ECD4-Ig promotes ADCC activity of sera from HIV-1-infected patients.
ABSTRACT: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxity (ADCC) can eliminate HIV-1 infected cells, and may help reduce the reservoir of latent virus in infected patients. Sera of HIV-1 positive individuals include a number of antibodies that recognize epitopes usually occluded on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers. We have recently described eCD4-Ig, a potent and exceptionally broad inhibitor of HIV-1 entry that can be used to protect rhesus macaques from multiple high-dose challenges with simian-human immunodeficiency virus AD8 (SHIV-AD8). Here we show that eCD4-Ig bearing an IgG1 Fc domain (eCD4-IgG1) can mediate efficient ADCC activity against HIV-1 isolates with differing tropisms, and that it does so at least 10-fold more efficiently than CD4-Ig, even when more CD4-Ig molecules bound cell surface-expressed Env. An ADCC-inactive IgG2 form of eCD4-Ig (eCD4-IgG2) exposes V3-loop and CD4-induced epitopes on cell-expressed trimers, and renders HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to ADCC mediated by antibodies of these classes. Moreover, eCD4-IgG2, but not IgG2 forms of the broadly neutralizing antibodies VRC01 and 10-1074, enhances the ADCC activities of serum antibodies from patients by 100-fold, and significantly enhanced killing of two latently infected T-cell lines reactivated by vorinostat or TNF?. Thus eCD4-Ig is qualitatively different from CD4-Ig or neutralizing antibodies in its ability to mediate ADCC, and it may be uniquely useful in treating HIV-1 infection or reducing the reservoir of latently infected cells.
Project description:Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, even the best bNAbs neutralize 10-50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) > 5 ?g ml(-1)), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 0.05 ?g ml(-1)). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46 and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17-77 ?g ml(-1) of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for more than 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from several infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well-characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
Project description:Adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs is a promising approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection. The immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 subtype is usually selected for this application, because it efficiently mediates antibody effector functions and has a somewhat longer half-life. However, the use of IgG1-Fc has been associated with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) that correlate with loss of antibody expression. In contrast, we have shown that expression of the antibody-like molecule eCD4-Ig bearing a rhesus IgG2-Fc domain showed reduced immunogenicity and completely protected rhesus macaques from simian-HIV (SHIV)-AD8 challenges. To directly compare the performance of the IgG1-Fc and the IgG2-Fc domains in a prophylactic setting, we compared AAV1 expression of rhesus IgG1 and IgG2 forms of four anti-HIV bNAbs: 3BNC117, NIH45-46, 10-1074, and PGT121. Interestingly, IgG2-isotyped bNAbs elicited significantly lower ADA than their IgG1 counterparts. We also observed significant protection from two SHIV-AD8 challenges in macaques expressing IgG2-isotyped bNAbs, but not from those expressing IgG1. Our data suggest that monoclonal antibodies isotyped with IgG2-Fc domains are less immunogenic than their IgG1 counterparts, and they highlight ADAs as a key barrier to the use of AAV1-expressed bNAbs.
Project description:The engineered antibody-like entry inhibitor eCD4-Ig neutralizes every human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus isolate it has been tested against. The exceptional breadth of eCD4-Ig derives from its ability to closely and simultaneously emulate the HIV-1 receptor CD4 and coreceptors, either CCR5 or CXCR4. Here we investigated whether viral escape from eCD4-Ig is more difficult than that from CD4-Ig or the CD4-binding site antibody NIH45-46. We observed that a viral swarm selected with high concentrations of eCD4-Ig was increasingly resistant to but did not fully escape from eCD4-Ig. In contrast, viruses selected under the same conditions with CD4-Ig or NIH45-46 fully escaped from those inhibitors. eCD4-Ig-resistant viruses acquired unique changes in the V2 apex, V3, V4, and CD4-binding regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Most of the alterations did not directly affect neutralization by eCD4-Ig or neutralizing antibodies. However, alteration of Q428 to an arginine or lysine resulted in markedly greater resistance to eCD4-Ig and CD4-Ig, with correspondingly dramatic losses in infectivity and greater sensitivity to a V3 antibody and to serum from an infected individual. Compensatory mutations in the V3 loop (N301D) and in the V2 apex (K171E) partially restored viral fitness without affecting serum or eCD4-Ig sensitivity. Collectively, these data suggest that multiple mutations will be necessary to fully escape eCD4-Ig without loss of viral fitness.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) and engineered antibody-like inhibitors have been compared for their breadths, potencies, and in vivo half-lives. However, a key limitation in the use of antibodies to treat an established HIV-1 infection is the rapid emergence of fully resistant viruses. Entry inhibitors of similar breadths and potencies can differ in the ease with which viral escape variants arise. Here we show that HIV-1 escape from the potent and exceptionally broad entry inhibitor eCD4-Ig is more difficult than that from CD4-Ig or the bNAb NIH45-46. Indeed, full escape was not observed under conditions under which escape from CD4-Ig or NIH45-46 was readily detected. Moreover, viruses that were partially resistant to eCD4-Ig were markedly less infective and more sensitive to antibodies in the serum of an infected person. These data suggest that eCD4-Ig will be more difficult to escape and that even partial escape will likely extract a high fitness cost.
Project description:Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1 does not diminish the established latent reservoir. A possible cure approach is to reactivate the quiescent genome from latency and utilize immune responses to eliminate cells harboring reactivated HIV-1. It is not known whether antibodies within HIV-1-infected individuals can recognize and eliminate cells reactivated from latency through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We found that reactivation of HIV-1 expression in the latently infected ACH-2 cell line elicited antibody-mediated NK cell activation but did not result in antibody-mediated killing. The lack of CD4 expression on these HIV-1 envelope (Env)-expressing cells likely resulted in poor recognition of CD4-induced antibody epitopes on Env. To examine this further, cultured primary CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1(+) subjects were used as targets for ADCC. These ex vivo-expanded primary cells were modestly susceptible to ADCC mediated by autologous or heterologous HIV-1(+) serum antibodies. Importantly, ADCC mediated against these primary cells could be enhanced following incubation with a CD4-mimetic compound (JP-III-48) that exposes CD4-induced antibody epitopes on Env. Our studies suggest that with sufficient reactivation and expression of appropriate Env epitopes, primary HIV-1-infected cells can be targets for ADCC mediated by autologous serum antibodies and innate effector cells. The results of this study suggest that further investigation into the potential of ADCC to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells is warranted.An HIV-1 cure remains elusive due to the persistence of long-lived latently infected cells. An HIV-1 cure strategy, termed "shock and kill," aims to reactivate HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells and subsequently eliminate the reactivated cells through immune-mediated killing. While recent research efforts have focused on reversing HIV-1 latency, it remains unclear whether preexisting immune responses within HIV-1(+) individuals can efficiently eliminate the reactivated cells. HIV-1-specific antibodies can potentially eliminate cells reactivated from latency via Fc effector functions by recruiting innate immune cells. Our study highlights the potential role that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity might play in antilatency cure approaches.
Project description:A number of simian and simian human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and SHIV, respectively) have been used to assess the efficacy of HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Among these, SIVmac239 is considered among the most stringent because, unlike SHIV models, its full genome has coevolved in its macaque host and its tier 3 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is exceptionally hard to neutralize. Here, we investigated the ability of eCD4-Ig, an antibody-like entry inhibitor that emulates the HIV-1 and SIV receptor and coreceptor, to prevent SIVmac239 infection. We show that rh-eCD4-IgI39N expressed by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors afforded four rhesus macaques complete protection from high-dose SIVmac239 challenges that infected all eight control macaques. However, rh-eCD4-IgI39N-expressing macaques eventually succumbed to serial escalating challenge doses that were 2, 8, 16, and 32 times the challenge doses that infected the control animals. Despite receiving greater challenge doses, these macaques had significantly lower peak and postpeak viral loads than the control group. Virus isolated from three of four macaques showed evidence of strong immune pressure from rh-eCD4-IgI39N, with mutations located in the CD4-binding site, which, in one case, exploited a point-mutation difference between rh-eCD4-IgI39N and rhesus CD4. Other escape pathways associated with clear fitness costs to the virus. Our data report effective protection of rhesus macaques from SIVmac239.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) target five major epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). The most potent bNAbs have median half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in the nanomolar range, and the broadest bNAbs neutralize up to 98% of HIV-1 strains. The engineered HIV-1 entry inhibitor eCD4-Ig has greater breadth than bNAbs and similar potency. eCD4-Ig is markedly more potent than CD4-Ig due to its C-terminal coreceptor-mimetic peptide. Here we investigated whether the coreceptor-mimetic peptide mim6 improved the potency of bNAbs with different epitopes. We observed that when mim6 was appended to the C terminus of the heavy chains of bNAbs, this sulfopeptide improved the potency of all classes of bNAbs against HIV-1 isolates that are sensitive to neutralization by the sulfopeptide alone. However, mim6 did not significantly enhance neutralization of other isolates when appended to most classes of bNAbs, with one exception. Specifically, mim6 improved the potency of bNAbs of the V3-glycan class, including PGT121, PGT122, PGT128, and 10-1074, by an average of 2-fold for all HIV-1 isolates assayed. Despite this difference, 10-1074 does not induce exposure of the coreceptor-binding site, and addition of mim6 to 10-1074 did not promote shedding of the gp120 subunit of Env. Mixtures of 10-1074 and an Fc domain fused to mim6 neutralized less efficiently than a 10-1074/mim6 fusion, indicating that mim6 enhances the avidity of this fusion. Our data show that mim6 can consistently improve the potency of V3-glycan antibodies and suggest that these antibodies bind in an orientation that facilitates mim6 association with Env.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 requires both the cellular receptor CD4 and a tyrosine-sulfated coreceptor to infect its target cells. CD4-Ig is a fusion of the HIV-1-binding domains of CD4 with an antibody Fc domain. Previous studies have demonstrated that the potency of CD4-Ig is markedly increased by appending a coreceptor-mimetic sulfopeptide to its C terminus. We investigated whether this coreceptor-mimetic peptide improves the potency of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) targeting five major epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). We observed that inclusion of the sulfopeptide dramatically improved the potency of all bNAb classes against isolates with more-open Env structures, typically those that utilize the coreceptor CXCR4. In contrast, the sulfopeptide improved only V3-glycan antibodies when neutralizing primary isolates, on average by 2-fold. These studies improve the potency of one class of bNAbs, show that coreceptor-mimetic sulfopeptides enhance neutralization through distinct mechanisms, and provide insight for the design of novel multispecific entry inhibitors.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Ig(mim2), CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4(+) T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. IMPORTANCE:SIVcpz is widespread in wild-living chimpanzees and can cause AIDS-like immunopathology and clinical disease. HIV-1 infection of humans can be controlled by antiretroviral therapy; however, treatment of wild-living African apes with current drug regimens is not feasible. Nonetheless, it may be possible to curb the spread of SIVcpz in select ape communities using vectored immunoprophylaxis and/or therapy. Here, we show that antibodies and antibody-like inhibitors developed to combat HIV-1 infection in humans are capable of neutralizing genetically diverse SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with considerable breadth and potency, including in primary chimpanzee CD4(+) T cells. These reagents provide an important first step toward translating intervention strategies currently developed to treat and prevent AIDS in humans to SIV-infected apes.
Project description:HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies within HIV-1-positive (HIV-1+) individuals predominantly target CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). These CD4i epitopes are usually concealed on the surface of infected cells due to CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu. We hypothesized that early-stage infected cells in the process of downregulating CD4 could be more susceptible to ADCC than late-stage infected cells that have fully downregulated CD4. There was significantly higher binding of antibodies within plasma from HIV-1-infected individuals to early-stage infected cells expressing intermediate levels of CD4 (CD4-intermediate cells) than in late-stage infected cells expressing low levels of CD4 (CD4-low cells). However, we noted that HIV-1-uninfected bystander cells and HIV-1-infected cells, at various stages of downregulating CD4, were all susceptible to NK cell-mediated ADCC. Importantly, we observed that the cytolysis of bystander cells and early infected cells in this culture system was driven by sensitization of target cells by inoculum-derived HIV-1 Env or virions. This phenomenon provided Env to target cells prior to de novo Env expression, resulting in artifactual ADCC measurements. Future studies should take into consideration the inherent caveats of in vitro infection systems and develop improved models to address the potential role for ADCC against cells with nascent HIV-1 infection.IMPORTANCE An increasing body of evidence suggests that ADCC contributes to protection against HIV-1 acquisition and slower HIV-1 disease progression. Targeting cells early during the infection cycle would be most effective in limiting virus production and spread. We hypothesized that there could be a time-dependent susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC in regard to CD4 expression. We observed NK cell-mediated ADCC of HIV-1-infected cells at multiple stages of CD4 downregulation. Importantly, ADCC of early infected cells appeared to be driven by a previously unappreciated problem of soluble Env and virions from the viral inoculum sensitizing uninfected cells to ADCC prior to de novo Env expression. These results have implications for studies examining ADCC against cells with nascent HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Rhesus macaques are used to model human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections, but they are not natural hosts of HIV-1 or any simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Rather, they became infected with SIV through cross-species transfer from sooty mangabeys in captivity. It has been shown that HIV-1 utilizes rhesus CD4 less efficiently than human CD4. However, the relative ability of SIV envelope glycoproteins to bind or utilize these CD4 orthologs has not been reported. Here we show that several SIV isolates, including SIVmac239, are more efficiently neutralized by human CD4-Ig (huCD4-Ig) than by the same molecule bearing rhesus CD4 domains 1 and 2 (rhCD4-Ig). An I39N mutation in CD4 domain 1, present in human and sooty mangabey CD4 orthologs, largely restored rhCD4-Ig neutralization of SIVmac239 and other SIV isolates. We further observed that SIVmac316, a derivative of SIVmac239, bound to and was neutralized by huCD4-Ig and rhCD4-Ig with nearly identical efficiencies. Introduction of two SIVmac316 CD4-binding site residues (G382R and H442Y) into the SIVmac239 envelope glycoprotein (Env) markedly increased its neutralization sensitivity to rhesus CD4-Ig without altering neutralization by human CD4-Ig, SIV neutralizing antibodies, or sera from SIV-infected macaques. These changes also allowed SIVmac239 Env to bind rhCD4-Ig more efficiently than huCD4-Ig. The variant with G382R and H442Y (G382R/H442Y variant) also infected cells expressing rhesus CD4 with markedly greater efficiency than did unaltered SIVmac239 Env. We propose that infections of rhesus macaques with SIVmac239 G382R/H442Y might better model some aspects of human infections.IMPORTANCE Rhesus macaque infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has served as an important model of human HIV-1 infection. However, differences between this model and the human case have complicated the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the surprising observation that SIVmac239, a commonly used model virus, more efficiently utilizes human CD4 than the CD4 of rhesus macaques, whereas the closely related virus SIVmac316 uses both CD4 orthologs equally well. We used this insight to generate a form of SIVmac239 envelope glycoprotein (Env) that utilized rhesus CD4 more efficiently, while retaining its resistance to antibodies and sera from infected macaques. This Env can be used to make the rhesus model more similar in some ways to human infection, for example by facilitating infection of cells with low levels of CD4. This property may be especially important to efforts to eradicate latently infected cells.
Project description:Recent studies have linked antibody Fc-mediated effector functions with protection or control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency (SIV) infections. Interestingly, the presence of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in the Thai RV144 vaccine trial was suggested to correlate with decreased HIV-1 acquisition risk. These antibodies recently were found to recognize HIV envelope (Env) epitopes exposed upon Env-CD4 interaction. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu, as well as Vpu-mediated BST-2 antagonism, were reported to modulate exposure of those CD4-induced HIV-1 Env epitopes and were proposed to play a role in reducing the susceptibility of infected cells to ADCC mediated by this class of antibodies. Here, we report the high prevalence of antibodies recognizing CD4-induced HIV-1 Env epitopes in sera from HIV-1-infected individuals, which correlated with their ability to mediate ADCC responses against HIV-1-infected cells, exposing these Env epitopes at the cell surface. Furthermore, our results indicate that Env variable regions V1, V2, V3, and V5 do not represent a major determinant for ADCC responses mediated by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. Altogether, these findings suggest that HIV-1 tightly controls the exposure of certain Env epitopes at the surface of infected cells in order to prevent elimination by Fc-effector functions.Here, we identified a particular conformation of HIV-1 Env that is specifically targeted by ADCC-mediating antibodies present in sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. This observation suggests that HIV-1 developed sophisticated mechanisms to minimize the exposure of these epitopes at the surface of infected cells.