Extended beta distributions open the access to fast gating in bilayer experiments-assigning the voltage-dependent gating to the selectivity filter.
ABSTRACT: Lipid bilayers provide many benefits for ion channel recordings, such as control of membrane composition and transport molecules. However, they suffer from high membrane capacitance limiting the bandwidth and impeding analysis of fast gating. This can be overcome by fitting the deviations of the open-channel noise from the baseline noise by extended beta distributions. We demonstrate this analysis step-by-step by applying it to the example of viral K+ channels (Kcv), from the choice of the gating model through the fitting process, validation of the results, and what kinds of results can be obtained. These voltage sensor-less channels show profoundly voltage-dependent gating with dwell times in the closed state of about 50 μs. Mutations assign it to the selectivity filter.
Project description:Chlorella virus PBCV-1 (Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1) encodes the smallest protein (94 amino acids, named Kcv) previously known to form a functional K+ channel in heterologous systems. In this paper, we characterize another chlorella virus encoded K+ channel protein (82 amino acids, named ATCV-1 Kcv) that forms a functional channel in Xenopus oocytes and rescues Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that lack endogenous K+ uptake systems. Compared with the larger PBCV-1 Kcv, ATCV-1 Kcv lacks a cytoplasmic N-terminus and has a reduced number of charged amino acids in its turret domain. Despite these deficiencies, ATCV-1 Kcv accomplishes all the major features of K+ channels: it assembles into a tetramer, is K+ selective and is inhibited by the canonical K+ channel blockers, barium and caesium. Single channel analyses reveal a stochastic gating behaviour and a voltage-dependent conductance that resembles the macroscopic I/V relationship. One difference between PBCV-1 and ATCV-1 Kcv is that the latter is more permeable to K+ than Rb+. This difference is partially explained by the presence of a tyrosine residue in the selective filter of ATCV-1 Kcv, whereas PBCV-1 Kcv has a phenylalanine. Hence, ATCV-1 Kcv is the smallest protein to form a K+ channel and it will serve as a model for studying structure-function correlations inside the potassium channel pore.
Project description:Viral potassium channels (Kcv) are homologous to the pore module of complex [Formula: see text]-selective ion channels of cellular organisms. Due to their relative simplicity, they have attracted interest towards understanding the principles of [Formula: see text] conduction and channel gating. In this work, we construct a homology model of the [Formula: see text] open state, which we validate by studying the binding of known blockers and by monitoring ion conduction through the channel. Molecular dynamics simulations of this model reveal that the re-orientation of selectivity filter carbonyl groups coincides with the transport of potassium ions, suggesting a possible mechanism for fast gating. In addition, we show that the voltage sensitivity of this mechanism can originate from the relocation of potassium ions inside the selectivity filter. We also explore the interaction of [Formula: see text] with the surrounding bilayer and observe the binding of lipids in the area between two adjacent subunits. The model is available to the scientific community to further explore the structure/function relationship of Kcv channels.
Project description:Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels control electrical rhythmicity in specialized brain and heart cells. We quantitatively analysed voltage-dependent activation of homotetrameric HCN2 channels and its modulation by the second messenger cAMP using global fits of hidden Markovian models to complex experimental data. We show that voltage-dependent activation is essentially governed by two separable voltage-dependent steps followed by voltage-independent opening of the pore. According to this model analysis, the binding of cAMP to the channels exerts multiple effects on the voltage-dependent gating: It stabilizes the open pore, reduces the total gating charge from ~8 to ~5, makes an additional closed state outside the activation pathway accessible and strongly accelerates the ON-gating but not the OFF-gating. Furthermore, the open channel has a much slower computed OFF-gating current than the closed channel, in both the absence and presence of cAMP. Together, these results provide detailed new insight into the voltage- and cAMP-induced activation gating of HCN channels.
Project description:KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) is a unique member of the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels in that it displays a remarkable range of gating behaviors tuned by coassembly with different β subunits of the KCNE family of proteins. To better understand the basis for the biophysical diversity of KCNQ1 channels, we here investigate the basis of KCNQ1 gating in the absence of β subunits using voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF). In our previous study, we found the kinetics and voltage dependence of voltage-sensor movements are very similar to those of the channel gate, as if multiple voltage-sensor movements are not required to precede gate opening. Here, we have tested two different hypotheses to explain KCNQ1 gating: (i) KCNQ1 voltage sensors undergo a single concerted movement that leads to channel opening, or (ii) individual voltage-sensor movements lead to channel opening before all voltage sensors have moved. Here, we find that KCNQ1 voltage sensors move relatively independently, but that the channel can conduct before all voltage sensors have activated. We explore a KCNQ1 point mutation that causes some channels to transition to the open state even in the absence of voltage-sensor movement. To interpret these results, we adopt an allosteric gating scheme wherein KCNQ1 is able to transition to the open state after zero to four voltage-sensor movements. This model allows for widely varying gating behavior, depending on the relative strength of the opening transition, and suggests how KCNQ1 could be controlled by coassembly with different KCNE family members.
Project description:The voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form functional homotetrameric channels but co-assembles with Kv2.1 to form functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels. Compared to Kv2.1 homotetramers, Kv6.4 exerts a ~40 mV hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 channel inactivation, without a significant effect on activation gating. However, the underlying mechanism of this Kv6.4-induced modulation of Kv2.1 channel inactivation, and whether the Kv6.4 subunit participates in the voltage-dependent gating of heterotetrameric channels is not well understood. Here we report distinct gating charge movement of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels, compared to Kv2.1 homotetramers, as revealed by gating current recordings from mammalian cells expressing these channels. The gating charge movement of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels displayed an extra component around the physiological K(+) equilibrium potential, characterized by a second sigmoidal relationship of the voltage-dependence of gating charge movement. This distinct gating charge displacement reflects movement of the Kv6.4 voltage-sensing domain and has a voltage-dependency that matches the hyperpolarizing shift in Kv2.1/Kv6.4 channel inactivation. These results provide a mechanistic basis for the modulation of Kv2.1 channel inactivation gating kinetics by silent Kv6.4 subunits.
Project description:The voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated cation channels is primarily attributed to conformational changes of a four transmembrane segment voltage-sensing domain, conserved across many levels of biological complexity. We have identified a remarkable point mutation that confers significant voltage dependence to Kir6.2, a ligand-gated channel that lacks any canonical voltage-sensing domain. Similar to voltage-dependent Kv channels, the Kir6.2[L157E] mutant exhibits time-dependent activation upon membrane depolarization, resulting in an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relationship. This voltage dependence is convergent with the intrinsic ligand-dependent gating mechanisms of Kir6.2, since increasing the membrane PIP2 content saturates Po and eliminates voltage dependence, whereas voltage activation is more dramatic when channel Po is reduced by application of ATP or poly-lysine. These experiments thus demonstrate an inherent voltage dependence of gating in a "ligand-gated" K+ channel, and thereby provide a new view of voltage-dependent gating mechanisms in ion channels. Most interestingly, the voltage- and ligand-dependent gating of Kir6.2[L157E] is highly sensitive to intracellular [K+], indicating an interaction between ion permeation and gating. While these two key features of channel function are classically dealt with separately, the results provide a framework for understanding their interaction, which is likely to be a general, if latent, feature of the superfamily of cation channels.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels mediate the initiation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. Transmembrane segment S4 of voltage-gated sodium channels resides in a gating pore where it senses the membrane potential and controls channel gating. Substitution of individual S4 arginine gating charges (R1-R3) with smaller amino acids allows ionic currents to flow through the mutant gating pore, and these gating pore currents are pathogenic in some skeletal muscle periodic paralysis syndromes. The voltage dependence of gating pore currents provides information about the transmembrane position of the gating charges as S4 moves in response to membrane potential. Here we studied gating pore current in mutants of the homotetrameric bacterial sodium channel NaChBac in which individual arginine gating charges were replaced by cysteine. Gating pore current was observed for each mutant channel, but with different voltage-dependent properties. Mutating the first (R1C) or second (R2C) arginine to cysteine resulted in gating pore current at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, where the channels are in resting states, but not at depolarized potentials, where the channels are activated. Conversely, the R3C gating pore is closed at hyperpolarized membrane potentials and opens with channel activation. Negative conditioning pulses revealed time-dependent deactivation of the R3C gating pore at the most hyperpolarized potentials. Our results show sequential voltage dependence of activation of gating pore current from R1 to R3 and support stepwise outward movement of the substituted cysteines through the narrow portion of the gating pore that is sealed by the arginine side chains in the wild-type channel. This pattern of voltage dependence of gating pore current is consistent with a sliding movement of the S4 helix through the gating pore. Through comparison with high-resolution models of the voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channels, these results shed light on the structural basis for pathogenic gating pore currents in periodic paralysis syndromes.
Project description:The opening of voltage-gated ion channels is initiated by transfer of gating charges that sense the electric field across the membrane. Although transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP) are members of this family, their opening is not intrinsically linked to membrane potential, and they are generally not considered voltage gated. Here we demonstrate that TRPP2, a member of the polycystin subfamily of TRP channels encoded by the PKD2L1 gene, is an exception to this rule. TRPP2 borrows a biophysical riff from canonical voltage-gated ion channels, using 2 gating charges found in its fourth transmembrane segment (S4) to control its conductive state. Rosetta structural prediction demonstrates that the S4 undergoes ?3- to 5-Å transitional and lateral movements during depolarization, which are coupled to opening of the channel pore. Here both gating charges form state-dependent cation-? interactions within the voltage sensor domain (VSD) during membrane depolarization. Our data demonstrate that the transfer of a single gating charge per channel subunit is requisite for voltage, temperature, and osmotic swell polymodal gating of TRPP2. Taken together, we find that irrespective of stimuli, TRPP2 channel opening is dependent on activation of its VSDs.
Project description:Low-voltage-activated Ca(v)3 Ca(2+) channels have an activation threshold around -60 mV, which is lower than the activation threshold of other voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). The kinetics of their activation at membrane voltages just above the activation threshold is much slower than the activation kinetics of other VDCCs. It was demonstrated recently that the intracellular loop connecting repeats I and II of all three Ca(v)3 channels contains a so-called gating brake. Disruption of this brake yields channels that activate at even more hyperpolarized potentials with significantly accelerated kinetics. We have compared gating of a wild-type Ca(v)3.3 channel and a mutated ID12 channel, in which the putative gating brake at the proximal part of the I-II loop was removed. Voltage dependence of the gating current activation was shifted by 34.6 mV towards more hyperpolarized potentials in ID12 channel. ON-charge movement was significantly faster in the ID12 channel, while the kinetics of the off-charge was not altered by the mutation. We conclude that the putative gating brake in I-II loop hinders not only the opening of the conducting pore but also the activating movement of voltage-sensing S4 segments, stabilizing the channel in its closed state.
Project description:Barttin is an accessory subunit that modifies protein stability, subcellular distribution, and voltage-dependent gating of ClC-K chloride channels expressed in renal and inner ear epithelia. ClC-K channels are double-barreled channels with two identical protopores that may be opened by individual or common gating processes. Using heterologous expression in mammalian cells and patch-clamp recordings, we studied the effects of barttin on gating of rat ClC-K1 and human ClC-Ka. In the absence of barttin, rClC-K1 channels displayed two gating processes with distinct kinetics and voltage dependence. A fast gating process, activated by membrane hyperpolarization, opens and closes individual rClC-K1 protopores. In addition, slow common gating steps, stimulated by membrane depolarization, act on both protopores together. Coexpression of barttin results in voltage-independent open probabilities of the common gate, causing increased channel activity at physiologic potentials. In contrast to rClC-K1, human ClC-Ka is functional only when coexpressed with barttin. Single-channel recordings of hClC-Ka/barttin show double-barreled channels with fast protopore gating without apparent cooperative gating steps. These findings demonstrate that barttin stimulates chloride flux through ClC-K channels by modifying cooperative gating of the double-barreled channels and highlight a physiologic role for gating of epithelial ClC chloride channels.