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MicroRNA-132 Negatively Regulates Palmitate-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through FOXO3 Down-Regulation in THP-1 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Saturated fatty acids were proposed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, a molecular platform that mediates the processing of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. However, the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-mediated regulation of palmitate (PA)-induced inflammasome activation are unclear. We examined the role of miR-132 in PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells. To understand the regulatory role of miR-132 in inflammasome activation, we either overexpressed or suppressed miR-132 in THP-1 cells that expressed the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to stimulation by PA. We analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 p10, IL-18, and IL-1?; caspase-1 activity; and IL-1? secretion. The presence of PA activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased miR-132 expression. Overexpression of miR-132 reduced caspase-1 p10, IL-18, and IL-1?, while the suppression of miR-132 enhanced inflammasome activation. In addition, miR-132 regulated the mRNA and protein expression of FOXO3, which is a potential target of miR-132 in these cells. FOXO3 suppression by small interfering RNA decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activity stimulated by PA. Knockdown of FOXO3 attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the miR-132 inhibitor. Based on these findings, we conclude that miR-132 negatively regulates PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through FOXO3 down-regulation in THP-1 cells.
Project description:Uncontrolled inflammation may produce massive inflammatory cytokines, in which interleukin 1? (IL-1?) plays a key role, resulting in tissue damage and serious disorders. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the major mechanisms in maturation and release of IL-1?. Plectranthus amboinicus is a perennial herb. Several pharmacological activities of natural components and crude extracts from P. amboinicus have been reported including anti-inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells were used as a reliable model in this study to examine the effect on inflammasome signaling pathway by PA-F4, an extract from Plectranthus amboinicus. PA-F4 inhibited ATP-induced release of caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-18 from lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-primed cells. PA-F4 induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of both ASC dimerization and oligomerization in cells under LPS priming plus ATP stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and ASC demonstrated that PA-F4 significantly blunted the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC. Furthermore, PA-F4 completely abolished ATP-induced K+ efflux reaction in LPS-primed cells. Taken together, PA-F4 displayed an inhibitory activity on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, PA-F4 also inhibited LPS-induced p65 NF-?B activation, suggesting an inhibitory activity on LPS priming step. Further identification showed that rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, and carvacrol, four constituents in PA-F4, inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 release. In contrast, rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin and carvacrol but not salvigenin inhibited ATP-induced caspase-1 release from LPS-primed cells. In conclusion, PA-F4 displayed an inhibitory activity on activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PA-F4 inhibited LPS priming step through block of p65 NF-?B activation. It also inhibited ATP-induced signaling pathways in LPS-primed cells including the inhibition of both ASC dimerization and oligomerization, K+ efflux reaction, and the release reaction of caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-18. Rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, and carvacrol could partly explain PA-F4-mediated inhibitory activity on blocking the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the inflammatory responses during acute lung injury (ALI). RIP3 triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation independent of necroptosis induction has recently been documented. In this study, the role of RIP3 in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of ALI was investigated.A selective RIP3 inhibitor GSK872 was used to investigate the roles of RIP3 in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI mouse model. The mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation was investigated in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. NLRP3 inflammasome and necroptosis were measured by flow cytometry or western blot. RIP3-NLRP3 interaction was interrogated using immunoprecipitation and the Duolink® In situ detection.Significant upregulation of both necroptosis and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways were observed in the lungs of mice with LPS induced ALI. GSK872 significantly suppressed the activation of necroptosis and NLRP3 activation with reduction of IL-1? and IL-18 production and inflammatory cells infiltration, resulting in a significant amelioration of lung injury. These two processes were shown to be active in interstitial macrophages and CD11b+ monocyte-macrophages/dendritic cells. In THP-1 cells, RIP3 and NLRP3 interaction was enhanced by LPS/ATP stimulation resulting in IL-1? and IL-18 production. This RIP3-NLRP3 interaction was significantly inhibited by GSK872.Taking together, these results show that RIP3 participates in the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in infiltrating macrophages in ALI induced by LPS. This process plays a significant pathogenic role in LPS-induced lung injury.
Project description:The inflammasome is a molecular platform that stimulates the activation of caspase-1 and the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1? and pro-IL-18 for secretion. The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) protein is activated by diverse molecules and pathogens, leading to the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Recent studies showed that the NLRP3 inflammasome mediates innate immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In this study, we investigated the function of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We found that NS1 proteins derived from both highly pathogenic and low pathogenic strains efficiently decreased secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 from THP-1 cells treated with LPS and ATP. NS1 overexpression significantly impaired the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting transactivation of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), a major transcription activator. Furthermore, NS1 physically interacted with endogenous NLRP3 and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was abrogated in NS1-expressing THP-1 cells. These findings suggest that NS1 downregulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by targeting NLRP3 as well as NF-?B, leading to a reduction in the levels of inflammatory cytokines as a viral immune evasion strategy.
Project description:Maternal obesity is one of the major risk factors for pregnancy complications and is associated with low-grade chronic systemic inflammation due to higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1?. Pregnant women with obesity have abnormal lipid profiles, characterized by higher levels of free fatty acids, especially palmitic acid (PA). Previously, we reported that PA stimulated IL-1? secretion via activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human placental cells. These observations led us to hypothesize that higher levels of PA induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation and placental inflammation, resulting in pregnancy complications. However, the effects of PA on NLRP3 inflammasome during pregnancy in vivo remain unclear. Therefore, PA solutions were administered intravenously into pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation. Maternal body weight was significantly decreased and absorption rates were significantly higher in PA-injected mice. The administration of PA significantly increased IL-1? protein and the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1) within the placenta. In murine placental cell culture, PA significantly stimulated IL-1? secretion, and this secretion was suppressed by a specific NLRP3 inhibitor (MCC950). Simultaneously, the number of macrophages/monocytes and neutrophils, together with the mRNA expression of these chemokines increased significantly in the placentas of PA-treated mice. Treatment with PA induced ASC assembling and IL-1? secretion in macrophages, and this PA-induced IL-1? secretion was significantly suppressed in NLRP3-knockdown macrophages. These results indicate that transient higher levels of PA exposure in pregnant mice activates NLRP3 inflammasome and induces placental inflammation, resulting in the incidence of absorption.
Project description:Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which catalyzes maturation of proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1? and IL-18, is implicated and essentially involved in many kinds of inflammatory disorders. Chloroquine (CQ) is a traditional antimalarial drug and also possesses an anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we investigated whether CQ suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation and thereby confers protection against murine endotoxic shock. CQ attenuated NF-?B and MAPK activation and prohibited expression of IL-1?, IL-18, and Nlrp3 in LPS treated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), demonstrating its inhibitory effect on the priming signal of NLRP3 activation. Then, CQ was shown to inhibit caspase-1 activation and ASC specks formation in BMDMs, which indicates that CQ also suppresses inflammasome assembly, the second signal for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In a murine endotoxic shock model, CQ effectively improved survival and markedly reduced IL-1? and IL-18 production in serum, peritoneal fluid, and lung tissues. Moreover, CQ reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and caspases-1 p10 in lung homogenates of mice with endotoxic shock, which may possibly explain its anti-inflammatory activity and life protection efficacy in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate a new role of CQ that facilitates negative regulation on NLRP3 inflammasome, which thereby confers protection against lethal endotoxic shock.
Project description:Excessive inflammation induced by various risk factors is associated with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Caffeine exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects as a clinical preventive medicine for BPD. Recently, NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been demonstrated to be essential for the pathogenesis of BPD. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages and to explore the underlying the detailed mechanism. We found that caffeine significantly reduced NLRP3 expression, ASC speck formation, and caspase 1 cleavage and therefore decreased IL-1? and IL-18 secretion in THP-1 macrophages. Caffeine also markedly decreased the phosphorylation levels of MAPK and NF-?B pathway members, further suppressing the translocation of NF-?B in THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, silencing of the caffeine-antagonized adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) significantly decreased cleaved caspase 1 expression in THP-1 macrophages by reducing ROS production. Given these findings, we conclude that caffeine inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by suppressing MAPK/NF-?B signaling and A2aR-associated ROS production in LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages.
Project description:Inflammation in myocarditis induces cardiac injury and triggers disease progression to heart failure. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a newly identified amplifying step in the pathogenesis of myocarditis. We previously have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are cardioprotective in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. In this study, MSC markedly inhibited left ventricular (LV) NOD2, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-18 mRNA expression in CVB3-infected mice. ASC protein expression, essential for NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, increased upon CVB3 infection and was abrogated in MSC-treated mice. Concomitantly, CVB3 infection in vitro induced NOD2 expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1? secretion in HL-1 cells, which was abolished after MSC supplementation. The inhibitory effect of MSC on NLRP3 inflammasome activity in HL-1 cells was partly mediated via secretion of the anti-oxidative protein stanniocalcin-1. Furthermore, MSC application in CVB3-infected mice reduced the percentage of NOD2-, ASC-, p10- and/or IL-1?-positive splenic macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. The suppressive effect of MSC on inflammasome activation was associated with normalized expression of prominent regulators of myocardial contractility and fibrosis to levels comparable to control mice. In conclusion, MSC treatment in myocarditis could be a promising strategy limiting the adverse consequences of cardiac and systemic NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Project description:Th2 cytokine IL-4 has been previously shown to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which IL-4 signaling antagonizes proinflammatory responses is poorly characterized. In particular, whether IL-4 can modulate inflammasome signaling remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that IL-4 suppresses NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation and the subsequent IL-1? secretion but does not inhibit absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)- or NLRC4 (NOD-like receptor family, CARD domain-containing 4)-dependent caspase-1 activation in THP-1 and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS/ATP stimulation, IL-4 markedly inhibited the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome, including NLRP3-dependent ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) oligomerization, NLRP3-ASC interaction and NLRP3 speck-like oligomeric structure formation. The negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by IL-4 was not due to the impaired mRNA or protein production of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines. Supporting this observation, IL-4 attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation even in reconstituted NLRP3-expressing macrophages in which NLRP3 expression is not transcriptionally regulated by TLR-NF-?B signaling. Furthermore, the IL-4-mediated suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome was independent of STAT6-dependent transcription and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Instead, IL-4 inhibited subcellular redistribution of NLRP3 into mitochondria and microtubule polymerization upon NLRP3-activating stimulation. Our results collectively suggest that IL-4 could suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a transcription-independent manner, thus providing an endogenous regulatory machinery to prevent excessive inflammasome activation.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 are products of activation of the inflammasome, an innate sensing system, and important in the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The release of IL-18 and IL-1? from monocytes/macrophages is critical for protection from HSV-1 based on animal models of encephalitis and genital infection, yet if and how HSV-1 activates inflammasomes in human macrophages is unknown. To investigate this, we utilized both primary human monocyte derived macrophages and human monocytic cell lines (THP-1 cells) with various inflammasome components knocked-out. We found that HSV-1 activates inflammasome signaling in proinflammatory primary human macrophages, but not in resting macrophages. Additionally, HSV-1 inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells is dependent on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like molecule containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1, but not on absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), or gamma interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). In contrast, HSV-1 activates non-canonical inflammasome signaling in proinflammatory macrophages that results in IL-1?, but not IL-18, release that is independent of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1. Ultraviolet irradiation of HSV-1 enhanced inflammasome activation, demonstrating that viral replication suppresses inflammasome activation. These results confirm that HSV-1 is capable of activating the inflammasome in human macrophages through an NLRP3 dependent process and that the virus has evolved an NLRP3 specific mechanism to inhibit inflammasome activation in macrophages.
Project description:Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder attributed to the failure of the neural crest derivatives migrating and/or differentiating along the hindgut. The most frequent complication in Hirschsprung disease patients is Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). However, its pathogenesis has not been fully understood. This study investigated miRNAs influenced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in postoperative HAEC patients, their effect on enterocolitis and the underlying mechanism. MiR-132 and miR-212 were up-regulated in HAEC dilated tissues and LPS-treated mice enteritis samples. LPS-stimulated HT29 cells showed a high expression of miR-132 and miR-212. QRT-PCR analysis, western blotting, luciferase reporter assay, and flow cytometric analysis were carried out in vitro, showing that miR-132 and miR-212 could directly inhibit Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. Consequently, SIRT1 deficiency in LPS-stimulated HT29 cell line and LPS-treated mice activated NLRP3 inflammasome and Caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis. Furthermore, the above inflammation activation was reversed by miR-132/212 inhibitor or SIRT1 overexpression plasmid transfection.In conclusion, LPS upregulated miR-132 and miR-212 expression in HAEC, suppressing SIRT1 and facilitating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which induced pyroptosis. Our findings illustrated the role of LPS/miR-132/-212/SIRT1/NLRP3 regulatory network in the occurrence and progression of HAEC and proposed a new molecular pathway for LPS-mediated cell pyroptosis.