Direct-Acting Antivirals Improve Access to Care and Cure for Patients With HIV and Chronic HCV Infection.
ABSTRACT: Background:Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) as curative therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection offer >95% sustained virologic response (SVR), including in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite improved safety and efficacy of HCV treatment, challenges remain, including drug-drug interactions between DAA and antiretroviral therapy (ART) and restrictions on access by payers. Methods:We performed a retrospective cohort study of all HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients captured in care at our institution from 2011-2015, reflecting the DAA era, to determine treatment uptake and SVR, and to elucidate barriers to accessing DAA for co-infected patients. Results:We identified 9290 patients with HCV mono-infection and 507 with HIV/HCV co-infection. Compared to mono-infected patients, co-infected patients were younger and more likely to be male and African-American. For both groups, treatment uptake improved from the DAA/pegylated interferon (PEGIFN)-ribavirin to IFN-free DAA era. One-third of co-infected patients in the IFN-free DAA era required ART switch and nearly all remained virologically suppressed after 6 months. We observed SVR >95% for most patient subgroups including those with co-infection, prior treatment-experience, and cirrhosis. Predictors of access to DAA for co-infected patients included Caucasian race, CD4 count ?200 cells/mm3, HIV virologic suppression and cirrhosis. Time to approval of DAA was longest for patients insured by Medicaid, followed by private insurance and Medicare. Conclusions:DAA therapy has significantly improved access to HCV treatment and high SVR is independent of HIV status. However, in order to realize cure for all, barriers and disparities in access need to be urgently addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background/aims</h4>Despite the disproportionally high prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst the incarcerated population, eradication remains challenging due to logistic and financial barriers. Although treatment prioritization based on disease severity is commonly practiced, the efficacy of such approach remained uncertain. We aimed to compare the impact of unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) among incarcerated HCV-infected patients in Singapore.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective study, we reviewed all incarcerated HCV-infected patients treated in our hospital during the restricted DAA era (2013-2018) and unrestricted DAA access era (2019). Study outcomes included the rate of sustained virological response (SVR), treatment completion and treatment default. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the presence of liver cirrhosis, HCV genotype and HCV treatment types.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1,001 HCV patients was followed-up for 1,489 person-year. They were predominantly male (93%) with genotype-3 HCV infection (71%), and 38% were cirrhotic. The overall SVR during the restricted DAA access era and unrestricted DAA access era were 92.1% and 99.1%, respectively. Unrestricted access to DAA exponentially improved the treatment access among HCV-infected patients by 460%, resulting in a higher SVR rate (99% vs. 92%, P=0.003), higher treatment completion rate (99% vs. 93%, P<0.001) and lower treatment default rate (1% vs. 9%, P<0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this large cohort of incarcerated HCV-infected patients, we demonstrated that unrestricted access to DAA is an impactful strategy to allow rapid treatment up-scale in HCV micro-elimination.
Project description:Background:The efficacy of licensed direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens is assumed to be the same for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected patients (HCV-Mono) and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (HCV-Co). However, the high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of DAA regimens and the small number of HIV-infected patients included in registration trials have made it difficult to identify predictors of treatment failure, including the presence of HIV. Methods:We compared treatment outcomes for ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) against HCV G1 in treatment-naïve HCV-Mono and HCV-Co without cirrhosis in a prospective registry of individuals receiving DAAs for HCV. Results:Up to September 2017, a total of 17 269 patients were registered, and 1358 patients (1055 HCV-Mono/303 HCV-Co) met the inclusion criteria. Significant differences between HCV-Mono and HCV-Co were observed for age, gender, and G1 subtype distribution. Among HCV-Co, 99.0% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. SVR rates for LDV/SOF at 8 weeks did not differ significantly between HCV-Mono and HCV-Co (96.9% vs 94.0%; P = .199). However, the SVR rate for LDV/SOF at 12 weeks was significantly higher for HCV-Mono than HCV-Co (97.2% vs 91.8%; P = .001). A multivariable logistic regression model including age, sex, liver stiffness, G1 subtype, HCV-RNA, HIV, and treatment duration showed the factors associated with treatment failure to be male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-4.91; P = .008) and HIV infection (aOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.13-4.38; P = .020). Conclusions:The results of this large prospective study analyzing outcomes for LDV/SOF against HCV G1 in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients suggest that HIV infection is a predictor of treatment failure in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Project description:Medicaid prior authorization (PA) policies for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy are changing. We aimed to evaluate effects of changes in PA requirements on treatment uptake and to determine the factors associated with DAA treatment among Florida Medicaid beneficiaries with HCV. This is a retrospective cohort analysis of Florida's Medicaid administrative claims and electronic medical records (2013-2018). A total of 14,063 newly diagnosed patients with HCV were grouped based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and/or a substance use disorder (SUD) (7,735 HCV mono-infected with a SUD, 5,180 HCV mono-infected without a SUD, 564 HCV/HIV co-infected with a SUD, and 584 HCV/HIV co-infected without a SUD). Although the treatment rate increased three-fold after June 1, 2016, when a fibrosis-stage restriction was eliminated, only 8% received DAAs. Compared to HCV mono-infected without a SUD, HCV mono-infected with a SUD and HCV/HIV co-infected with a SUD were 47% (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.60) and 59% (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.61) less likely to initiate DAAs. Those with HCV/HIV/SUD did not experience a DAA initiation increase after a fibrosis-stage restriction was eliminated. Compared with Whites, Blacks were less likely to receive DAAs but were more likely to complete treatment. Use of medication-assisted therapy was low, despite those on medication-assisted therapy being 60% more likely to initiate DAA therapy and no more likely to discontinue therapy. <i>Conclusion:</i> Despite changes in Florida's Medicaid PA requirements for DAA treatment, only 8% received treatment. Disparities in treatment access were found among patients with HIV and a SUD, and who were Black.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL) and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU) time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR) and non-responders (NR) at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated for HCV. Though >90% of patients were male and co-infected had a larger percentage of African American patients, our findings may have implications for better understanding HCV pathogenesis, treatment outcomes, and future therapeutic targets.
Project description:Real-life data on access and response to direct antiviral agents (DAA) in HIV-HCV coinfected individuals are lacking.HCV viremic, HIV-positive patients from Icona and Hepaicona cohorts naïve to DAA by January 2013 were included. Access and predictors of starting DAA were evaluated. Switches of antiretroviral drugs at starting DAA were described. We calculated sustained virological response (SVR12) in those reaching 12 weeks after end-of-treatment (EOT), and defined treatment failure (TF) as discontinuation of DAA before EOT or non-SVR12. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier curves, univariable and multivariable analyses evaluating predictors of access to DAA and of treatment outcome (non-SVR and TF).2,607 patients included. During a median follow-up of 38 (IQR:30-41) months, 920 (35.3%) patients started DAA. Eligibility for reimbursement was the strongest predictor to access to treatment: 761/1,090 (69.8%) eligible and 159/1,517 (10.5%) non-eligible to DAA reimbursement. Older age, HIV-RNA?50 copies/mL were associated to faster DAA initiation, higher CD4 count and HCV-genotype 3 with delayed DAA initiation in those eligible to DAA reimbursement. Up to 28% of patients (36% of those on ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, PI/r) underwent antiretroviral (ART) modification at DAA initiation. 545/595 (91.6%) patients reaching EOT achieved SVR12. Overall, TF occurred in 61/606 patients (10.1%), with 11 discontinuing DAA before EOT. Suboptimal DAA was the only independent predictor of both non-SVR12 (AHR 2.52, 95%CI:1.24-5.12) and TF (AHR: 2.19; 95%CI:1.13-4.22).Only 35.3% had access to HCV treatment. Despite excellent rates of SVR12 rates (91.6%), only 21% (545/2,607) of our HIV-HCV co-infected patients are cured.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) have changed the paradigm of hepatitis C therapy for both HCV/HIV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients. We aimed to describe the HCV continuum of care of HIV-infected patients treated in an HIV clinic after a free DAA program in Indonesia and identify factors correlated with sofosbuvir-daclatasvir (SOF-DCV) treatment failure.<h4>Methods</h4>We did a retrospective cohort study of adult HIV/HCV co-infected patients under routine HIV-care from November 2019 to April 2020 in the HIV integrated clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. We evaluated some factors correlated with sofosbuvir-daclatasvir treatment failure: gender, diabetes mellitus, previous IFN failure, cirrhosis, concomitant ribavirin use, high baseline HCV-RNA, and low CD4 cell count.<h4>Results and discussion</h4>Overall, 640 anti-HCV positive patients were included in the study. Most of them were male (88.3%) and former intravenous drug users (76.6%) with a mean age of 40.95 (SD 4.60) years old. Numbers and percentages for the stages of the HCV continuum of care were as follows: HCV-RNA tested (411; 64.2%), pre-therapeutic evaluation done (271; 42.3%), HCV treatment initiated (210; 32.8%), HCV treatment completed (207; 32.2%), but only 178 of these patients had follow-up HCV-RNA tests to allow SVR assessment; and finally SVR12 achieved (178; 27.8%). For the 184 who completed SOF-DCV treatment, SVR12 was achieved by 95.7%. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus remained a significant factor correlated with SOF-DCV treatment failure (adjusted RR 17.0, 95%CI: 3.28-88.23, p = 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study found that in the HCV continuum of care for HIV/HCV co-infected patients, gaps still exist at all stages. As the most commonly used DAA combination, sofosbuvir daclatasvir treatment proved to be effective and well-tolerated in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Diabetes mellitus was significant factor correlated with not achieving SVR12 in this population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little is known about the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection among people with HIV (PWH) in the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era. We evaluate HCV reinfection rates in the DAA era and characterize presustained virologic response (SVR) behavioral risk factors associated with reinfection among PWH at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD).<h4>Methods</h4>Observational longitudinal cohort of PWH treated with DAAs between 2014 and July 2019 who achieved SVR and had at least 1 subsequent HCV viral load measurement. HCV reinfection was defined as new HCV viremia after SVR. We examined whether screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and substance use during the pre-SVR period could identify patients at greater risk for reinfection using exact Poisson regression to compare reinfection incidence rates between those with and without pre-SVR STIs and positive urine drug screens.<h4>Results</h4>Eight out of 200 PWH were reinfected with HCV a median ~26 weeks after SVR over 328.1 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), for an incidence rate of 2.44/100 PYFU. The observed HCV reinfection rate was highest among men who have sex with men who inject drugs (MSM IDU; 4.63/100 PFYU) and those aged 30-39 years (6.80/100 PYFU). Having a positive gonorrhea/chlamydia test during the pre-SVR period was a predictor of HCV reinfection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The HCV reinfection rate in the DAA era is similar to the rate observed in the interferon era in San Diego in PWH. STI screening during HCV treatment may help determine those at higher risk for HCV reinfection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected subjects is the combination of alfapeginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin. We designed this study to evaluate the rate of SVR and predictors of SVR in a public health setting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of HCV/HIV co-infected patients treated with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin from 2004 to 2011 in 3 outpatient units in Rio de Janeiro. Exposure variables included age, sex, CD4+ cell count, HCV genotype, HCV and HIV viral loads, liver histology (METAVIR fibrosis scoring system) and previous treatment. The main outcome measurement was SVR. RESULTS: 100 patients were included in this analysis. Median age was 47 years and 68% were male. 80%, 4%, 14% and 2% were infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. At baseline, 77% had HCV viral load greater than 800,000 IU/ml, 99% had CD4+ greater than 200 cells/mm(3) and 10% had a diagnosis of cirrhosis. The treatment was withdrawn in 9% of the subjects (5% with adverse effects and 4% dropped out). SVR was observed in 27 (27%) of the 100 patients included. 13 (13%) subjects were classified as null-responders, 33(33%) as non-responders, 9 (9%) as breakthrough and 9(9%) as relapsers. In the multivariate model only being infected with genotype 2 or 3 (p<0.01) and having low levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) at baseline (p = 0.04), were predictive of SVR. CONCLUSION: SVR in HCV/HIV co-infected subjects in a public health setting is similar to that observed in clinical trials, albeit very low. A delay in therapy initiation should be considered until new therapies as direct acting antiviral drugs (DAA) become widely available and tested in coinfected subjects.
Project description:Approximately 180 million people worldwide, (3 % of the world's population) are infected with hepatitis C (HCV). Insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are common extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection and associated with poor treatment and liver-related outcomes. The presence of these metabolic complications have been associated with poor response to interferon-based HCV antiviral therapy and increased risk of liver-related outcomes. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer is known to improve HCV treatment response and has been associated with a reduced risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study will evaluate the effect of metformin on preventing progression or promoting regression of liver fibrosis, rate of virologic cure (SVR) and other metabolic measures in HCV-HIV co-infected and HCV mono-infected study participants who have IR and are planning on initiating HCV treatment.This study is a prospective 48-week single-centre, randomized, open-label, controlled trial of HIV-HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients with IR (HOMA-IR???2.0) who are planning to initiate HCV antiviral therapy. Sixty participants will be recruited from The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either arm 1, metformin 2 g (1 g twice daily) plus lifestyle, or to arm 2, lifestyle alone. The primary outcome will be the change in FibroScan® score (kPa) from baseline to week 12 (start of HCV treatment), the end of HCV treatment (week 24) and 24 weeks post HCV treatment (week 48). Secondary outcomes include changes in liver fibrosis using AST to platelet ratio index, changes in glucose and lipid levels, anthropometric measures, changes in alpha-fetoprotein levels, patient acceptability, and changes in dietary and physical activity parameters.This pilot study will be the first to evaluate the role of metformin on liver fibrosis in HCV-HIV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients with IR receiving DAA HCV treatment. If metformin is effective in reducing liver fibrosis in this patient population, this will represent a well-tolerated, easy-to-administer, inexpensive therapy that will protect against negative HCV outcomes. This study will also be an opportunity to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia on viral clearance in HCV-infected patients treated with interferon-free regimens.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02306070 version 4.0 (June 29, 2015).
Project description:HIV-HCV co-infected subjects are at risk of liver fibrosis which may be linked to immune imbalances. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) represent the mainstay of HCV treatment in co-infected individuals, yet their effects on immune cell populations playing a role in fibrogenesis is unknown. We assessed γδ T-cell phenotype and function, Treg and Th17 frequencies, as well as γ-globulins and B-cell activation in 47 HIV-HCV co-infected and 35 HCV mono-infected individuals prior to and following DAA treatment (SVR12). Γδ T-cell activation decreased in both groups yet persisted at higher levels in the HIV-HCV co-infected subjects. No differences were registered in terms of γδT-cell function. Of note, the Vδ2/Th17 ratio, inversely linked to liver damage, increased significantly in the two groups upon treatment, yet a negative correlation between the Vδ2/Th17 ratio and liver function enzymes was found in the co-infected subjects alone. B-cell activation and γ-globulin levels decreased in both settings, yet B-cell activation remained higher in the HIV-HCV co-infected individuals. In HIV-HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected participants, the effect of DAA was limited to γδ T- and B-cell activation as well as γ-globulin concentrations and the Vδ2/Th17 ratio, with no changes in γδ T-cell function and Treg frequencies. Importantly, γδ T- and B-cell activation remained at higher levels in the co-infected individuals than in those with HCV mono-infection alone. The persistence of such alterations within these cell subsets may be associated with the risk of hepatic and extrahepatic complications.