Sensitive mass spectrometric assay for determination of 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 and its application in human plasma samples of patients with diabetes.
ABSTRACT: The determination of individual prostaglandins (PG) in humans is mainly performed in urine samples. The quantification of PGs in human plasma could improve the understanding of particular PG species under various physiological and pathological conditions. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a dehydrated downstream product of PGD2 and is of high interest due to its recently discovered anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing availability of highly sensitive mass spectrometry allows the quantification of low abundant biomarkers like 15d-PGJ2 in human plasma samples. Herein, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 15d-PGJ2 was established. The method was validated according to the guidance of the American Food and Drug Administration and tested in plasma samples from patients with poorly controlled diabetes, considered to be a pro-inflammatory condition. Extraction of 15d-PGJ2 was achieved with an easy-to-use liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate following a methanol precipitation. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 pg mL-1 and linearity (R 2?=?0.998) was guaranteed between 2.5 and 500 pg mL-1 for 15d-PGJ2. Selectivity was assured by the use of two individual mass transitions (qualifier and quantifier). Precision and accuracy were validated in an inter- and intraday assay with a coefficient of variation below 11.8% (intraday) and 14.7% (interday). In diabetic patients with an HbA1C >?9%, increased plasma concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 compared to control plasma were measured. 15d-PGJ2 correlated negatively with the inflammation marker C-reactive protein. The developed LC-MS/MS method represents a new possibility to quantify 15d-PGJ2 with high specificity in human plasma samples. This may contribute to a better understanding of the potential anti-inflammatory effects of 15d-PGJ2 in severe long-term pro-inflammatory disorders like diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease.
Project description:The signaling lipid molecule 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has multiple cellular functions, including anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Here, we report that 15d-PGJ2 blocks translation through inactivation of translational initiation factor eIF4A. Binding of 15d-PGJ2 to eIF4A blocks the interaction between eIF4A and eIF4G that is essential for translation of many mRNAs. Cysteine 264 in eIF4A is the target site of 15d-PGJ2. The antineoplastic activity of 15d-PGJ2 is likely attributed to inhibition of translation. Moreover, inhibition of translation by 15d-PGJ2 results in stress granule (SG) formation, into which TRAF2 is sequestered. The sequestration of TRAF2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of 15d-PGJ2. These findings reveal a novel cross-talk between translation and inflammatory response, and offer new approaches to develop anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs that target translation factors including eIF4A.
Project description:15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory/anti-neoplastic prostaglandin that functions through covalent binding to cysteine residues of various target proteins. We previously showed that 15d-PGJ2 mediated anti-inflammatory responses are dependent on the translational inhibition through its interaction with eIF4A (Kim et al., 2007). Binding of 15d-PGJ2 to eIF4A specifically blocks the interaction between eIF4G and eIF4A, which leads to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which then cluster mRNAs with inhibited translation. Here, we show that the binding between 15d-PGJ2 and eIF4A specifically blocks the interaction between the MIF4G domain of eIF4G and eIF4A. To reveal the mechanism of this interaction, we used computational simulation-based docking studies and identified that the carboxyl tail of 15d-PGJ2 could stabilize the binding of 15d-PGJ2 to eIF4A through arginine 295 of eIF4A, which is the first suggestion that the 15d-PGJ2 tail plays a physiological role. Interestingly, the putative 15d-PGJ2 binding site on eiF4A is conserved across many species, suggesting a biological role. Our data propose that studying 15d-PGJ2 and its targets may uncover new therapeutic approaches in anti-inflammatory drug discovery.
Project description:15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory downstream product of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. It has been implicated to play a protective role in a variety of inflammatory mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, neural damage, and myocardial infarctions. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 also plays a role in Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside phagocytic immune cells, allowing for bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. Salmonella species cause a wide range of morbidity and mortality due to gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Previously we have shown that in mouse models of typhoid fever, Salmonella infection causes a major perturbation in the prostaglandin pathway. Specifically, we saw that 15d-PGJ2 production was significantly increased in both liver and feces. In this work we show that 15d-PGJ2 production is also significantly increased in macrophages infected with Salmonella. Furthermore, we show that the addition of 15d-PGJ2 to Salmonella infected RAW264.7, J774, and bone marrow derived macrophages is sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial colonization. We also show evidence that 15d-PGJ2 is reducing bacterial uptake by macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 reduces the inflammatory response of these infected macrophages, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of cytokines and reactive nitrogen species. The inflammatory response of the macrophage is important for full Salmonella virulence, as it can give the bacteria cues for virulence. The reduction in bacterial colonization is independent of the expression of Salmonella virulence genes SPI1 and SPI2, and is independent of the 15d-PGJ2 ligand PPAR-?. 15d-PGJ2 also causes an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in infected macrophages. In conclusion, we show here that 15d-PGJ2 mediates the outcome of bacterial infection, a previously unidentified role for this prostaglandin.
Project description:An endogenous anticancer agent, 15-deoxy -?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces apoptosis in the chemoresistant renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ2, and mediates the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2 in many cancerous cells. However, 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis independently of PPAR? in human RCC cell line such as Caki-2. In the present study, we found that 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated the chemoresistance to one of anthracycline antibiotics, doxorubicin, in Caki-2 cells. Doxorubicin alone exhibited weak cytotoxicity at the concentrations effective for other cancer cells such as Hela cells. In addition, it did not activate caspase 3. However, the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was increased remarkably and accompanied with the caspase- 3 activation in the presence of 15d-PGJ2. Doxorubicin alone damaged plasma membrane, and the combined application of 15d-PGJ2 with doxorubicin increased the membrane permeability slightly. PPAR? was involved in neither the anti-tumor activity nor the synergistic effect of 15d-PGJ2. 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis in Caki-2 cells via suppressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. The effect of PI3K inhibitor on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was additive, but not synergistic. Although the PI3K inhibitor mimicked the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2, it might not be involved in the synergism between 15d-PGJ2 and doxorubicin. In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of doxorubicin via the pathway independent of PPAR? and PI3K.
Project description:Urinary obstruction is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to renal dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Using a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model, we examined the effects of 15d-PGJ2 on oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney. Mice were subjected to UUO for 3 days and treated with 15d-PGJ2. Protein and RNA expression were examined using immunoblotting and qPCR. 15d-PGJ2 increased NF-E2-related nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2) protein expression in response to UUO, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a downstream target of Nrf2, was induced by 15d-PGJ2. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 prevented protein carbonylation, a UUO-induced oxidative stress marker. Inflammation, measured by nuclear NF-?B, F4/80, and MCP-1, was increased in response to UUO and further increased by 15d-PGJ2. Renal injury was aggravated by 15d-PGJ2 treatment as measured by kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and cortical caspase 3 content. No effect of 15d-PGJ2 was observed on renal function in mice subjected to UUO. This study illustrates differentiated functioning of 15d-PGJ2 on inflammation and oxidative stress in response to obstructive nephropathy. High concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 protects against oxidative stress during 3-day UUO in mice; however, it aggravates the associated inflammation.
Project description:The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy ?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-?t was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4+ Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4+CD25- population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4+CD25- cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA.
Project description:Cortisol, the central stress hormone in humans, activates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Anti-inflammatory effects are the most important pharmaceutical effects mediated by the GR. Inasmuch as electrophilic cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-M-NM-^T12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has potent anti-inflammatory properties and activates the SUMOylation pathway, we have investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on glucocorticoid signaling and receptor SUMOylation. To this end, we studied isogenic HEK293 cells expressing either wild-type GR or SUMOylation-defective GR. Interestingly, 15d-PGJ2 triggered SUMO-2/3 modification in the primary SUMOylation sites of the GR. Gene expression profiling and pathway analyses indicate that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits GR signaling in a genome-wide fashion that is significantly dependent on the GR SUMOylation sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that the repressive effect of 15d-PGJ2 on GR target gene expression occurs in parallel with the inhibition of receptor binding to the target gene chromatin. Furthermore, depletion of the sole SUMO E2 conjugase UBC9 from HEK293 cells confirmed the involvement of active SUMOylation in the regulatory process. Taken together, our data indicate that GR SUMOylation modulates the glucocorticoid signaling during acute cell stress. Our data also suggest that GR SUMOylation modulates crosstalk of the glucocorticoid signaling with other transcription factors that are responsive to cell stress. Total RNA isolated from isogenic HEK293 cell lines stably expressing either wild-type GR (wtGR) or SUMOylation-defective GR (GR3KR) treated with 100 nM of dexamethasone (dex) in the presence or absence of 5 M-BM-5M 15d-PGJ2 for 6h. All conditions are performed in triplicate
Project description:Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that respond to diverse danger signals by activating caspase-1. The sensor components of the inflammasome, often proteins of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family, detect stress, danger stimuli, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. We report that the eicosanoid 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) and related cyclopentenone PGs inhibit caspase-1 activation by the NLR family leucine-rich repeat protein (NLRP)1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes. This inhibition was independent of the well-characterized role of 15d-PGJ2 as a peroxisome proliferator receptor-? agonist, its activation of NF erythroid 2-related factor 2, or its anti-inflammatory function as an inhibitor of NF-?B. Instead, 15d-PGJ2 prevents the autoproteolytic activation of caspase-1 and the maturation of IL-1? through induction of a cellular state inhibitory to caspase-1 proteolytic function. The eicosanoid does not directly modify or inactivate the caspase-1 enzyme. Rather, inhibition is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. In a mouse peritonitis model of gout, using monosodium urate crystals to activate NLRP3, 15d-PGJ2 caused a significant inhibition of cell recruitment and associated IL-1? release. Furthermore, in a murine anthrax infection model, 15d-PGJ2 reversed anthrax lethal toxin-mediated NLRP1-dependent resistance. The findings reported in this study suggest a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory properties of the cyclopentenone PGs through inhibition of caspase-1 and the inflammasome.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the major metabolites from prostaglandin D2 in arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, has potential anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 15d-PGJ2-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules (15d-PGJ2-NC) on inflammatory responses and bone regeneration in local bone defect.<h4>Methods</h4>The study was conducted on 96 Wistar rats from June 2014 to March 2016. Saline, unloaded nanoparticles, free 15d-PGJ2or 15d-PGJ2-NC, were delivered through a collagen vehicle inside surgically created transcortical defects in rat femurs. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels in the surrounding soft tissue were analyzed by Western blot and in the defect by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction over 14 days. Simultaneously, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the defect were examined. New bone formation and EphrinB2 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein expression in the cortical defect were observed by Masson's Trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry over 28 days. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Least-significant difference and Dunnett's T3 methods were used with a bilateral P< 0.05.<h4>Results</h4>Application of l5d-PGJ2-NC (100 ?g/ml) in the local bone defect significantly decreased IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-? mRNA and protein, compared with saline-treated controls (P < 0.05). l5d-PGJ2-NC upregulated BMP-6 and PDGF-B mRNA (P < 0.05). New bone formation was observed in the cortical defect in l5d-PGJ2-NC-treated animals from 7th day onward (P < 0.001). Expression of EphrinB2 and OPG presented early on day 3 and persisted through day 28 in 15d-PGJ2-NC group (P < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Stable l5d-PGJ2-NC complexes were prepared that could attenuate IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-? expression, while increasing new bone formation and growth factors related to bone regeneration.
Project description:Cortisol, the central stress hormone in humans, activates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Anti-inflammatory effects are the most important pharmaceutical effects mediated by the GR. Inasmuch as electrophilic cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has potent anti-inflammatory properties and activates the SUMOylation pathway, we have investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on glucocorticoid signaling and receptor SUMOylation. To this end, we studied isogenic HEK293 cells expressing either wild-type GR or SUMOylation-defective GR. Interestingly, 15d-PGJ2 triggered SUMO-2 and -3 (SUMO-2/3) modification in the primary SUMOylation sites of the GR. Gene expression profiling and pathway analyses indicate that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits GR signaling in a genome-wide fashion that is significantly dependent on the GR SUMOylation sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that the repressive effect of 15d-PGJ2 on GR target gene expression occurs in parallel with the inhibition of receptor binding to the target gene chromatin. Furthermore, depletion of UBC9, the sole SUMO E2 conjugase, from HEK293 cells confirmed the involvement of active SUMOylation in the regulatory process. Taken together, our data indicate that GR SUMOylation modulates the glucocorticoid signaling during acute cell stress. Our data also suggest that GR SUMOylation modulates cross talk of the glucocorticoid signaling with other transcription factors that are responsive to cell stress.