments (mean 23.8 years, SD 4.3) with repeated neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast was made against 184 matched typically developing volunteers. RESULTS:Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persisted in 37 (40%) subjects and adult symptom severity was linked to cortical trajectories. Specifically, as the number of adult symptoms increased, particularly inattentive symptoms, so did the rate of cortical thinning in the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. For each increase of one symptom of adult ADHD, the rate of cortical thinning increased by .0018 mm (SE = .0004, t = 4.2, p < .0001), representing a 5.6% change over the mean rate of thinning for the entire group. These differing trajectories resulted in a convergence toward typical dimensions among those who remitted and a fixed, nonprogressive deficit in persistent ADHD. Notably, cortical thickening or minimal thinning (greater than -.007 mm/year) was found exclusively among individuals who remitted. CONCLUSIONS:Adult ADHD status is linked with the developmental trajectories of cortical components of networks supporting attention, cognitive control, and the default mode network. This informs our understanding of the developmental pathways to adult ADHD.
Project description:Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n?=?25) and without (n?=?25) cannabis use ? monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n?=?11) and without (n?=?12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with mental health problems and functional impairment across many domains. However, how the longitudinal course of ADHD affects later functioning remains unclear.AimsWe aimed to disentangle how ADHD developmental patterns are associated with young adult functioning. METHOD:The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study is a population-based cohort of 2232 twins born in England and Wales in 1994-1995. We assessed ADHD in childhood at ages 5, 7, 10 and 12 years and in young adulthood at age 18 years. We examined three developmental patterns of ADHD from childhood to young adulthood - remitted, persistent and late-onset ADHD - and compared these groups with one another and with non-ADHD controls on functioning at age 18 years. We additionally tested whether group differences were attributable to childhood IQ, childhood conduct disorder or familial factors shared between twins. RESULTS:Compared with individuals without ADHD, those with remitted ADHD showed poorer physical health and socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Individuals with persistent or late-onset ADHD showed poorer functioning across all domains, including mental health, substance misuse, psychosocial, physical health and socioeconomic outcomes. Overall, these associations were not explained by childhood IQ, childhood conduct disorder or shared familial factors. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term associations of childhood ADHD with adverse physical health and socioeconomic outcomes underscore the need for early intervention. Young adult ADHD showed stronger associations with poorer mental health, substance misuse and psychosocial outcomes, emphasising the importance of identifying and treating adults with ADHD.Declaration of interestNone.
Project description:Understanding the functional role of the left lateral parietal cortex in episodic retrieval requires characterization of both spatial and temporal features of activity during memory tasks. In a recent study using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we described an early parietal response in a cued-recall task. This response began within 100 milliseconds (ms) of the retrieval cue and lasted less than 400 ms. Spatially, the effect reached significance in all three anatomically defined left lateral parietal subregions included in the study. Here we present a multimodal analysis of both hemodynamic and electrophysiologic responses in the same cued-recall paradigm. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to more precisely reveal the portion of the parietal cortex with the greatest response. The MEG data set was then reanalyzed to show the early MEG time course of the region identified by fMRI. We found that the hemodynamic response is greatest within the intraparietal sulcus. Further, the MEG pattern in this region shows a strong response during the first 300 ms following the cue to retrieve. Finally, when individual-dipole MEG activity is analyzed for the left cortical surface over the early 300-millisecond time window, significant recall-related activity is limited to a relatively small portion of the left hemisphere that overlaps the region identified by fMRI in the intraparietal sulcus.
Project description:Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies.We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD. Each ADHD-related dysfunctional region resulting from the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was then analyzed using functional decoding based on ~7500 fMRI experiments in the BrainMap database. This approach allows mapping brain regions to functions not necessarily tested in individual studies, thus suggesting possible novel functions for those regions. Additionally, ADHD-related dysfunctional regions were clustered based on their functional coactivation profiles across all the experiments stored in BrainMap (meta-analytic connectivity modeling).ADHD-related hypoactivation was found in the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), left temporal pole, and right caudate. Functional decoding mapped the left putamen to cognitive aspects of music perception/reproduction and the left temporal lobe to language semantics; both these regions clustered together on the basis of their meta-analytic functional connectivity. Left inferior gyrus mapped to executive function tasks; right caudate mapped to both executive function tasks and music-related processes.Our study provides meta-analytic support to the hypothesis that, in addition to well-known deficits in typical executive functions, impairment in processes related to music perception/reproduction and language semantics may be involved in the pathophysiology of adult ADHD.
Project description:The stimulant methylphenidate (MPX) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly prescribed medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has as yet investigated the effects of ATX on inhibitory or any other brain function in ADHD patients or compared its effects with those of MPX. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pharmacological design was used to compare the neurofunctional effects of single doses of MPX, ATX, and placebo during a stop task, combined with fMRI within 19 medication-naive ADHD boys, and their potential normalization effects relative to 29 age-matched healthy boys. Compared with controls, ADHD boys under placebo showed bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, middle temporal, and cerebellar underactivation. Within patients, MPX relative to ATX and placebo significantly upregulated right ventrolateral prefrontal activation, which correlated with enhanced inhibitory capacity. Relative to controls, both drugs significantly normalized the left ventrolateral prefrontal underactivation observed under placebo, while MPX had a drug-specific effect of normalizing right ventrolateral prefrontal and cerebellar underactivation observed under both placebo and ATX. The findings show shared and drug-specific effects of MPX and ATX on performance and brain activation during inhibitory control in ADHD patients with superior upregulation and normalization effects of MPX.
Project description:Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.