High-throughput extraction and quantification method for targeted metabolomics in murine tissues.
ABSTRACT: Global metabolomics analyses using body fluids provide valuable results for the understanding and prediction of diseases. However, the mechanism of a disease is often tissue-based and it is advantageous to analyze metabolomic changes directly in the tissue. Metabolomics from tissue samples faces many challenges like tissue collection, homogenization, and metabolite extraction.We aimed to establish a metabolite extraction protocol optimized for tissue metabolite quantification by the targeted metabolomics AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 Kit (Biocrates). The extraction method should be non-selective, applicable to different kinds and amounts of tissues, monophasic, reproducible, and amenable to high throughput.We quantified metabolites in samples of eleven murine tissues after extraction with three solvents (methanol, phosphate buffer, ethanol/phosphate buffer mixture) in two tissue to solvent ratios and analyzed the extraction yield, ionization efficiency, and reproducibility.We found methanol and ethanol/phosphate buffer to be superior to phosphate buffer in regard to extraction yield, reproducibility, and ionization efficiency for all metabolites measured. Phosphate buffer, however, outperformed both organic solvents for amino acids and biogenic amines but yielded unsatisfactory results for lipids. The observed matrix effects of tissue extracts were smaller or in a similar range compared to those of human plasma.We provide for each murine tissue type an optimized high-throughput metabolite extraction protocol, which yields the best results for extraction, reproducibility, and quantification of metabolites in the p180 kit. Although the performance of the extraction protocol was monitored by the p180 kit, the protocol can be applicable to other targeted metabolomics assays.
Project description:Human-milk-targeted metabolomics analysis offers novel insights into milk composition and relationships with maternal and infant phenotypes and nutritional status. The Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p180 kit, targeting 40 acylcarnitines, 42 amino acids/biogenic amines, 91 phospholipids, 15 sphingolipids, and sum of hexoses, was evaluated for human milk using the AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP mass-spectrometer in liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and flow-injection analysis (FIA) mode. Milk (<6 months lactation) from (A) Bangladeshi apparently healthy mothers (body mass index (BMI) > 18.5; n = 12) and (B) Bangladeshi mothers of stunted infants (height-for-age Z (HAZ)-score <-2; n = 13) was analyzed. Overall, 123 of the possible 188 metabolites were detected in milk. New internal standards and adjusted calibrator levels were used for improved precision and concentration ranges for milk metabolites. Recoveries ranged between 43% and 120% (coefficient of variation (CV): 2.4%-24.1%, 6 replicates). Milk consumed by stunted infants vs. that from mothers with BMI > 18.5 was lower in 6 amino acids/biogenic amines but higher in isovalerylcarnitine, two phospholipids, and one sphingomyelin (p < 0.05 for all). Associations between milk metabolites differed between groups. The AbsoluteIDQ® p180 kit is a rapid analysis tool suitable for human milk analysis and reduces analytical bias by allowing the same technique for different specimens. More research is needed to examine milk metabolite relationships with maternal and infant phenotypes.
Project description:A critical question facing the field of metabolomics is whether data obtained from different centers can be effectively compared and combined. An important aspect of this is the interlaboratory precision (reproducibility) of the analytical protocols used. We analyzed human samples in six laboratories using different instrumentation but a common protocol (the AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit) for the measurement of 189 metabolites via liquid chromatography (LC) or flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In spiked quality control (QC) samples 82% of metabolite measurements had an interlaboratory precision of <20%, while 83% of averaged individual laboratory measurements were accurate to within 20%. For 20 typical biological samples (serum and plasma from healthy individuals) the median interlaboratory coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.6%, with 85% of metabolites exhibiting a median interlaboratory CV of <20%. Precision was largely independent of the type of sample (serum or plasma) or the anticoagulant used but was reduced in a sample from a patient with dyslipidaemia. The median interlaboratory accuracy and precision of the assay for standard reference plasma (NIST SRM 1950) were 107% and 6.7%, respectively. Likely sources of irreproducibility were the near limit of detection (LOD) typical abundance of some metabolites and the degree of manual review and optimization of peak integration in the LC-MS/MS data after acquisition. Normalization to a reference material was crucial for the semi-quantitative FIA measurements. This is the first interlaboratory assessment of a widely used, targeted metabolomics assay illustrating the reproducibility of the protocol and how data generated on different instruments could be directly integrated in large-scale epidemiological studies.
Project description:Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for use in metabolomics studies as it is able to perform non targeted measurement of metabolites in a quantitative and non-destructive way. Sample preparation of liquid samples like urine or blood serum is comparatively easy in NMR metabolomics, because mainly buffer and chemical shift reference substance are added. For solid samples like feces suitable extraction protocols need to be defined as initial step, where the exact protocol depends on sample type and features. Focusing on short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mice feces, we describe here a set of extraction protocols developed with the aim to suppress changes in metabolite composition within 24 h after extraction. Feces are obtained from mice fed on either standard rodent diet or high fat diet. The protocols presented in this manuscript are straightforward for application, and successfully minimize residual bacterial and enzymatic activities. Additionally, they are able to minimize the lipid background originating from the high fat diet.
Project description:The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes, including amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction, whether with water or phosphate-buffered saline, exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Together, these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling.
Project description:Metabolomics is a developing and promising tool for exploring molecular pathways underlying symptoms of depression and predicting depression recovery. The AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit was used to investigate whether plasma metabolites (sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, and acylcarnitines) from a subset of participants in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial could act as predictors or biologic correlates of depression recovery. Participants in this trial were assigned to one of three pharmacological treatment arms: escitalopram monotherapy, bupropion-escitalopram combination, or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination. Plasma was collected at baseline in 159 participants and again 12 weeks later at study exit in 83 of these participants. Metabolite concentrations were measured and combined with clinical and sociodemographic variables using the hierarchical lasso to simultaneously model whether specific metabolites are particularly informative of depressive recovery. Increased baseline concentrations of phosphatidylcholine C38:1 showed poorer outcome based on change in the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS). In contrast, an increased ratio of hydroxylated sphingomyelins relative to non-hydroxylated sphingomyelins at baseline and a change from baseline to exit suggested a better reduction of symptoms as measured by QIDS score. All metabolite-based models performed superior to models only using clinical and sociodemographic variables, suggesting that metabolomics may be a valuable tool for predicting antidepressant outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Untargeted metabolomics is a powerful tool to detect hundreds of metabolites within a given tissue and to compare the metabolite composition of samples in a comprehensive manner. However, with regard to pollen research such comprehensive metabolomics approaches are yet not well developed. To enable isolation of pollen that is tightly enclosed within the anthers of the flower, such as immature pollen, the current pollen isolation protocols require the use of a watery solution. These protocols raise a number of concerns for their suitability in metabolomics analyses, in view of possible metabolic activities in the pollen and contamination with anther metabolites. OBJECTIVES:We assessed the effect of different sample preparation procedures currently used for pollen isolation for their suitability to perform metabolomics of tomato pollen. METHODS:Pollen were isolated using different methods and the metabolic profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS:Our results demonstrated that pollen isolation in a watery solution led to (i) rehydration of the pollen grains, inducing marked metabolic changes in flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and amino acids and thus resulting in a metabolite profile that did not reflect the one of mature dry pollen, (ii) hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose during subsequent metabolite extraction, unless the isolated and rehydrated pollen were lyophilized prior to extraction, and (iii) contamination with anther-specific metabolites, such as alkaloids, thus compromising the metabolic purity of the pollen fraction. CONCLUSION:We conclude that the current practices used to isolate pollen are suboptimal for metabolomics analyses and provide recommendations on how to improve the pollen isolation protocol, in order to obtain the most reliable metabolic profile from pollen tissue.
Project description:In this study, a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics protocol was optimized for quenching, harvesting, and extraction of metabolites from the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. Trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in water were compared for sample harvesting. Four different extraction methods were compared to investigate the efficiency of intracellular metabolite extraction, including pure acetonitrile, methanol, methanol/chloroform/H2O, and methanol/chloroform/acetonitrile. The separation efficiencies of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with UPLC-QTOF-MS were also evaluated. Global metabolomics profiles were compared; the number of total detected features and the recovery and relative extraction efficiencies of target metabolites were assessed. Trypsin/EDTA treatment caused substantial metabolite leakage proving it inadequate for metabolomics studies. Direct scraping after flash quenching with liquid nitrogen was chosen to harvest Panc-1 cells which allowed for samples to be stored before extraction. Methanol/chloroform/H2O was chosen as the optimal extraction solvent to recover the highest number of intracellular features with the best reproducibility. HILIC had better resolution for intracellular metabolites of Panc-1 cells. This optimized method therefore provides high sensitivity and reproducibility for a variety of cellular metabolites and can be applicable to further LC/MS-based global metabolomics study on Panc-1 cell lines and possibly other cancer cell lines with similar chemical and physical properties.
Project description:A gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics protocol was modified for quenching, harvesting, and extraction of metabolites from adherent cells grown under high (20%) fetal calf serum conditions. The reproducibility of using either 50% or 80% methanol for quenching of cells was compared for sample harvest. To investigate the efficiency and reproducibility of intracellular metabolite extraction, different volumes and ratios of chloroform were tested. Additionally, we compared the use of total protein amount versus cell mass as normalization parameters. We demonstrate that the method involving 50% methanol as quenching buffer followed by an extraction step using an equal ratio of methanol:chloroform:water (1:1:1, v/v/v) followed by the collection of 6 mL polar phase for GC-MS measurement was superior to the other methods tested. Especially for large sample sets, its comparative ease of measurement leads us to recommend normalization to protein amount for the investigation of intracellular metabolites of adherent human cells grown under high (or standard) fetal calf serum conditions. To avoid bias, care should be taken beforehand to ensure that the ratio of total protein to cell number are consistent among the groups tested. For this reason, it may not be suitable where culture conditions or cell types have very different protein outputs (e.g., hypoxia vs. normoxia). The full modified protocol is available in the Supplementary Materials.
Project description:AIMS:Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms. RESULTS:We compared seven different solvents for quenching and extraction of cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues: a cold aqueous buffer commonly used in enzyme assays with and without detergent, hot aqueous buffer, and cold organic mixtures (80% methanol, buffered 75% acetonitrile, and acidic 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with either 0.02 M or 0.1?M formic acid). Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). To monitor the metabolite interconversion, cells were grown in 13C6-glucose medium, and unlabeled standards were spiked into the extraction solvents. Interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms was substantial except for the enzyme assay buffer with detergent, 80% methanol and 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water, with the 0.1?M formic acid mix giving the least interconversion and best recoveries. Absolute NAD+, NADH, NADP+, and NADPH concentrations in cells and mouse tissues were measured with this approach. INNOVATION:We found that the interconversion between the reduced and oxidized forms during extraction is a major barrier to accurately measuring NADPH/NADP+ and NADH/NAD+ ratios. Such interconversion can be monitored by isotope labeling cells and spiking NAD(P)(H) standards. CONCLUSION:Extraction with 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with 0.1?M formic acid decreases interconversion and, therefore, is suitable for measurement of redox cofactor ratios using LC-MS. This solvent is also useful for general metabolomics. Samples should be neutralized immediately after extraction to avoid acid-catalyzed degradation. When LC-MS is not available and enzyme assays are accordingly used, inclusion of detergent in the aqueous extraction buffer reduces interconversion. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 167-179.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum haptoglobin (Hp) has been closely associated with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated a metabolic profile associated with circulating Hp and carotid arterial functions via a targeted metabolomics approach to provide insight into potential mechanisms. METHODS:A total of 240 participants, including 120 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 120 non-diabetes mellitus (non-DM) subjects were recruited in this study. Targeted metabolic profiles of serum metabolites were determined using an AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 Kit (BIOCRATES Life Sciences AG, Innsbruck, Austria). Ultrasound of the bilateral common carotid artery was used to measure intima-media thickness and inter-adventitial diameter. Serum Hp levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:Serum Hp levels in T2DM patients and non-DM subjects were 103.40 (72.46, 131.99) mg/dL and 100.20 (53.99, 140.66) mg/dL, respectively. Significant differences of 19 metabolites and 17 metabolites were found among serum Hp tertiles in T2DM patients and non-DM subjects, respectively (P?<?0.05). Of these, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C32:2 (PC ae C32:2) was the common metabolite observed in two populations, which was associated with the serum Hp groups and lipid traits (P?<?0.05). Furthermore, the metabolite ratios of two acidic amino acids, including aspartate to PC ae C32:2 (Asp/PC ae C32:2) and glutamate to PC ae C32:2 (Glu/PC ae C32:2) were correlated with serum Hp, carotid arterial functions and other biochemical index in both populations significantly (P?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Targeted metabolomics analyses might provide a new insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the association between serum Hp and carotid arterial functions.