Single-tubule RNA-Seq uncovers signaling mechanisms that defend against hyponatremia in SIADH.
ABSTRACT: In the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hyponatremia is limited by onset of vasopressin-escape caused by loss of the water channel aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct despite high circulating vasopressin. Here, we use the methods of systems biology in a well-established rat model of SIADH to identify signaling pathways activated at the onset of vasopressin-escape. Using single-tubule RNA-Seq, full transcriptomes were determined in microdissected cortical collecting ducts of vasopressin-treated rats at 1, 2, and 4 days after initiation of oral water loading in comparison to time-control rats without water loading. The time-dependent mRNA abundance changes were mapped to gene sets associated with curated canonical signaling pathways and revealed evidence of perturbation of transforming growth factor ? signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition on Day 1 of water loading simultaneous with the initial fall in Aqp2 gene expression. On Day 2 of water loading, transcriptomic changes mapped to Notch signaling and the transition from G0 into the cell cycle but arrest at the G2/M stage. There was no evidence of cell proliferation or altered principal or intercalated cell numbers. Exposure of vasopressin-treated cultured mpkCCD cells to transforming growth factor ? resulted in a virtually complete loss of aquaporin-2. Thus, there is a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during vasopressin escape with a subsequent shift from quiescence into the cell cycle with eventual arrest and loss of aquaporin-2.
Project description:In mammals, the peptide hormone vasopressin controls renal water excretion, largely through regulation of the molecular water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct. Regulatory mechanisms of AQP2 show: 1) short-term regulation by membrane trafficking; and 2) long-term regulation involving vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the aquaporin-2 protein. Vasopressin activates a G protein-coupled receptor (V2R) increasing cyclic AMP and activating protein kinase PKA. Crebbp and Ep300 are known targets of PKA. They are histone acetyltransferases that acetylate histone H3 lysine-27, a histone mark associated with open chromatin and increased transcription (Tie F et al. Development 2009). The translocation of CREBBP and Ep300 into the nucleus in response to vasopressin in the collecting duct cells, predicts that vasopressin, working through PKA, may increase histone H3K27 acetylation of some genes. We tested this by performing ChIP-Seq for this modification. Overall design: To identify changes of Histone modification (acetylation) in response to vasopressin in cultured mouse collecting duct cells (mpkCCD), we carried out ChIP-seq for genome-wide distribution of histone 3 acetylation (H3K27ac) (n=2). Observations were made both after 24-hr treatment with the vasopressin analog dDAVP and with vehicle.
Project description:Vasopressin controls water excretion by regulating the water channel protein, aquaporin 2. Vasopressin acts in the renal collecting duct by binding to a G-protein coupled receptor and activating protein kinase A (PKA). Signaling events beyond PKA are largely unknown. Ultra-deep phosphoproteomic analysis of collecting duct cells isolated from rat kidneys identified and quantified 10,738 phosphorylation sites. Vasopressin significantly altered the abundance of only 219 of these phosphorylation sites, suggesting a highly selective effect on cell signaling. The regulated sites were mapped to cellular processes shown in prior studies to be involved in aquaporin-2 regulation. The mapping and full data set was used to create an online data resource to guide future studies.
Project description:Vasopressin, a peptide hormone, controls renal water excretion, largely through regulation of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct. There are two regulatory mechanisms of AQP2: 1) short-term regulation by membrane trafficking of AQP2; and 2) long-term regulation involving vasopressin-induced changes of protein abundance of AQP2 through regulation of gene transcription and protein half-life. Vasopressin binds a G protein-coupled receptor (V2R) activating a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Sequentially, after activation of cAMP/PKA signaling, many of transcription factors involve gene transcription process. cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive transcription factor C/EBP beta are potential candidates for vaopressin-mediated regulation of Aqp2 gene transcription proviously reported. In the present study, genome-wide binding sites for two b-ZIP transcription factors CREB and C/EBP beta were identified in vasopressin-responsive mouse collecting duct mpkCCD cells using ChIP-Seq. Overall design: To identify binding sites of transcription factors CREB and C/EBP beta in cultured mouse collecting duct mpkCCD cells, we carried out ChIP-seq for genome-wide distribution of CREB (n=4) and C/EBP beta (n=2). Observations were made both after 30 minutes treatment with the vasopressin analog dDAVP or vehicle.
Project description:Vasopressin-mediated regulation of renal water excretion is defective in a variety of water balance disorders in humans. It occurs in part through long-term mechanisms that regulate the abundance of the aquaporin-2 water channel in renal collecting duct cells. Here, we use deep DNA sequencing in mouse collecting duct cells to ask whether vasopressin signaling selectively increases Aqp2 gene transcription or whether it triggers a broadly targeted transcriptional network. ChIP-Seq quantification of binding sites for RNA polymerase II was combined with RNA-Seq quantification of transcript abundances to identify genes whose transcription is regulated by vasopressin. (View curated dataset at https://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/Vasopressin/). The analysis revealed only 35 vasopressin-regulated genes (of 3659) including Aqp2. Increases in RNA polymerase II binding and mRNA abundances for Aqp2 far outstripped corresponding measurements for all other genes, consistent with the conclusion that vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation is highly selective for Aqp2. Despite the overall selectivity of the net transcriptional response, vasopressin treatment was associated with increased RNA polymerase II binding to the promoter proximal region of a majority of expressed genes, suggesting a nearly global positive regulation of transcriptional initiation with transcriptional pausing. Thus, the overall net selectivity appears to be a result of selective control of transcriptional elongation.
Project description:Trafficking of the water channel aquaporin-2 to the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct is mediated by arginine vasopressin, rendering the cell permeable to water. We recently identified a novel form of aquaporin-2 that is phosphorylated at serine-269 (pS269-AQP2). Using antibodies specific for this form of the water channel, we detected rat and mouse pS269-AQP2 in the connecting tubule and throughout the collecting duct system. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers and immunogold electron microscopy, we found that pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane of principal cells. In vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats, pS269-AQP2 was undetectable but dramatically increased in abundance after these rats were treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP). This increase occurred only at the apical plasma membrane, even after long-term dDAVP treatment. Following dDAVP there was a time-dependent redistribution of total aquaporin-2 from predominantly intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane, clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and lysosomes. However, pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane at any time. Our results show that S269 phosphorylated aquaporin-2 is exclusively associated with the apical plasma membrane, where it escapes endocytosis to remain at the cell surface.
Project description:Ecstasy (Ec) use produces hyperthermia, excessive sweating, intense thirst, an inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a multisystemic toxicity due to oxidative stress (OS). Intense thirst induces high intake of pure water, which associated with SIADH, usually develops into acute hyponatremia (Hn). As Hn is induced rapidly, experiments to check if Ec acted directly on the Inner Medullary Collecting Ducts (IMCD) of rats were conducted. Rhabdomyolysis and OS were also studied because Ec is known to induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and tissue damage. To decrease OS, the antioxidant inhibitors N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Allopurinol (Allo) were used.Rats were maintained on a lithium (Li) diet to block the Vasopressin action before Ec innoculation. AQP2 (Aquaporin 2), ENaC (Epitheliun Sodium Channel) and NKCC2 (Sodium, Potassium, 2 Chloride) expression were determined by Western Blot in isolated IMCDs. The TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and GSH (reduced form of Glutathione) were determined in the Ec group (6 rats injected with Ec-10mg/kg), in Ec+NAC groups (NAC 100mg/Kg/bw i.p.) and in Allo+Ec groups (Allo 50mg/Kg/i.p.).Enhanced AQP2 expression revealed that Ec increased water transporter expression, decreased by Li diet, but the expression of the tubular transporters did not change. The Ec, Ec+NAC and Allo+Ec results showed that Ec increased TBARS and decreased GSH, showing evidence of ROS occurrence, which was protected by NAC and Allo. Rhabdomyolysis was only protected by Allo.Results showed that Ec induced an increase in AQP2 expression, evidencing another mechanism that might contribute to cause rapid hyponatremia. In addition, they showed that NAC and Allo protected against OS, but only Allo decreased rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia.
Project description:Vasopressin is the major hormone that regulates renal water excretion. It does so by binding to a receptor in renal collecting duct cells, triggering signaling pathways that ultimately regulate the abundance, location, and activity of the water channel protein aquaporin 2. We took an advantage of quantitative large scale proteomic technologies and oligonucleotide microarrays to quantify steady state changes in protein and transcript abundances in response to vasopressin in a collecting duct cell line, mpkCCD clone 11 (Yu et al. PNAS 2009, 106:2441-2446). This cell line originally developed by Alan Vandewalle’s group recapitulates vasopressin-mediated AQP2 expression and phosphorylation as seen in native colleting duct cells. Overall design: The mpkCCD cells were grown on membrane supports to permit polarization. Once transepithelial resistance reached 5kohm per centimeter square and higher, the cells were exposed to the vasopressin V2 receptor analog, dDAVP, at a physiological concentration, 0.1nM, for 5 days. Control experiments were done with cells exposed to vehicle alone. Total RNA was harvested and processed for transcript expression analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays. Each experimental treatment, vehicle and dDAVP, was repeated 3 times.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in vasopressin signaling in the renal-collecting duct. Large-scale identification and quantification of phosphorylation events triggered by vasopressin is desirable to gain a comprehensive systems-level understanding of this process. We carried out phosphoproteomic analysis of rat inner medullary collecting duct cells by using a combination of phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and phosphorylation site identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(n) neutral loss scanning. A total of 714 phosphorylation sites on 223 unique phosphoproteins were identified from inner medullary collecting duct samples treated short-term with either calyculin A or vasopressin. A number of proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicle trafficking, and transcriptional regulation were identified. Previously unidentified phosphorylation sites were found for membrane proteins essential to collecting duct physiology, including eight sites among aquaporin-2 (AQP2), aquaporin-4, and urea transporter isoforms A1 and A3. Through label-free quantification of phosphopeptides, we identified a number of proteins that significantly changed phosphorylation state in response to short-term vasopressin treatment: AQP2, Bclaf1, LRRC47, Rgl3, and SAFB2. In the presence of vasopressin, AQP2 monophosphorylated at S256 and diphosphorylated AQP2 (pS256/261) increased in abundance, whereas AQP2 monophosphorylated at S261 decreased, raising the possibility that both sites are involved in vasopressin-dependent AQP2 trafficking. This study reveals the practicality of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(n) neutral loss scanning for large-scale identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation in the analysis of cell signaling in a native mammalian system.
Project description:Background Arginine vasopressin dependent antidiuresis plays a key role in water-sodium retention in heart failure. In recent years, the role of glucocorticoids in the control of body fluid homeostasis has been extensively investigated. Glucocorticoid deficiency can activate V2R (vasopressin receptor 2), increase aquaporins expression, and result in hyponatremia, all of which can be reversed by glucocorticoid supplement. Methods and Results Heart failure was induced by coronary artery ligation for 8 weeks. A total of 32 rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=8/group): sham surgery group, congestive heart failure group, dexamethasone group, and dexamethasone in combination with glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 group. An acute water loading test was administered 6 hours after drug administration. Left ventricular function was measured by a pressure-volume catheter. Protein expressions were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The pressure-volume loop analysis showed that dexamethasone improves cardiac function in rats with heart failure. Western blotting confirmed that dexamethasone remarkably reduces the expressions of V2R, aquaporin 2, and aquaporin 3 in the renal-collecting ducts. As a result of V2R downregulation, the expressions of glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1, apical epithelial sodium channels, and the furosemide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter were also downregulated. These favorable effects induced by dexamethasone were mostly abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor RU486, indicating that the aforementioned effects are glucocorticoid receptor mediated. Conclusions Glucocorticoids can reverse diluted hyponatremia via inhibiting the vasopressin receptor pathway in rats with heart failure.
Project description:Vasopressin is the major hormone that regulates renal water excretion. It does so by binding to a receptor in renal collecting duct cells, triggering signaling pathways that ultimately regulate the abundance, location, and activity of the water channel protein aquaporin 2. We took an advantage of quantitative large scale proteomic technologies and oligonucleotide microarrays to quantify steady state changes in protein and transcript abundances in response to vasopressin in a collecting duct cell line, mpkCCD clone 11 (Yu et al. PNAS 2009, 106:2441-2446). This cell line originally developed by Alan Vandewalle’s group recapitulates vasopressin-mediated AQP2 expression and phosphorylation as seen in native colleting duct cells. The mpkCCD cells were grown on membrane supports to permit polarization. Once transepithelial resistance reached 5kohm per centimeter square and higher, the cells were exposed to the vasopressin V2 receptor analog, dDAVP, at a physiological concentration, 0.1nM, for 5 days. Control experiments were done with cells exposed to vehicle alone. Total RNA was harvested and processed for transcript expression analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays. Each experimental treatment, vehicle and dDAVP, was repeated 3 times.