Interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review of the literature.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Globally, an estimated 30% of new HIV infections occur among adolescents (15-24 years), most of whom reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, HIV-related mortality increased by 50% between 2005 and 2012 for adolescents 10-19 years while it decreased by 30% for all other age groups. Efforts to achieve and maintain optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy are essential to ensuring viral suppression, good long-term health outcomes, and survival for young people. Evidence-based strategies to improve adherence among adolescents living with HIV are therefore a critical part of the response to the epidemic. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 2010 and 2015 to identify interventions designed to improve antiretroviral adherence among adults and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Popline, the AIDSFree Resource Library, and the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse to identify relevant publications and used the NIH NHLBI Quality Assessment Tools to assess the quality and risk of bias of each study. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:We identified 52 peer-reviewed journal articles describing 51 distinct interventions out of a total of 13,429 potentially relevant publications. Forty-three interventions were conducted among adults, six included adults and adolescents, and two were conducted among adolescents only. All studies were conducted in low- and middle-income countries, most of these (n = 32) in sub-Saharan Africa. Individual or group adherence counseling (n = 12), mobile health (mHealth) interventions (n = 13), and community- and home-based care (n = 12) were the most common types of interventions reported. Methodological challenges plagued many studies, limiting the strength of the available evidence. However, task shifting, community-based adherence support, mHealth platforms, and group adherence counseling emerged as strategies used in adult populations that show promise for adaptation and testing among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the sizeable body of evidence for adults, few studies were high quality and no single intervention strategy stood out as definitively warranting adaptation for adolescents. Among adolescents, current evidence is both sparse and lacking in its quality. These findings highlight a pressing need to develop and test targeted intervention strategies to improve adherence among this high-priority population.
Project description:Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting.A randomized controlled, factorial designed trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Antiretroviral-naïve individuals initiating free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the form of fixed-dose combination pills (d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine) were randomized to one of four arms: counseling (three counseling sessions around HAART initiation), alarm (pocket electronic pill reminder carried for 6 months), counseling plus alarm, and neither counseling nor alarm. Participants were followed for 18 months after HAART initiation. Primary study endpoints included plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count every 6 months, mortality, and adherence measured by monthly pill count. Between May 2006 and September 2008, 400 individuals were enrolled, 362 initiated HAART, and 310 completed follow-up. Participants who received counseling were 29% less likely to have monthly adherence <80% (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.01; p?=?0.055) and 59% less likely to experience viral failure (HIV-1 RNA ?5,000 copies/ml) (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.81; p?=?0.01) compared to those who received no counseling. There was no significant impact of using an alarm on poor adherence (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.32; p?=?0.7) or viral failure (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.53-1.84; p?=?1.0) compared to those who did not use an alarm. Neither counseling nor alarm was significantly associated with mortality or rate of immune reconstitution.Intensive early adherence counseling at HAART initiation resulted in sustained, significant impact on adherence and virologic treatment failure during 18-month follow-up, while use of an alarm device had no effect. As antiretroviral treatment clinics expand to meet an increasing demand for HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, adherence counseling should be implemented to decrease the development of treatment failure and spread of resistant HIV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>mHealth innovations have been proposed as an effective solution to improving adolescent access to and use of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services; particularly in regions with deeply entrenched traditional social norms. However, research demonstrating the effectiveness and theoretical basis of the interventions is lacking.<h4>Aim</h4>Our aim was to describe mHealth intervention components, assesses their effectiveness, acceptability, and cost in improving adolescent's uptake of SRH services in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).<h4>Methods</h4>This paper is based on a systematic review. Twenty bibliographic databases and repositories including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL, were searched using pre-defined search terms. Of the 10, 990 records screened, only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. The mERA checklist was used to critically assess the transparency and completeness in reporting of mHealth intervention studies. The behaviour change components of mHealth interventions were coded using the taxonomy of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs). The protocol was registered in the 'International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews' (PROSPERO-CRD42020179051).<h4>Results</h4>The results showed that mHealth interventions were effective and improved adolescent's uptake of SRH services across a wide range of services. The evidence was strongest for contraceptive use. Interventions with two-way interactive functions and more behaviour change techniques embedded in the interventions improved adolescent uptake of SRH services to greater extent. Findings suggest that mHealth interventions promoting prevention or treatment adherence for HIV for individuals at risk of or living with HIV are acceptable to adolescents, and are feasible to deliver in SSA. Limited data from two studies reported interventions were inexpensive, however, none of the studies evaluated cost-effectiveness.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There is a need to develop mHealth interventions tailored for adolescents which are theoretically informed and incorporate effective behaviour change techniques. Such interventions, if low cost, have the potential to be a cost-effective means to improve the sexual and reproductive health outcomes in SSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The overall goal of the Supporting Adolescent Adherence in Vietnam (SAAV) study is to improve understanding of an adherence feedback mHealth intervention designed to help adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) maintain high adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), critical to effective treatment. Specifically, we aim to: (1) conduct formative research with Vietnamese ALHIV and their caregivers to better understand adherence challenges and refine the personalized mHealth intervention package; and (2) assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of the intervention to improve ART adherence by implementing a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS:The study will utilize mixed methods. The formative phase will include 40 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 20 adolescent (12-17?years)/caregiver dyads and eight focus group discussions with adolescents, caregivers, and clinicians at the National Hospital for Pediatrics (NHP) in Hanoi, Vietnam. We will also conduct 20 IDIs with older adolescents (18-21?years) who have transitioned to adult care at outpatient clinics in Hanoi. We will then implement a seven-month RCT at NHP. We will recruit 80 adolescents on ART, monitor their adherence for one month to establish baseline adherence using a wireless pill container (WPC), and then randomize participants to intervention versus control within optimal (??95% on-time doses) versus suboptimal (<?95% on-time doses) baseline adherence strata. Intervention participants will receive a reminder of their choice (cellphone text message/call or bottle-based flash/alarm), triggered when they miss a dose, and engage in monthly counseling informed by their adherence data. Comparison participants will receive usual care and offer of counseling at routine monthly clinic visits. After six months, we will compare ART adherence, CD4 count, and HIV viral suppression between arms, in addition to acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. DISCUSSION:Findings will contribute valuable information on perceived barriers and facilitators affecting adolescents' ART adherence, mHealth approaches as adherence support tools for ALHIV, and factors affecting adolescents' ART adherence. This information will be useful to researchers, medical personnel, and policy-makers as they develop and implement adherence programs for ALHIV, with potential relevance to other chronic diseases during transition from adolescent to adult care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03031197 . Registered on 21 January 2017.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Adolescents living with HIV are an underserved population, with poor retention in HIV health care services and high mortality, who are in need of targeted effective interventions. We conducted a literature review to identify strategies that could be adapted to meet the needs of adolescents living with HIV.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Popline, USAID's AIDSFree Resource Library, and the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse for relevant studies published within a recent five-year period. Studies were included if they described interventions to improve the retention in care of HIV-positive patients who are initiating or already receiving antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries. To assess the quality of the studies, we used the NIH NHLBI Study Quality Assessment Tools.<h4>Results and discussion</h4>Of 13,429 potentially relevant citations, 23 were eligible for inclusion. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa. Only one study evaluated a retention intervention for youth (15-24 years); it found no difference in loss to follow-up between a youth-friendly clinic and a family-oriented clinic. A study of community-based service delivery which was effective for adults found no effect for youths. We found no relevant studies conducted exclusively with adolescent participants (10-19 years). Most studies were conducted with adults only or with populations that included adults and adolescents but did not report separate results for adolescents. Interventions that involved community-based services showed the most robust evidence for improving retention in care. Several studies found statistically significant associations between decentralization, down-referral of stable patients, task-shifting of services, and differentiated care, and retention in care among adults; however, most evidence comes from retrospective, observational studies and none of these approaches were evaluated among adolescents or youth.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Interventions that target retention in care among adolescents living with HIV are rare in the published literature. We found only two studies conducted with youth and no studies with adolescents. Given the urgent need to increase the retention of adolescents in HIV care, interventions that are effective in increasing adult retention in care should be considered for adaptation and evaluation among adolescents and interventions specifically targeting the needs of adolescents must be developed and tested.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Existing studies have suggested decreased adherence and rebound in mortality in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared to adults and young children.<h4>Methods</h4>We used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify factors influencing adherence among perinatally infected adolescents in Thailand. We analyzed data from 568 pairs of perinatally infected adolescents (aged 12-19) and their primary caregivers in the Teens Living With Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2012. We also conducted 12 in-depth interviews in 2014 with infected adolescents or their primary caregivers to elicit experiences of living with long-term ART.<h4>Results</h4>From the quantitative analysis, a total of 275 (48.4%) adolescents had evidence of suboptimal adherence based on this composite outcome: adolescents self-reported missing doses in the past 7 days, caregiver rating of overall adherence as suboptimal, or latest HIV-RNA viral load ≥1000 copies/ml. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, having grandparents or extended family members as the primary caregiver, caregiver-assessed poor intellectual ability, having a boy/girlfriend, frequent online chatting, self-reported unhappiness and easiness in asking doctors questions were significantly associated with suboptimal adherence. From the in-depth interviews, tensed relationships with caregivers, forgetfulness due to busy schedules, and fear of disclosing HIV status to others, especially boy/girlfriends, were important contributors to suboptimal adherence. Social and emotional support and counseling from peer group was consistently reported as a strong adherence-promoting factor.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings highlight unique barriers of ART adherence among the perinatally infected adolescents. Future interventions should be targeted at helping adolescents to improve interpersonal relationships and build adaptive skills in recognizing and addressing challenging situations related to ART taking.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to an increase in life expectancy and an associated rise in the risk of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) among people living with HIV.<h4>Objective</h4>Our aim was to conduct a systematic review to synthesize the existing literature on the patterns of use and effects of mobile health (mHealth) interventions for improving treatment adherence and outcomes of care for CMD among people living with HIV.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic search of multiple databases, including PubMed-MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, African Journals online, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus of peer-reviewed articles, was conducted with no date or language restrictions. Unpublished reports on mHealth interventions for treatment adherence and outcomes of care for CMD among adults living with HIV were also included in this review. Studies were included if they had at least 1 component that used an mHealth intervention to address treatment adherence or 1 or more of the stated outcomes of care for CMD among people living with HIV.<h4>Results</h4>Our search strategy yielded 1148 unique records. In total, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of the 10 studies, only 4 had published results. The categories of mHealth interventions ranged from short messaging, telephone calls, and wearable devices to smartphone and desktop web-based mobile apps. Across the different categories of interventions, there were no clear patterns in terms of consistency in the use of a particular intervention, as most studies (9/10, 90%) assessed a combination of mHealth interventions. Short messaging and telephone calls were however the most common interventions. Half of the studies (5/10, 50%) reported on outcomes that were indirectly linked to CMD, and none of them provided reliable evidence for evaluating the effectiveness of mHealth interventions for treatment adherence and outcomes of care for CMD among people living with HIV.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Due to the limited number of studies and the heterogeneity of interventions and outcome measures in the studies, no definitive conclusions could be drawn on the patterns of use and effects of mHealth interventions for treatment adherence and outcomes of care for CMD among people living with HIV. We therefore recommend that future trials should focus on standardized outcomes for CMD. We also suggest that future studies should consider having a longer follow-up period in order to determine the long-term effects of mHealth interventions on CMD outcomes for people living with HIV.<h4>Trial registration</h4>PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42018086940; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42018086940.
Project description:Older adolescents and young adults (youth) living with HIV (YLH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at high risk for poor HIV treatment adherence and associated negative health outcomes including viral nonsuppression. To describe this risk, we conducted a comprehensive review of studies involving YLH. Eligible studies compared youth adherence or adherence-related health functioning to older or younger samples, examined factors associated with adherence or health outcomes among YLH, or evaluated adherence interventions with YLH. Databases searched included MEDLINE, Web of Science, Global Health, CINAHL, Africa-Wide Information, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Of the 7054 articles found, 156 were reviewed and 130 were eligible. Across 16 adherence-related behaviors or health outcomes such as lost to follow-up, retention in care, antiretroviral use, CD4 count, viral suppression, and mortality, 73% of studies comparing YLH to other age groups (n = 106) found worse outcomes among YLH. In 22 studies, barriers and facilitators to adherence were identified, some unique to YLH (e.g., conflicting treatment expectations of providers) and some common to other age groups. Finally, of the eight adherence interventions with YLH reviewed, five showed evidence of being effective. Our findings suggest that YLH in SSA faces numerous obstacles to engaging in HIV treatment across a range of shifting social contexts. Accounting for this group's transition to treatment self-management, developmentally tailored and holistic interventions should be the focus of adherence promotion efforts.
Project description:This systematic review evaluated the evidence on the impact of contraceptive counseling provided in clinical settings on reproductive health outcomes to provide information to guide national recommendations on quality family planning services.Multiple databases were searched during 2010-2011 for peer-reviewed articles published in English from January 1985 through February 2011 describing studies that evaluated contraceptive counseling interventions in clinical settings. Studies were excluded if they focused primarily on prevention of HIV or sexually transmitted infections, focused solely on men, or were conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand.The initial search identified 12,327 articles, of which 22 studies (from 23 articles) met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined the impact of contraceptive counseling among adolescents, with four finding a significant positive impact on at least one outcome of interest. Sixteen studies examined the impact of counseling among adults or mixed populations (adults and adolescents), with 11 finding a significant positive impact on at least one outcome of interest.Promising components of contraceptive counseling were identified despite the diversity of interventions and inability to compare the relative effectiveness of one approach versus another. The evidence base would be strengthened by improved documentation of counseling procedures; assessment of intervention implementation and fidelity to put study findings into context; and development and inclusion of more RCTs, studies conducted among general samples of women, and studies with sample sizes sufficient to detect important behavioral outcomes at least 12 months post-intervention.
Project description:Background:Adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) die owing to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes more than adults. Although viral suppression protects people living with HIV from AIDS-related illnesses, little is known about viral outcomes of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa where the biggest burden of deaths is experienced. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with viral load suppression among HIV-positive adolescents (10-19?years) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional study among school-going, HIV-positive adolescents on ART from August to September 2016. We recruited 238 adolescents who underwent ART at a public health facility and had at least one viral load result recorded in their medical records since 2015. We collected the data of patients' demographics and treatment- and clinic-related factors using existing medical records and questionnaire-guided face-to-face interviews. For outcome variables, we defined viral suppression as <?1000 copies/mL. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with viral suppression. Results:We analyzed the data of 200 adolescents meeting the inclusion criteria. Viral suppression was high among adolescents with good adherence >?95% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.73, 95% confidence interval [95% CI, 1.09 to 6.82). However, 71% of all adolescents who did not achieve viral suppression were also sufficiently adherent (adherence >?95%). Regardless of adherence status, other risk factors for viral suppression at the multivariate level included having a history of treatment failure (AOR 0.26, 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.77), religion (being Anglican [AOR 0.19, 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.62] or Muslim [AOR 0.17, 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.55]), and having been prayed for (AOR 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.96). Conclusion:More than 70% of adolescents who experienced virologic failure were sufficiently adherent (adherence >?95). Adolescents who had unsuppressed viral loads in their initial viral load were more likely to experience virologic failure upon a repeat viral load regardless of their adherence level or change of regimen. The study also shows that strong religious beliefs exist among adolescents. Healthcare provider training in psychological counseling, regular and strict monitoring of adolescent outcomes should be prioritized to facilitate early identification and management of drug resistance through timely switching of treatment regimens to more robust combinations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This review assesses the impact of prevention interventions for people living with HIV on HIV-related mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and prevention of ongoing HIV transmission in resource-limited settings (RLSs). METHODS:We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the results of prevention interventions for people living with HIV in RLS published between January 2000 and August 2014. Standardized methods of searching and data abstraction were used. RESULTS:Ninety-two studies met the eligibility criteria: 24 articles related to adherence counseling and support, 13 on risk reduction education and condom provision, 19 on partner HIV testing and counseling, 14 on provision of family planning services, and 22 on assessment and treatment of other sexually transmitted infections. Findings indicate good evidence that adherence counseling and sexually transmitted infection treatment can have a high impact on morbidity, whereas risk reduction education, partner HIV testing and counseling, and family planning counseling can prevent transmission of HIV. More limited evidence was found to support the impact of these interventions on retention in care and quality of life. Most studies did not report cost information, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. CONCLUSIONS:This evidence suggests that these prevention interventions, if brought to sufficient scale and coverage, can help support and optimize the impact of core treatment and prevention interventions in RLS. Further operational research with more rigorous study designs, and ideally with biomarkers and costing information, is needed to determine the best model for providing these interventions in RLS.