Is there a "weekend effect" in kidney transplantation?
ABSTRACT: The 'weekend effect' describes increased adverse outcomes after weekend hospitalization. We examined weekend-weekday differences in the outcome of 580 patients following renal transplantation (RTx, brain dead donors) between January 2007 and December 2014 at our center. 3-year patient and graft survival, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejections and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-EPI) at 1 year as well as surgical complications were assessed. Of all 580 transplants, 416 (71.7%) were performed on weekdays (Monday-Friday) and 164 (28.3%) on weekends (Saturday-Sunday). 3-year patient and graft survival, frequencies of DGF, acute rejections and 1-year eGFR as well as length of hospital stay were similar between RTx patients transplanted on weekdays or weekends, respectively. However, a noticeable difference was detected with regard to surgical complications which were more frequent in RTx patients transplanted on weekends. All results remained consistent across all definitions of weekend status. Our results suggest that weekend transplant status does not affect functional short-term and long-term outcomes after RTx. The standardized protocols and operationalized processes applied in RTx might contribute to this finding and may provide a model for other medical procedures that are performed on weekends to improve efficiency and outcomes. The higher rate of surgical complications after weekend RTx needs further elaboration to fully assess the presence of a weekend effect in RTx.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given the gap between patients in need of a renal transplantation (RTx) and organs available, transplantation centers increasingly accept organs of suboptimal quality, e.g. from donors with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS:To determine the outcome of kidney transplants from deceased donors with AKI (defined as ? AKIN stage 1), all 107 patients who received a RTx from donors with AKI between August 2004 and July 2014 at our center were compared to their respective consecutively transplanted patients receiving kidneys from donors without AKI. 5-year patient and graft survival, frequencies of delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejections and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-EPI) were assessed. RESULTS:Patient survival was similar in both groups, whereas death-censored and overall graft survival were decreased in AKI kidney recipients. AKI kidney recipients showed higher frequencies of DGF and had a reduced eGFR at 7 days, three months and one and three years after RTx. However, mortality was noticeably lower compared to waiting list candidates. Rejection-free survival was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort, both short-term and long-term renal function was inferior in recipients of AKI kidneys, while patient survival was similar. Our data indicates that recipients of donor AKI kidneys should be carefully selected and additional factors impairing short- and long-term outcome should be minimized to prevent further deterioration of graft function.
Project description:The association of delayed graft function (DGF) and biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) of renal allografts is controversial. Borderline rejections comprise a major portion of biopsy results but the significance of such histologic changes is debated. The present study explores the impact of DGF on BPAR with a special emphasis on discriminating the effects of borderline rejection.Single center analysis of 417 deceased donor kidney recipients (age>18; transplantation date 1/2008-2/2015). Patients with primary non-function were excluded. DGF was defined as the need for dialysis within the first week after transplantation. Acute rejection was defined according to Banff criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship of DGF with BPAR within the first year.No graft loss was observed during the first year after transplantation. DGF significantly associated with BPAR in the first year, irrespective of whether borderline rejections were included (HR 1.71, 95%CI 1.16,2.53) or excluded (HR 1.79, 95%CI 1.13,2.84).DGF is significantly associated with rejection-with or without borderline changes-within the first year.
Project description:Background and purpose - The term "weekend effect" describes differences in outcomes between patients treated at weekends compared with weekdays. We investigated whether there is a weekend effect for the risk of reoperation and mortality after hip fracture surgery at Norwegian hospitals.Patients and methods - We included data from 76,410 hip fractures in patients 60 years and older reported to the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) between 2005 and 2017. Cox survival analyses with adjustments for age, sex, ASA class, type of fracture, operating method, and waiting time from fracture to surgery were used to calculate the risk of reoperation and death after surgeries performed at weekends compared with surgeries performed on weekdays.Results - The mean age for all patients was 82 years, and 71% were female. 73% of fractures occurred on weekdays (Monday to Friday) and 27% during weekends (Saturday and Sunday). 71% of fractures were operated on a weekday and 29% at a weekend. Slightly increased mortality was observed during the 2 first months after weekend admission with hip fracture (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.14). This did not continue in subsequent months, but the initial effect of weekend presentation was still apparent at 1-year follow-up. Further, there was no difference in mortality between patients who were operated at a weekend and patients operated on a weekday. Neither were there any differences in the risk of reoperation between weekday and weekend when comparing day of fracture or day of surgery.Interpretation - Patients who suffered a hip fracture during a weekend had slightly increased mortality in the first 2 months postoperatively. Whether the surgery was done on weekdays or at weekends did not affect mortality or the risk of reoperation.
Project description:Hospital admissions over weekends have been associated with worse outcomes in different patient populations. The cause of this difference in outcomes remains unclear; however, different staffing patterns over weekends have been speculated to contribute. We evaluated outcomes in patients on maintenance dialysis therapy admitted over weekends using a national database.Retrospective cohort study.We included nonelective admissions of adult patients (?18 years) on maintenance dialysis therapy (n = 3,278,572) identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for 2005-2009 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database.Weekend versus weekday admission.The primary outcome measure was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included mortality by day 3 of admission, length of hospital stay, time to death, and discharge disposition.We adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics, payer, year, comorbid conditions, and primary discharge diagnosis common to maintenance dialysis patients.There were an estimated 704,491 admissions over weekends versus 2,574,081 over weekdays. Unadjusted all-cause in-hospital mortality was 40,666 (5.8%) for weekend admissions in comparison to 138,517 (5.4%) for weekday admissions (P < 0.001). In a multivariable model, patients admitted over weekends had higher all-cause in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10) in comparison to those admitted over weekdays and higher mortality during the first 3 days of admission (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26). Patients admitted over weekends were less likely to be discharged to home, had longer hospital stays, and had shorter times to death compared with those admitted over weekdays on adjusted analysis.Use of ICD-9-CM codes to identify patients, defining weekend as midnight Friday to midnight Sunday.Maintenance dialysis patients admitted over weekends have increased mortality rates and longer lengths of stay compared with those admitted over weekdays. Further studies are needed to identify the reasons for worse outcomes for weekend admissions in this patient population.
Project description:Background:The weekend effect describes worsened outcomes due to perceived inefficiency occurring over the weekend. This effect has not been studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing prevalence in the community. Therefore, our aim is to assess differences in the outcomes of weekend versus weekday management of IBD exacerbations. Methods:The National Inpatient Sample database comprises approximately 20% of admissions to nonfederal hospitals in the United States. Complications requiring hospitalization ("flares") were the criteria upon which patient selection was based. A total of 193, 848 flares were identified from 2008 to 2014 using the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes. Differences in time to first procedure, length of stay (LOS), and cost were evaluated for patients with flares between weekend and weekday admissions. Results:The time to first procedure was 3.33?days on weekends versus 3.19?days on weekdays (P < 0.001). The mean LOS was shorter when admissions occurred on weekends versus weekdays (8.01?days vs 8.22?days, P < 0.001). Finally, the cost of hospitalization was higher for weekday admissions versus weekend admissions ($18?072 vs $17?495, P < 0.001). Conclusion:Our results showed a similar LOS and cost associated with the management of exacerbations on the weekend compared to weekdays. While many high-risk conditions exhibit increased mortality and prolonged hospital course over the weekend, this phenomenon does not appear to affect IBD. These findings indicate efficient patient care on the weekend and can be utilized for logistical purposes such as resource allocation and procedure scheduling in the endoscopy suite.
Project description:Objective Patients admitted as emergencies to hospitals at the weekend have higher death rates than patients admitted on weekdays. This may be because the restricted service availability at weekends leads to selection of patients with greater average severity of illness. We examined volumes and rates of hospital admissions and deaths across the week for patients presenting to emergency services through two routes: (a) hospital Accident and Emergency departments, which are open throughout the week; and (b) services in the community, for which availability is more restricted at weekends. Method Retrospective observational study of all 140 non-specialist acute hospital Trusts in England analyzing 12,670,788 Accident and Emergency attendances and 4,656,586 emergency admissions (940,859 direct admissions from primary care and 3,715,727 admissions through Accident and Emergency) between April 2013 and February 2014.Emergency attendances and admissions to hospital and deaths in any hospital within 30 days of attendance or admission were compared for weekdays and weekends. Results Similar numbers of patients attended Accident and Emergency on weekends and weekdays. There were similar numbers of deaths amongst patients attending Accident and Emergency on weekend days compared with weekdays (378.0 vs. 388.3). Attending Accident and Emergency at the weekend was not associated with a significantly higher probability of death (risk-adjusted OR: 1.010). Proportionately fewer patients who attended Accident and Emergency at weekend were admitted to hospital (27.5% vs. 30.0%) and it is only amongst the subset of patients attending Accident and Emergency who were selected for admission to hospital that the probability of dying was significantly higher at the weekend (risk-adjusted OR: 1.054). The average volume of direct admissions from services in the community was 61% lower on weekend days compared to weekdays (1317 vs. 3404). There were fewer deaths following direct admission on weekend days than weekdays (35.9 vs. 80.8). The mortality rate was significantly higher at weekends amongst direct admissions (risk-adjusted OR: 1.212) due to the proportionately greater reduction in admissions relative to deaths. Conclusions There are fewer deaths following hospital admission at weekends. Higher mortality rates at weekends are found only amongst the subset of patients who are admitted. The reduced availability of primary care services and the higher Accident and Emergency admission threshold at weekends mean fewer and sicker patients are admitted at weekends than during the week. Extending services in hospitals and in the community at weekends may increase the number of emergency admissions and therefore lower mortality, but may not reduce the absolute number of deaths.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with weekend and night-time clinical activity. We sought to compare the outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) between weekdays and weekends or night-time and day-time to determine if 'out-of-hours' LT has acceptable results compared with 'in-hours'.<h4>Design, setting and participants</h4>We conducted a retrospective analysis of patient outcomes for all 8816 adult, liver-only transplants (2000-2014) from the UK Transplant Registry.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>Outcome measures were graft failure (loss of the graft with or without death) and transplant failure (either graft failure or death with a functioning graft) at 30 days, 1 year and 3?years post-transplantation. The association of these outcomes with weekend versus weekday and day versus night transplantation were explored, following the construction of a risk-adjusted Cox regression model.<h4>Results</h4>Similar patient and donor characteristics were observed between weekend and weekday transplantation. Unadjusted graft failure estimates were 5.7% at 30 days, 10.4% at 1?year and 14.6% at 3?years; transplant failure estimates were 7.9%, 15.3% and 21.3% respectively.A risk-adjusted Cox regression model demonstrated a significantly lower adjusted HR (95%?CI) of transplant failure for weekend transplant of 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) within 30 days, 0.86 (0.77 to 0.97) within 1?year, 0.89 (0.81 to 0.99) within 3?years and for graft failure of 0.81 (0.67 to 0.97) within 30 days. For patients without transplant failure within 30 days, there was no weekend effect on transplant failure. Neither night-time procurement nor transplantation were associated with an increased hazard of transplant or graft failure.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Weekend and night-time LT outcomes were non-inferior to weekday or day-time transplantation, and we observed a possible small beneficial effect of weekend transplantation. The structure of LT services in the UK delivers acceptable outcomes 'out-of-hours' and may offer wider lessons for weekend working structures.
Project description:Acute Tubular Injury (ATI) is the leading cause of Delayed Graft Function (DGF) after renal transplantation (RTX). Biopsies taken 1 week after RTX often show extensive tubular damage, which in most cases resolves due to the high regenerative capacity of the kidney. Not much is known about the relation between histological parameters of renal damage and regeneration immediately after RTX and renal outcome in patients with DGF. We retrospectively evaluated 94 patients with DGF due to ATI only. Biopsies were scored for morphological characteristics of renal damage (edema, casts, vacuolization, and dilatation) by three independent blinded observers. The regenerative potential was quantified by tubular cells expressing markers of proliferation (Ki67) and dedifferentiation (CD133). Parameters were related to renal function after recovery (CKD-EPI 3, 6, and 12 months posttransplantation). Quantification of morphological characteristics was reproducible among observers (Kendall's W ? 0.56). In a linear mixed model, edema and casts significantly associated with eGFR within the first year independently of clinical characteristics. Combined with donor age, edema and casts outperformed the Nyberg score, a well-validated clinical score to predict eGFR within the first year after transplantation (R2 = 0.29 vs. R2 = 0.14). Although the number of Ki67+ cells correlated to the extent of acute damage, neither CD133 nor Ki67 correlated with renal functional recovery. In conclusion, the morphological characteristics of ATI immediately after RTX correlate with graft function after DGF. Despite the crucial role of regeneration in recovery after ATI, we did not find a correlation between dedifferentiation marker CD133 or proliferation marker Ki67 and renal recovery after DGF.
Project description:Whereas most resident fathers are able to spend more time with their children on weekends than on weekdays, many fathers work on the weekends spending less time with their children on these days. There are conflicting findings about whether fathers are able to make up for lost weekend time on weekdays. Using unique features of the United Kingdom's National Survey of Time Use 2000 (UKTUS) I examine the impact of fathers' weekend work on the time fathers spend with their children, family, and partners (N = 595 fathers). I find that weekend work is common among fathers and is associated with less time with children, families, and partners. Fathers do not recover lost time with children on weekdays, largely because weekend work is a symptom of overwork. Findings also reveal that even if fathers had compensatory time, they are unlikely to recover lost time spent as a family or couple.
Project description:Mortality is higher for adults admitted to hospital and for babies born on weekends compared to weekdays. This study compares in-hospital mortality and in children admitted to hospital on weekends and weekdays. Details for all acute medical admissions to hospitals in Scotland for children aged ?16 years between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2013 were obtained. Death was linked to day of admission. There were 570,403 acute medical admissions and 334 children died, including 83 who died after an admission on Saturday or Sunday and 251 who died following admission between Monday and Friday. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for a child dying after admission on a weekend compared to weekday was 1.03 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.32]. The OR for a child admitted over the weekend requiring intensive care unit (ICU) or high dependency unit (HDU) care was 1.24 [1.16 to 1.32], but the absolute number of admissions to HDU and ICU per day were similar on weekends and weekdays. We see no evidence of increased in-hospital paediatric mortality after admission on a weekend. The increased risk for admission to ITU or HDU with more serious illness over weekends is explained by fewer less serious admissions.