Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight.
ABSTRACT: Potato late blight (PLB) caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi) is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA), roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis), were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph), a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR) of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes.
Project description:To assess the plausibility of prebiotic nucleic acid polymerization by a sequential phosphitylation-sulfurization mechanism, the rates of hydrolysis and sulfurization of bis(2',3'-O-methyleneadenosin-5'-yl)-H-phosphonate, a dinucleoside H-phosphonate diester, have been determined over a wide pH range (0.52-7.25) and in the presence of varying amounts (0-30 mg) of elemental sulfur. The pH-rate profile of hydrolysis resembled the one previously reported for the H-phosphonate analogue of thymidylyl-3',5'-thymidine, with a relatively wide pH-independent region flanked by acid- and base-catalyzed regions. Sulfurization to the respective phosphorothioate diester, in turn, was found to be base-catalyzed over the entire pH range studied. Despite the facile hydrolysis of H-phosphonate diesters and the extremely low solubility of elemental sulfur in water, sulfurization and hydrolysis proceeded at comparable rates under neutral and mildly acidic conditions.
Project description:Cross metathesis of the acrolein-derived phosphono allylic carbonate and hydroxy alkenes using second generation Grubbs catalyst and copper(I) iodide gave the substituted phosphonates in good yield. Stereospecific palladium(0)-catalyzed cyclization gave tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran vinyl phosphonates. Regioselective Wacker oxidation of the vinyl phosphonate gave the beta-keto phosphonate, which underwent HWE reaction with benzaldehyde to yield the unsaturated ketone. The utility of the cross metathesis/cyclization protocol was further demonstrated by a formal synthesis of centrolobine.
Project description:Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.
Project description:Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry has inherent challenges for copper-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. An azide-modified phosphonate-based cross-bridged macrocyclic chelator was synthesized for click chemistry conjugation with azide-modified Y3-TATE (a somatostatin analogue) on resin, without the need for protecting the chelator. The (64)Cu-labeled bioconjugate shows favourable in vitro and in vivo behaviour.
Project description:Infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is potentially fatal. A highly active extracellular phospholipase, demonstrating phospholipase B (PLB), lysophospholipase (LPL) and lysophospholipase/transacylase (LPTA) activities, was purified to homogeneity from C. neoformans using (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractionation, and hydrophobic-interaction, anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. All three enzyme activities co-purified as a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 70-90 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 160-180 kDa by gel filtration. The ratio of the three activities remained constant after each purification step. The amino acid composition, as well as the sequences of the N-terminus and of five internal peptide fragments were novel. The protein was an acidic glycoprotein containing N-linked carbohydrate moieties, with pI values of 5.5 and 3.5. The apparent V(max) values for PLB and LPL activities were 12.3 and 870 micromol/min per mg of protein respectively; the corresponding K(m) values were approx. 185.3 and 92.2 microM. The enzyme was active only at acidic pH (pH optimum of 4.0 for PLB and 4.0-5.0 for LPL and LPTA). Enzyme activity did not require added cations, but was inhibited by Fe(3+). LPL and LPTA activities were decreased by 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 to 50% of the control value. Palmitoylcarnitine (0.5 mM) inhibited PLB (97% inhibition) and LPL and LPTA activities (35% inhibition) competitively. All phospholipids except phosphatidic acid were degraded by PLB, but dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine were the preferred substrates. This is the first complete description of the purification and properties of a phospholipase, which may be involved in virulence, from a pathogenic fungus.
Project description:We performed protein pKa calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the calcium pump (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)) in complex with phospholamban (PLB). X-ray crystallography studies have suggested that PLB locks SERCA in a low-Ca(2+)-affinity E2 state that is incompatible with metal-ion binding, thereby blocking the conversion toward a high-Ca(2+)-affinity E1 state. Estimation of pKa values of the acidic residues in the transport sites indicates that at normal intracellular pH (7.1-7.2), PLB-bound SERCA populates an E1 state that is deprotonated at residues E309 and D800 yet protonated at residue E771. We performed three independent microsecond-long MD simulations to evaluate the structural dynamics of SERCA-PLB in a solution containing 100 mM K(+) and 3 mM Mg(2+). Principal component analysis showed that PLB-bound SERCA lies exclusively along the structural ensemble of the E1 state. We found that the transport sites of PLB-bound SERCA are completely exposed to the cytosol and that K(+) ions bind transiently (≤5 ns) and nonspecifically (nine different positions) to the two transport sites, with a total occupancy time of K(+) in the transport sites of 80%. We propose that PLB binding to SERCA populates a novel (to our knowledge) E1 intermediate, E1⋅H(+)771. This intermediate serves as a kinetic trap that controls headpiece dynamics and depresses the structural transitions necessary for Ca(2+)-dependent activation of SERCA. We conclude that PLB-mediated regulation of SERCA activity in the heart results from biochemical and structural transitions that occur primarily in the E1 state of the pump.
Project description:Copper has long been applied for agricultural practices. Like other metals, copper is highly persistent in the environment and biologically active long after its use has ceased. Here we present a unique study on the long-term effects (27 years) of copper and pH on soil microbial communities and on Folsomia candida, an important representative of the soil macrofauna, in an experiment with a full factorial, random block design. Bacterial communities were mostly affected by pH. These effects were prominent in Acidobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Gammaroteobacteria communities were affected by original and bioavailable copper. Reproduction and survival of the collembolan F. candida was not affected by the studied copper concentrations. However, the transcriptomic responses to copper reflected a mechanism of copper transport and detoxification, while pH exerted effects on nucleotide and protein metabolism and (acute) inflammatory response. We conclude that microbial community structure explained the history of copper contamination, while gene expression analysis of F. candida is associated with the current level of bioavailable copper. Combined analysis at various trophic levels is highly relevant in the context of assessing long-term soil pollution. Overall design: A single channel, interwoven loop design was used to test animals exposed to the copper-spiked field soil samples. The field soil was spiked with 4 copper and 4 pH treatments yielding 16 combinations. Combinations are displayed in the Sample descriptions, with 1 – 4 representing the copper concentrations from low to high, and A-D representing the soil pH from low to high. 4 biological replicates per copper/pH combination were used. Each replicate contained 25 grams of soil and thirty 23-day-old animals.
Project description:Fusaric acid (FA) is amongst the oldest identified secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species, known for a long time to display strong phytotoxicity and moderate toxicity to animal cells; however, the cellular targets of FA and its function in fungal pathogenicity remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FA in Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne cross-kingdom pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than 100 plant species and opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted deletion of fub1, encoding a predicted orthologue of the polyketide synthase involved in FA biosynthesis in F. verticillioides and F. fujikuroi, abolished the production of FA and its derivatives in F. oxysporum. We further showed that the expression of fub1 was positively controlled by the master regulator of secondary metabolism LaeA and the alkaline pH regulator PacC through the modulation of chromatin accessibility at the fub1 locus. FA exhibited strong phytotoxicity on tomato plants, which was rescued by the exogenous supply of copper, iron or zinc, suggesting a possible function of FA as a chelating agent of these metal ions. Importantly, the severity of vascular wilt symptoms on tomato plants and the mortality of immunosuppressed mice were significantly reduced in fub1? mutants and fully restored in the complemented strains. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the regulation and mode of action of FA, as well as on the function of this phytotoxin during the infection process of F. oxysporum.
Project description:As a widely used traditional medicine, Galla Chinensis is rich in tannins. However, there are few detailed studies about pharmaceutical preparations of Galla Chinensis tannin extract (GTE). In the present experiments, for better application and to investigate the possibility that Galla Chinensis tannin extract can be used as an antidiarrheal drug, we prepared Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS).GOS was prepared with GTE, and its physicochemical and microbiological stability was evaluated. The oral acute toxicity of GOS was calculated by the 50% lethal dose (LD50). The antidiarrheal activity was determined in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice through diarrhea symptoms, fluid accumulation ratio, and percentage of distance moved by charcoal meal.The tannin content of GTE was 47.75%. GOS could endure a high temperature without a significant decrease of tannin content. After storage for six months, the tannin content of GOS was still more than 90%. GOS was determined to be nontoxic. Meanwhile, GOS showed significant antidiarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice (P < 0.01).The results suggested that GOS is an effective and stable antidiarrheal drug that can be used to complement other therapies.
Project description:Ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) are main phenolic compounds accumulated in rhizosphere of continuously cropped cucumber, causing stress in plants. Microbial degradation of a mixture of FA and PHBA is not well understood in soil. We isolated a strain CSY-P13 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, inoculated it into soil to protect cucumber from FA and PHBA stress, and explored a mechanism underlying the protection. CSY-P13 effectively degraded a mixture of FA and PHBA in culture solution under conditions of 39.37°C, pH 6.97, and 21.59 g L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, giving rise to 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. During FA and PHBA degradation, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in CSY-P13 were induced. Inoculated into cucumber-planted soil containing 220 ?g g-1 mixture of FA and PHBA, CSY-P13 degraded FA and PHBA in soil, increased plant height, and decreased malonaldehyde, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide levels in leaves. CSY-P13 also enhanced SOD, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase activities; increased ascorbate and glutathione contents; and elevated transcript levels of copper/zinc SOD, manganese SOD, and catalase in leaves under FA and PHBA. Moreover, CSY-P13 increased phosphatase, catalase, urease, and sucrase activities and changed bacterial richness, diversity, and community composition by high throughput sequencing in cucumber-planted soil supplemented with the mixture of FA and PHBA. So CSY-P13 degrades the mixture of FA and PHBA in soil and mitigates stress from the two phenolic compounds in cucumber by activating antioxidant enzymes, changing soil bacterial community, and inducing soil enzymes.