Microparticles Carrying Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Restore the Reduced Differentiation and Functionality of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Induced by High-Fat Diet.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic pathologies such as diabetes and obesity are associated with decreased level of circulating and bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). It is known that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) may stimulate cell differentiation. In addition, microparticles (MPs), small membrane vesicles produced by activated and apoptotic cells, are able to reprogram EPCs. Here, we evaluated the role of MPs carrying PPAR? on both phenotype and function of progenitor cells from mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD reduced circulating EPCs and, after 7 days of culture, BM-derived EPCs and monocytic progenitor cells from HFD-fed mice displayed impaired differentiation. At the same time, we show that MPs bearing PPAR?, MPsPPAR?+/+ , increased the differentiation of EPCs and monocytic progenitors from HFD-fed mice, whereas MPs taken from PPAR? knockout mice (MPsPPAR?-/- ) had no effect on the differentiation of all types of progenitor cells. Furthermore, MPsPPAR?+/+ increased the ability of progenitor cells to promote in vivo angiogenesis in mice fed with HFD. The in vitro and in vivo effects of MPsPPAR?+/+ were abolished in presence of MK886, a specific inhibitor of PPAR?. Collectively, these data highlight the ability of MPs carrying PPAR? to restore the failed differentiation and functionality of BM-derived cells induced by HFD. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:135-145.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for neovascularization. We hypothesized that microparticles (MPs), small fragments generated from the plasma membrane, can activate angiogenic programming of EPCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the effects of MPs obtained from wild type (MPs(PPARalpha+/+)) and knock-out (MPs(PPARalpha-/-)) mice on EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. Bone marrow-derived cells were isolated from WT or KO mice and were cultured in the presence of MPs(PPARalpha+/+) or MPs(PPARalpha-/-) obtained from blood of mice. Only MPs(PPARalpha+/+) harboring PPAR(alpha) significantly increased EPC, but not monocytic, differentiation. Bone marrow-derived cells treated with MPs(PPARalpha+/+) displayed increased expression of pro-angiogenic genes and increased in vivo angiogenesis. MPs(PPARalpha+/+) increased capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells that was associated with enhanced expressions of endothelial cell-specific markers. Finally, the effects of MPs(PPARalpha+/+) were mediated by NF-kappaB-dependent mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results underscore the obligatory role of PPARalpha carried by MPs for EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. PPARalpha-NF-kappaB-Akt pathways may play a pivotal stimulatory role for neovascularization, which may, at least in part, be mediated by bone marrow-derived EPCs. Improvement of EPC differentiation may represent a useful strategy during reparative neovascularization.
Project description:Hyperglycemia-triggered vascular abnormalities are the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The major cause of vascular dysfunction in DM is endothelial injury and dysfunction associated with the reduced number and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). A major challenge is to identify key regulators of EPCs to restore DM-associated vascular dysfunction. We show that EPCs from heterozygous knockout Aggf1+/- mice presented with impairment of proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and transendothelial migration as in hyperglycemic mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or db/db mice. The number of EPCs from Aggf1+/- mice was significantly reduced. Ex vivo, AGGF1 protein can fully reverse all damaging effects of hyperglycemia on EPCs. In vivo, transplantation of AGGF1-primed EPCs successfully restores blood flow and blocks tissue necrosis and ambulatory impairment in HFD-induced hyperglycemic mice or db/db mice with diabetic hindlimb ischemia. Mechanistically, AGGF1 activates AKT, reduces nuclear localization of Fyn, which increases the nuclear level of Nrf2 and expression of antioxidative genes, and inhibits reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest that Aggf1 is required for essential function of EPCs, AGGF1 fully reverses the damaging effects of hyperglycemia on EPCs, and AGGF1 priming of EPCs is a novel treatment modality for vascular complications in DM.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cilostazol(CLZ) has been used as a vasodilating anti-platelet drug clinically and demonstrated to inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and effect on endothelial cells. However, the effect of CLZ on re-endothelialization including bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) contribution is unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that CLZ might accelerate re-endothelialization with EPCs.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Balloon carotid denudation was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. CLZ group was given CLZ mixed feed from 2 weeks before carotid injury. Control group was fed normal diet. CLZ accelerated re-endothelialization at 2 weeks after surgery and resulted in a significant reduction of neointima formation 4 weeks after surgery compared with that in control group. CLZ also increased the number of circulating EPCs throughout the time course. We examined the contribution of BM-derived EPCs to re-endothelialization by BM transplantation from Tie2/lacZ mice to nude rats. The number of Tie2-regulated X-gal positive cells on injured arterial luminal surface was increased at 2 weeks after surgery in CLZ group compared with that in control group. In vitro, CLZ enhanced proliferation, adhesion and migration activity, and differentiation with mRNA upregulation of adhesion molecule integrin ?v?3, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and growth factor VEGF assessed by real-time RT-PCR in rat BM-derived cultured EPCs. In addition, CLZ markedly increased the expression of SDF-1? that is a ligand of CXCR4 receptor in EPCs, in the media following vascular injury.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>CLZ promotes EPC mobilization from BM and EPC recruitment to sites of arterial injury, and thereby inhibited neointima formation with acceleration of re-endothelialization with EPCs as well as pre-existing endothelial cells in a rat carotid balloon injury model. CLZ could be not only an anti-platelet agent but also a promising tool for endothelial regeneration, which is a key event for preventing atherosclerosis or restenosis after vascular intervention.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM) is the major reservoir for endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Postnatal neovascularization depends on not only angiogenesis but also vasculogenesis, which is mediated through mobilization of EPCs from BM and their recruitment to the ischemic sites. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Nox2-based NADPH oxidase play an important role in postnatal neovascularization; however, their role in BM and EPC function is unknown. Here we show that hindlimb ischemia of mice significantly increases Nox2 expression and ROS production in BM-mononuclear cells (BMCs), which is associated with an increase in circulating EPC-like cells. Mice lacking Nox2 show reduction of ischemia-induced flow recovery, ROS levels in BMCs, as well as EPC mobilization from BM. Transplantation of wild-type (WT)-BM into Nox2-deficient mice rescues the defective neovascularization, whereas WT mice transplanted with Nox2-deficient BM show reduced flow recovery and capillary density compared to WT-BM transplanted control. Intravenous infusion of WT- and Nox2-deficient BMCs into WT mice reveals that neovascularization and homing capacity are impaired in Nox2-deficient BMCs in vivo. In vitro, Nox2-deficient c-kit+Lin- BM stem/progenitor cells show impaired chemotaxis and invasion as well as polarization of actins in response to stromal derived factor (SDF), which is associated with blunted SDF-1-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. In conclusion, Nox2-derived ROS in BM play a critical role in mobilization, homing, and angiogenic capacity of EPCs and BM stem/progenitor cells, thereby promoting revascularization of ischemic tissue. Thus, NADPH oxidase in BM and EPCs is potential therapeutic targets for promoting neovascularization in ischemic cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Vascular calcification is an advanced feature of atherosclerosis for which no effective therapy is available. To investigate the modulation or reversal of calcification, we identified calcifying progenitor cells and investigated their calcifying/decalcifying potentials. Cells from the aortas of mice were sorted into four groups using Sca-1 and PDGFR? markers. Sca-1(+) (Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) and Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-)) progenitor cells exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation potentials than Sca-1(-) (Sca-1(-)/PDGFR?(+) and Sca-1(-)/PDGFR?(-)) progenitor cells. Among Sca-1(+) progenitor populations, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells possessed bidirectional differentiation potentials towards both osteoblastic and osteoclastic lineages, whereas Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) cells differentiated into an osteoblastic lineage unidirectionally. When treated with a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells preferentially differentiated into osteoclast-like cells. Sca-1(+) progenitor cells in the artery originated from the bone marrow (BM) and could be clonally expanded. Vessel-resident BM-derived Sca-1(+) calcifying progenitor cells displayed nonhematopoietic, mesenchymal characteristics. To evaluate the modulation of in vivo calcification, we established models of ectopic and atherosclerotic calcification. Computed tomography indicated that Sca-1(+) progenitor cells increased the volume and calcium scores of ectopic calcification. However, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells treated with a PPAR? agonist decreased bone formation 2-fold compared with untreated cells. Systemic infusion of Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells into Apoe(-/-) mice increased the severity of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. However, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells in which PPAR? was activated displayed markedly decreased plaque severity. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells mainly expressed osteocalcin; however, activation of PPAR? triggered receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B (RANK) expression, indicating their bidirectional fate in vivo. These findings suggest that a subtype of BM-derived and vessel-resident progenitor cells offer a therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular calcification and that PPAR? activation may be an option to reverse calcification.
Project description:The role of bone marrow (BM) cells in modulating pulmonary hypertensive responses is not well understood. Determine if BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and if this is attenuated by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Three BM populations were studied: (a) BM from vehicle and monocrotaline (MCT)-treated mice (PH induction), (b) BM from vehicle-, MCT-treated mice that received MSC-EV infusion after vehicle, MCT treatment (PH reversal, in vivo), (c) BM from vehicle-, MCT-treated mice cultured with MSC-EVs (PH reversal, in vitro). BM was separated into EPCs (sca-1+/c-kit+/VEGFR2+) and non-EPCs (sca-1-/c-kit-/VEGFR2-) and transplanted into healthy mice. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was assessed by RV-to-left ventricle+septum (RV/LV+S) ratio and pulmonary vascular remodeling by blood vessel wall thickness-to-diameter (WT/D) ratio. EPCs but not non-EPCs from mice with MCT-induced PH (MCT-PH) increased RV/LV+S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice (PH induction). EPCs from MCT-PH mice treated with MSC-EVs did not increase RV/LV+S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice (PH reversal, in vivo). Similarly, EPCs from MCT-PH mice treated with MSC-EVs pre-transplantation did not increase RV/LV+S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice (PH reversal, in vitro). MSC-EV infusion reversed increases in BM-EPCs and increased lung tissue expression of EPC genes and their receptors/ligands in MCT-PH mice. These findings suggest that the pulmonary hypertensive effects of BM are mediated by EPCs and those MSC-EVs attenuate these effects. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PH and offer a potential target for development of novel PH therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1595-1606.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells offer a promising approach to the treatment of myocardial infarction and prevention of heart failure. However, in the clinic, cells will be isolated from patients who may be suffering from comorbidities such as obesity and diabetes, which are known to adversely affect progenitor cells. Here we determined the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on mesenchymal stem cells from cardiac and adipose tissues. Mice were fed a HFD for 4 months, after which cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) were cultured from atrial tissue and adipose-derived mesenchymal cells (ADMSCs) were isolated from epididymal fat depots. HFD raised body weight, fasted plasma glucose, lactate, and insulin. Ventricle and liver tissue of HFD-fed mice showed protein changes associated with an early type 2 diabetic phenotype. At early passages, more ADMSCs were obtained from HFD-fed mice than from chow-fed mice, whereas CDC number was not affected by HFD. Migratory and clonogenic capacity and release of vascular endothelial growth factor did not differ between cells from HFD- and chow-fed animals. CDCs from chow-fed and HFD-fed mice showed no differences in surface marker expression, whereas ADMSCs from HFD-fed mice contained more cells positive for CD105, DDR2, and CD45, suggesting a high component of endothelial, fibroblast, and hematopoietic cells. Both Noggin and transforming growth factor ?-supplemented medium induced an early stage of differentiation in CDCs toward the cardiomyocyte phenotype. Thus, although chronic high-fat feeding increased the number of fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells within the ADMSC population, it left cardiac progenitor cells largely unaffected.Mesenchymal cells are a promising candidate cell source for restoring lost tissue and thereby preventing heart failure. In the clinic, cells are isolated from patients who may be suffering from comorbidities such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effect of a high-fat diet on mesenchymal cells from cardiac and adipose tissues. It was demonstrated that a high-fat diet did not affect cardiac progenitor cells but increased the number of fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells within the adipose-derived mesenchymal cell population.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are increased in chronic liver disease (CLD). Their role in hepatic fibrosis and regeneration remains an area of intense studies. We investigated the migration and secretory functions of BM-EPCs in fibrotic mice liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Bone marrow cells from C57BL6-GFP mice were transplanted into the femur of irradiated C57BL6 mice, followed by CCl4 doses for 8 weeks, to develop hepatic fibrosis (n = 36). Transplanted C57BL6 mice without CCl4 treatment were used as controls. EPCs were analyzed in BM, blood and liver by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. VEGF and TGF-? were analysed in the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and BM-EPCs co-cultures using ELISAs. RESULTS:There was a significant migration of EPCs from BM to blood and to the liver (P ? 0.01). Percentage of GFP+ CD31+ EPCs and collagen proportionate area was substantially increased in the liver at 4th week of CCl4 dosage compared to the controls (19.8% vs 1.9%, P ? 0.05). Levels of VEGF (533.6 pg/ml) and TGF-? (327.44 pg/ml) also increased significantly, when HSCs were treated with the EPC conditioned medium, as compared to controls (25.66 pg/ml and 5.87 pg/ml, respectively; P ? 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Present findings suggest that BM-EPCs migrate to the liver during CCl4-induced liver injury and contribute to fibrosis.
Project description:Noncellular differentiation effects have emerged as important mechanisms mediating therapeutic effects of stem or progenitor cell transplantation. Here, we investigated the expression patterns and sources of humoral factors and their regional and systemic biological effects after bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation into ischemic myocardium. Although most of the transplanted EPCs disappeared within a week, up-regulation of multiple humoral factors was sustained for longer than two weeks, which correlated well with the recovery of cardiac function. To determine the source of the humoral factors, we injected human EPCs into immunodeficient mice. Whereas the expression of human EPC (donor)-derived cytokines rapidly decreased to a nondetectable level within a week, up-regulation of mouse (recipient)-derived cytokines, including factors that could mobilize BM cells, was sustained. Histologically, we observed higher capillary density, a higher proliferation of myocardial cells, a lower cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduced infarct size. Furthermore, after EPC transplantation, BM-derived stem or progenitor cells were increased in the peripheral circulation and incorporated into the site of neovascularization and myocardial repair. These data indicate that myocardial EPC transplantation induces humoral effects, which are sustained by host tissues and play a crucial role in repairing myocardial injury.
Project description:Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.