Differential gene expression in response to Fusarium oxysporum infection in resistant and susceptible genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).
ABSTRACT: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a crop plant used for fiber and oil production. Although potentially high-yielding flax varieties have been developed, environmental stresses markedly decrease flax production. Among biotic stresses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is recognized as one of the most devastating flax pathogens. It causes wilt disease that is one of the major limiting factors for flax production worldwide. Breeding and cultivation of flax varieties resistant to F. oxysporum is the most effective method for controlling wilt disease. Although the mechanisms of flax response to Fusarium have been actively studied, data on the plant response to infection and resistance gene candidates are currently very limited.The transcriptomes of two resistant and two susceptible flax cultivars with respect to Fusarium wilt, as well as two resistant BC2F5 populations, which were grown under control conditions or inoculated with F. oxysporum, were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Genes showing changes in expression under F. oxysporum infection were identified in both resistant and susceptible flax genotypes. We observed the predominant overexpression of numerous genes that are involved in defense response. This was more pronounced in resistant cultivars. In susceptible cultivars, significant downregulation of genes involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis was observed in response to F. oxysporum. In the resistant genotypes, upregulation of genes related to NAD(P)H oxidase activity was detected. Upregulation of a number of genes, including that encoding beta-1,3-glucanase, was significantly greater in the cultivars and BC2F5 populations resistant to Fusarium wilt than in susceptible cultivars in response to F. oxysporum infection.Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified genes involved in the early defense response of L. usitatissimum against the fungus F. oxysporum. In response to F. oxysporum infection, we detected changes in the expression of pathogenesis-related protein-encoding genes and genes involved in ROS production or related to cell wall biogenesis. Furthermore, we identified genes that were upregulated specifically in flax genotypes resistant to Fusarium wilt. We suggest that the identified genes in resistant cultivars and BC2F5 populations showing induced expression in response to F. oxysporum infection are the most promising resistance gene candidates.
Project description:Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113, and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3); the flavonoid-related enzymes chalcone synthase, dihydroflavonol reductase and multiple anthocyanidin synthases; and a peroxidase implicated in lignin formation (PRX52). Additionally, regulation of some genes indicated potential pathogen manipulation to facilitate infection; these included four disease resistance proteins that were repressed, indole acetic acid amido/amino hydrolases which were upregulated, activated expansins and glucanases, amino acid transporters and aquaporins, and finally, repression of major latex proteins.
Project description:Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the ?-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc), is a severe disease affecting cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) production worldwide, but mechanisms underlying Fusarium wilt resistance in cucumber remain unknown. To better understand of the defense mechanisms elicited in response to Foc inoculation, RNA sequencing-based transcriptomic profiling of responses of the Fusarium wilt-resistant cucumber line 'Rijiecheng' at 0, 24, 48, 96, and 192?h after Foc inoculation was performed. RESULTS:We identified 4116 genes that were differentially expressed between 0?h and other time points after inoculation. All ethylene-related and pathogenesis-related genes from the differentially expressed genes were filtered out. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ethylene-related genes were induced in response to Foc infection. Importantly, after Foc infection and exogenous application of ethephon, a donor of ethylene, the ethylene-related genes were highly expressed. In response to exogenous ethephon treatment in conjunction with Foc inoculation, the infection resistance of cucumber seedlings was enhanced and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis increased dramatically. CONCLUSION:Collectively, ethylene signaling pathways play a positive role in regulating the defense response of cucumber to Foc infection. The results provide insight into the cucumber Fusarium wilt defense mechanisms and provide valuable information for breeding new cucumber cultivars with enhanced Fusarium wilt tolerance.
Project description:Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) is the causal pathogen of cucumber Fusarium wilt resulting in losses to cucumber production. To investigate the effects of the selective pressures of host plants on the virulence of Foc, a low virulence isolate, foc-3b, was successively inoculated on resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars for five generations. The virulence of the original isolate diverged; virulence was significantly strengthened after serial passage on the resistant cultivar and weakened on the susceptible plants (p ˂ .05). The expression of four virulence-related genes of F. oxysporum, G-protein α subunit gene fga1, sucrose nonfermenting 1 gene snf1, F-box protein gene frp1, and Class V chitin synthase gene chsV, was quantified using real-time PCR. All genes were significantly upregulated after serial passage on the resistant cultivar, compared to the original strain, and the expression of snf1 was downregulated in strains re-isolated from the susceptible plants (p ˂ .05). A significant positive correlation was found between the expression levels of gene snf1, frp1, and chsV and disease severity of cucumber Fusarium wilt, suggesting these genes may impact virulence differentiation. This study will improve the management of cucumber Fusarium wilt and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying virulence of F. oxysporum.
Project description:Fusarium wilt is one of the major biotic stresses reducing chickpea productivity. The use of wilt-resistant cultivars is the most appropriate means to combat the disease and secure productivity. As a step towards understanding the molecular basis of wilt resistance in chickpea, we investigated the transcriptomes of wilt-susceptible and wilt-resistant cultivars under both Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) challenged and unchallenged conditions. Transcriptome profiling using LongSAGE provided a valuable insight into the molecular interactions between chickpea and Foc, which revealed several known as well as novel genes with differential or unique expression patterns in chickpea contributing to lignification, hormonal homeostasis, plant defense signaling, ROS homeostasis, R-gene mediated defense, etc. Similarly, several Foc genes characteristically required for survival and growth of the pathogen were expressed only in the susceptible cultivar with null expression of most of these genes in the resistant cultivar. This study provides a rich resource for functional characterization of the genes involved in resistance mechanism and their use in breeding for sustainable wilt-resistance. Additionally, it provides pathogen targets facilitating the development of novel control strategies.
Project description:About 30% of the world's ice-free land area is occupied by acid soils. In soils with pH below 5, aluminum (Al) releases to the soil solution, and becomes highly toxic for plants. Therefore, breeding of varieties that are resistant to Al is needed. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is grown worldwide for fiber and seed production. Al toxicity in acid soils is a serious problem for flax cultivation. However, very little is known about mechanisms of flax resistance to Al and the genetics of this resistance. In the present work, we sequenced 16 transcriptomes of flax cultivars resistant (Hermes and TMP1919) and sensitive (Lira and Orshanskiy) to Al, which were exposed to control conditions and aluminum treatment for 4, 12, and 24 h. In total, 44.9-63.3 million paired-end 100-nucleotide reads were generated for each sequencing library. Based on the obtained high-throughput sequencing data, genes with differential expression under aluminum exposure were revealed in flax. The majority of the top 50 up-regulated genes were involved in transmembrane transport and transporter activity in both the Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars. However, genes encoding proteins with glutathione transferase and UDP-glycosyltransferase activity were in the top 50 up-regulated genes only in the flax cultivars resistant to aluminum. For qPCR analysis in extended sampling, two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were selected. The general trend of alterations in the expression of the examined genes was the up-regulation under Al stress, especially after 4 h of Al exposure. Moreover, in the flax cultivars resistant to aluminum, the increase in expression was more pronounced than that in the sensitive cultivars. We speculate that the defense against the Al toxicity via GST antioxidant activity is the probable mechanism of the response of flax plants to aluminum stress. We also suggest that UGTs could be involved in cell wall modification and protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to Al stress in L. usitatissimum. Thus, GSTs and UGTs, probably, play an important role in the response of flax to Al via detoxification of ROS and cell wall modification.
Project description:Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62) and wilt-resistant (Digvijay) chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.
Project description:Most losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) crops are caused by fungal infections. The new epigenetic approach to improve plant resistance requires broadening the knowledge about the influence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains on changes in the profile of DNA methylation. Two contrasting effects on the levels of methylation in flax have been detected for both types of Fusarium strain infection: Genome-wide hypermethylation and hypomethylation of resistance-related genes (?-1,3-glucanase and chitinase). Despite the differences in methylation profile, the expression of these genes increased. Plants pretreated with the non-pathogenic strain memorize the hypomethylation pattern and then react more efficiently upon pathogen infection. The peak of demethylation correlates with the alteration in gene expression induced by the non-pathogenic strain. In the case of pathogen infection, the expression peak lags behind the gene demethylation. Dynamic changes in tetramer methylation induced by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium strains are dependent on the ratio between the level of methyltransferase and demethylase gene expression. Infection with both Fusarium strains suppressed methyltransferase expression and increased the demethylase (demeter) transcript level. The obtained results provide important new information about changes in methylation profile and thus expression regulation of pathogenesis-related genes in the flax plant response to stressors.
Project description:Fusarium wilt is currently spreading in banana growing regions around the world leading to substantial losses. The disease is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), which is further classified into distinct races according to the banana varieties that they infect. Cavendish banana is resistant to Foc race 1, to which the popular Gros Michel subgroup succumbed last century. Cavendish effectively saved the banana industry, and became the most cultivated commercial subgroup worldwide. However, Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) subsequently emerged in Southeast Asia, causing significant yield losses due to its high level of aggressiveness to cultivars of Cavendish, and other commonly grown cultivars. Preventing further spread is crucially important in the absence of effective control methods or resistant market-acceptable banana cultivars. Implementation of quarantine and containment measures depends on early detection of the pathogen through reliable diagnostics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that secreted in xylem (SIX) genes, which currently comprise the only known family of effectors in F. oxysporum, contain polymorphisms to allow the design of molecular diagnostic assays that distinguish races and relevant VCGs of Foc. We present specific and reproducible diagnostic assays based on conventional PCR targeting SIX genes, using as templates DNA extracted from pure Foc cultures. Sets of primers specifically amplify regions of: SIX6 in Foc race 1, SIX1 gene in TR4, SIX8 in subtropical race 4, SIX9/SIX10 in Foc VCG 0121, and SIX13 in Foc VCG 0122. These assays include simplex and duplex PCRs, with additional restriction digestion steps applied to amplification products of genes SIX1 and SIX13. Assay validations were conducted to a high international standard including the use of 250 Fusarium spp. isolates representing 16 distinct Fusarium species, 59 isolates of F. oxysporum, and 21 different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Tested parameters included inter and intraspecific analytical specificity, sensitivity, robustness, repeatability, and reproducibility. The resulting suite of assays is able to reliably and accurately detect R1, STR4, and TR4 as well as two VCGs (0121 and 0122) causing Fusarium wilt in bananas.
Project description:Fusarium wilt, a soil-borne disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, threatens strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) production worldwide. The spread of the pathogen, coupled with disruptive changes in soil fumigation practices, have greatly increased disease pressure and the importance of developing resistant cultivars. While resistant and susceptible cultivars have been reported, a limited number of germplasm accessions have been analyzed, and contradictory conclusions have been reached in earlier studies to elucidate the underlying genetic basis of resistance. Here, we report the discovery of Fw1, a dominant gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in strawberry. The Fw1 locus was uncovered in a genome-wide association study of 565 historically and commercially important strawberry accessions genotyped with 14,408 SNP markers. Fourteen SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with Fw1 physically mapped to a 2.3 Mb segment on chromosome 2 in a diploid F. vesca reference genome. Fw1 and 11 tightly linked GWAS-significant SNPs mapped to linkage group 2C in octoploid segregating populations. The most significant SNP explained 85% of the phenotypic variability and predicted resistance in 97% of the accessions tested-broad-sense heritability was 0.96. Several disease resistance and defense-related gene homologs, including a small cluster of genes encoding nucleotide-binding leucine-rich-repeat proteins, were identified in the 0.7 Mb genomic segment predicted to harbor Fw1 DNA variants and candidate genes identified in the present study should facilitate the development of high-throughput genotyping assays for accurately predicting Fusarium wilt phenotypes and applying marker-assisted selection.