Platelet CD40 Mediates Leukocyte Recruitment and Neointima Formation after Arterial Denudation Injury in Atherosclerosis-Prone Mice.
ABSTRACT: The role of platelets in the development of thrombosis and abrupt closure after angioplasty is well recognized. However, the direct impact of platelets on neointima formation after arterial injury remains undetermined. Herein, we show that neointima formation after carotid artery wire injury reduces markedly in CD40-/- apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice but only slightly in CD40 ligand-/-apoE-/- mice, compared with apoE-/- mice. Wild-type and CD40-deficient platelets were isolated from blood of apoE-/- and CD40-/-apoE-/- mice, respectively. The i.v. injection of thrombin-activated platelets into CD40-/-apoE-/- mice was performed every 5 days, starting at 2 days before wire injury. Injection of wild-type platelets promoted neointima formation, which was associated with increased inflammation by stimulating leukocyte recruitment via up-regulation of circulating platelet surface P-selectin expression and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates. It was also associated with further promoting the luminal deposition of platelet-derived regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in wire-injured carotid arteries. Remarkably, all these inflammatory actions by activated platelets were abrogated by lack of CD40 on injected platelets. Moreover, injection of wild-type platelets inhibited endothelial recovery in wire-injured carotid arteries, but this effect was also abrogated by lack of CD40 on injected platelets. Results suggest that platelet CD40 plays a pivotal role in neointima formation after arterial injury and might represent an attractive target to prevent restenosis after vascular interventions.
Project description:Platelets play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodelling after injury. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) was recently described to regulate platelet activation. Specific deletion of JAM-A from platelets resulted in increased reactivity and in accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific contribution of platelet-derived JAM-A to neointima formation after vascular injury. Mice with or without platelet-specific (tr)JAM-A-deficiency in an apolipoprotein e (apoe-/- ) background underwent wire-induced injury of the common carotid artery. Ex vivo imaging by two-photon microscopy revealed increased platelet coverage at the site of injury in trJAM-A-deficient mice. Cell recruitment assays showed increased adhesion of monocytic cells to activated JAM-A-deficient platelets than to control platelets. Inhibition of ?M ?2 or GPIb?, but not of CD62P, suppressed those differences. Up to 4 weeks after wire injury, intimal neoplasia and neointimal cellular content were analysed. Neointimal lesion area was increased in trJAM-A-/- apoe-/- mice and the lesions showed an increased macrophage accumulation and proliferating smooth muscle cells compared with trJAM-A+/+ apoe-/- littermates 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks after injury. Re-endothelialization was decreased in trJAM-A-/- apoe-/- mice compared with controls 2 weeks after injury, yet it was complete in both groups after 4 weeks. A platelet gain of function by deletion of JAM-A accelerates neointima formation only during earlier phases after vascular injury, through an increased recruitment of mononuclear cells. Thus, the contribution of platelets might become less important when neointima formation progresses to later stages.
Project description:Core2 1 to 6-N-glucosaminyltransferase-I (C2GlcNAcT-I) plays an important role in optimizing the binding functions of several selectin ligands, including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand. We used apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient atherosclerotic mice to investigate the role of C2GlcNAcT-I in platelet and leukocyte interactions with injured arterial walls, in endothelial regeneration at injured sites, and in the formation of arterial neointima.Arterial neointima induced by wire injury was smaller in C2GlcNAcT-I-deficient apoE(-/-) mice than in control apoE(-/-) mice (a 79% reduction in size). Compared to controls, apoE(-/-) mice deficient in C2GlcNAcT-I also demonstrated less leukocyte adhesion on activated platelets in microflow chambers (a 75% reduction), and accumulation of leukocytes at injured areas of mouse carotid arteries was eliminated. Additionally, endothelial regeneration in injured lumenal areas was substantially faster in C2GlcNAcT-I-deficient apoE(-/-) mice than in control apoE(-/-) mice. Endothelial regeneration was associated with reduced accumulation of platelet factor 4 (PF4) at injured sites. PF4 deficiency accelerated endothelial regeneration and protected mice from neointima formation after arterial injury.C2GlcNAcT-I deficiency suppresses injury-induced arterial neointima formation, and this effect is attributable to decreased leukocyte recruitment to injured vascular walls and increased endothelial regeneration. Both C2GlcNAcT-I and PF4 are promising targets for the treatment of arterial restenosis.
Project description:Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD leads to uremia, which modulates the phenotype of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Phenotypic modulation of SMCs plays a key role in accelerating atherosclerosis. We investigated the hypothesis that uremia potentiates neointima formation in response to vascular injury in mice. Carotid wire injury was performed on C57BL/6 wt and apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe -/-) mice two weeks after induction of uremia by 5/6 nephrectomy. Wire injury led to neointima formation and downregulation of genes encoding classical SMC markers (i.e., myocardin, ?-smooth muscle actin, SM22-alpha, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain) in both wt and Apoe -/- mice. Contrary to our expectations, uremia did not potentiate neointima formation, nor did it affect intimal lesion composition as judged from magnetic resonance imaging and histological analyses. Also, there was no effect of uremia on SMC marker gene expression in the injured carotid arteries, suggesting that there may be different effects of uremia on SMCs in different vascular beds. In conclusion, uremia does not accelerate neointima formation in response to wire injury of the carotid artery in mice.
Project description:In order to identify microRNAs involved in neointima formation in mice with an atherogenic background, wire-induced carotid injury was performed in ApoE-/- mice on western-type diet. Uninjured carotid arteries served as control. RNA was isolated after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days (n=3-4 each group) and hybridized to an Agilent microRNA microarray (Sanger v12). Significantly regulated microRNAs (>2-fold) over time (P<0.05; ANOVA and Benjamini-Hochberg correction) were clustered by K-means algorithm. Distinct groups of similarly regulated microRNAs were detected in the course of neointima formation in hyperlipidemic mice. Overall design: miRNA gene expression profile of ApoE-/- mice were measured at 1, 7, 14, 28 days after vascular injury. 3 to 4 animals per group were used for each time points.
Project description:On the luminal surface of injured arteries, platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interactions are critical for the initiation and progression of arterial restenosis. The transcription factor nuclear factor-?B is a critical molecule in platelet activation. Here, we investigated the role of the platelet nuclear factor-?B pathway in forming arterial neointima after arterial injury.We performed carotid artery wire injuries in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice with a platelet-specific deletion of I?B kinase-? (IKK?) (IKK?(fl/fl)/PF4(cre)/LDLR(-/-)) and in control mice (IKK?(fl/fl)/LDLR(-/-)). The size of the arterial neointima was 61% larger in the IKK?(fl/fl)/PF4(cre)/LDLR(-/-) mice compared with the littermate control IKK?(fl/fl)/LDLR(-/-) mice. Compared with the control mice, the IKK?(fl/fl)/PF4(cre)/LDLR(-/-) mice exhibited more leukocyte adhesion at the injured area. The extent of glycoprotein Ib? shedding after platelet activation was compromised in the IKK?-deficient platelets. This effect was associated with a low level of the active form of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17, the key enzyme involved in mediating glycoprotein Ib? shedding in activated IKK?-deficient platelets.Platelet IKK? deficiency increases the formation of injury-induced arterial neointima formation. Thus, nuclear factor-?B-related inhibitors should be carefully evaluated for use in patients after an arterial intervention.
Project description:Despite extensive investigations, restenosis, which is characterized primarily by neointima formation, remains an unsolved clinical problem after vascular interventions. A recent study has shown that CD40 signaling through TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a key role in neointima formation after carotid artery injury; however, underlying mechanisms are not clearly elucidated. Because neointima formation may vary significantly depending on the type of injury, we first assessed the effect of CD40 deficiency on neointima formation in 2 injury models, carotid artery ligation and femoral artery denudation injury. Compared with wild-type mice, CD40 deficiency significantly reduced neointima formation and lumen stenosis in two different models. Further, we investigated the mechanism by which CD40 signaling affects neointima formation after arterial injury. In wild-type mice, the expression levels of CD40, several TRAF proteins, including TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF5, and TRAF6, as well as total NF-kB p65 and phospho-NF-kB p65, in the carotid artery were markedly upregulated within 3-7 days after carotid ligation. Deficiency of CD40 abolished the injury-induced upregulation of TRAFs including TRAF6 and NF-kB-p65 in the injured vessel wall. Further, CD40(-/-) mice showed a significant decrease in the recruitment of neutrophils (at 3, 7d) and macrophages (at 7, 21d) into injured artery; this effect was most likely attributed to inhibition of NF-kB activation and marked downregulation of NF-kB-related gene expression, including cytokines (TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6), chemokines (MCP-1), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1). Moreover, neutrophil recruitment in a model of thioglycollate-induced peritonitis is impaired in CD40-deficient mice. In vitro data revealed that CD40 deficiency blocked CD40L-induced NF-kB p65 nuclear translocation in leukocytes. Altogether, our data identified for the first time that CD40 is essential in the upregulation of TRAF6, NF-kB activation, and NF-kB-dependent proinflammatory genes in vivo. Our findings firmly established the role for CD40 in neointima formation in 2 distinct injury models.
Project description:Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely adopted to treat patients with coronary artery disease. However, restenosis remains an unsolved clinical problem after vascular interventions. The role of the systemic and local immune response in the development of restenosis is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the human immune system on subsequent neointima formation elicited by vascular injury in a humanized mouse model. Immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)IL2rg(tm1Wjl)(NSG) mice were reconstituted with human (h)PBMCs immediately after both carotid wire and femoral cuff injury were induced in order to identify how differences in the severity of injury influenced endothelial regeneration, neointima formation, and homing of human inflammatory and progenitor cells. In contrast to non-reconstituted mice, hPBMC reconstitution reduced neointima formation after femoral cuff injury whereas hPBMCs promoted neointima formation after carotid wire injury 4 weeks after induction of injury. Neointimal endothelium and smooth muscle cells in the injured arteries were of mouse origin. Our results indicate that the immune system may differentially respond to arterial injury depending on the severity of injury, which may also be influenced by the intrinsic properties of the arteries themselves, resulting in either minimal or aggravated neointima formation.
Project description:We tried to identify mRNA targets of miR-126 involved in neointima formation in mice with an atherogenic background. Genome-wide expression profiling was carried out in wire-injured carotid arteries of miR-126+/+/ApoE-/- (control group) and miR-126-/-/ApoE-/- (target group) mice on western-type diet. RNA was isolated after 14 days following vascular injury (n=4 each group). Agilent SurePrint G3 Mouse GE Microarrays (8x60K format) were used in combination with a one-color based hybridization protocol. Signals on the microarrays were detected using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Differential gene expression was identified by applying appropriate biostatistics to the data set. GeneSpring GX11 analysis software was used to normalize and analyze the raw data Genomewide expression profile of miR-126+/+/ApoE-/- and miR-126-/-/ApoE-/- mice were measured at 14 days after vascular injury . 4 animals per group were used.
Project description:Hyperglycaemia causes endothelial dysfunction, which is the initial process in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Upon injury, endothelial cells undergo an endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), lose their specific marker, and gain mesenchymal phenotypes. This study investigated the effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on EndMT inhibition and neointima formation in diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin. The diabetic mice with a wire-induced vascular injury in the right carotid artery were treated with or without liraglutide for four weeks. The degree of neointima formation and re-endothelialisation was evaluated by histological assessments. Endothelial fate tracing revealed that endothelium-derived cells contribute to neointima formation through EndMT in vivo. In the diabetic mouse model, liraglutide attenuated wire injury-induced neointima formation and accelerated re-endothelialisation. In vitro, a high glucose condition (30 mmol/L) triggered morphological changes and mesenchymal marker expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which were attenuated by liraglutide or Activin receptor-like 5 (ALK5) inhibitor SB431542. The inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling by Compound C diminished the liraglutide-mediated inhibitory effect on EndMT. Collectively, liraglutide was found to attenuate neointima formation in diabetic mice partially through EndMT inhibition, extending the potential therapeutic role of liraglutide.
Project description:Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A is a Rho signalling-responsive co-activator of serum response factor (SRF). Here, we show that induction of MRTF-A expression is key to pathological vascular remodelling. MRTF-A expression was significantly higher in the wire-injured femoral arteries of wild-type mice and in the atherosclerotic aortic tissues of ApoE(-/-) mice than in healthy control tissues, whereas myocardin expression was significantly lower. Both neointima formation in wire-injured femoral arteries in MRTF-A knockout (Mkl1(-/-)) mice and atherosclerotic lesions in Mkl1(-/-); ApoE(-/-) mice were significantly attenuated. Expression of vinculin, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and integrin ?1, three SRF targets and key regulators of cell migration, in injured arteries was significantly weaker in Mkl1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), knocking down MRTF-A reduced expression of these genes and significantly impaired cell migration. Underlying the increased MRTF-A expression in dedifferentiated VSMCs was the downregulation of microRNA-1. Moreover, the MRTF-A inhibitor CCG1423 significantly reduced neointima formation following wire injury in mice. MRTF-A could thus be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of vascular diseases.