Association of loneliness with all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Loneliness has social and health implications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association of loneliness with all-cause mortality.Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched through June 2016 for published articles that measured loneliness and mortality. The main characteristics and the effect size values of each article were extracted. Moreover, an evaluation of the quality of the articles included was also carried out. A meta-analysis was performed firstly with all the included articles and secondly separating by gender, using a random effects model.A total of 35 articles involving 77220 participants were included in the systematic review. Loneliness is a risk factor for all-cause mortality [pooled HR = 1.22, 95% CI = (1.10, 1.35), p < 0.001] for both genders together, and for women [pooled HR = 1.26, 95% CI = (1.07, 1.48); p = 0.005] and men [pooled HR = 1.44; 95% CI = (1.19, 1.76); p < 0.001] separately.Loneliness shows a harmful effect for all-cause mortality and this effect is slightly stronger in men than in women. Moreover, the impact of loneliness was independent from the quality evaluation of each article and the effect of depression.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Diabetic dialysis patients have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general population. While statin treatment is effective in prevention of CVD and all-cause mortality in general population, the use of statin in diabetic dialysis patients remains controversial. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of statin treatment on prevention of CVD and all-cause mortality in diabetic dialysis patients by meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched between each database's inception and July, 2014. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for CVD and all-cause mortality was extracted from each study. The pooled analysis was performed using random-effects models by Stata 12.0. RESULTS: Our search yielded five eligible articles including two RCTs and three observational studies. By pooled estimate, statin treatment was associated with a decreased risk of the cardiac endpoint which included cardiac death and nonfatal MI (HR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.78-0.90) and all cardiac events combined (HR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96). There was no difference in the overall incidence of fatal or nonfatal stroke (HR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.99-1.53) and all cerebrovascular events combined (HR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.98-1.33) between statin treatment and control group. Finally, statin treatment was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Statin treatment may be beneficial for reducing the risk of cardiac events and all-cause mortality while have no effect on overall cerebrovascular events in diabetic dialysis patients. More RCTs were needed to validate the results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous studies have shown sex-specific differences in all-cause and CHD mortality in type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a global picture of the estimated influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and CHD mortality in women versus men. METHODS:We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published from their starting dates to 7 Aug 2018. The sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and their pooled ratio (women vs. men) of all-cause and CHD mortality associated with type 2 diabetes were obtained through an inverse-variance weighted random-eﬀects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS:The 35 analyzed prospective cohort studies included 2,314,292 individuals, among whom 254,038 all-cause deaths occurred. The pooled women vs. men ratio of the HRs for all-cause and CHD mortality were 1.17 (95% CI 1.12-1.23, I2=81.6%) and 1.97 (95% CI 1.49-2.61, I2=86.4%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the HR for all-cause mortality was approximately 1.30 in articles in which the duration of follow-up longer than 10 years, and 1.10 in articles in which the duration of follow-up less than 10 years. The pooled HRs for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes was 2.33 (95% CI 2.02-2.69) in women and 1.91 (95% CI 1.72-2.12) in men, compared with their healthy counterparts. CONCLUSIONS:The effect of diabetes on all-cause and CHD mortality is approximately 17% and 97% greater, respectively, for women than for men.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) has a pretty high incidence in dialysis patients and may be associated with their prognosis. AAC can be assessed by abdominal CT or X-ray. We determined to investigate whether the occurrence of AAC is associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events in dialysis patients through this meta-analysis and systematic review. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Medline databases to collect cohort studies investigating whether AAC is associated with all-cause mortality and CV events of patients, and we also searched gray articles and conferences abstracts. Meta-analysis was performed by STATA software. Pooled results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fixed-effect models were used to pool the HR of each trial. RESULTS:10 studies (2,724 dialysis patients) were identified. The presence of AAC was associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality among dialysis patients (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.03-3.98; I2 = 9.8%; P = 0.354). Meanwhile, there was an association between AAC and increased risk for all CV events (fatal and non-fatal) in patients (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.51-2.76, I2 = 44.6%; P = 0.125). 3 studies presented their endpoint as CV mortality, and the pooled HR was 2.46 (95%CI 1.38-4.40; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.952). There were also 2 studies that reported their primary endpoint as all-cause mortality and CV events, and the pooled HR was 5.72 (95% CI 3.24-10.10; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.453). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients treated with dialysis, AAC is associated with adverse outcomes, including all-cause mortality and CV events (fatal and non-fatal). The abdominal X-ray or CT scan can be used as a useful added method to evaluate the patient's calcification. This may provide reasonable data for estimating the risk of adverse events in dialysis patients, which is helpful in guiding clinical treatment and improving the prognosis of dialysis patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between depression and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in people with diabetes by systematically reviewing the literature and carrying out a meta-analysis of relevant longitudinal studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PUBMED and PSYCINFO were searched for articles assessing mortality risk associated with depression in diabetes up until August 16, 2012. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which were pooled in an overall all-cause mortality estimate, and five in a cardiovascular mortality estimate. After adjustment for demographic variables and micro- and macrovascular complications, depression was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.29-1.66), and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11-1.73). Heterogeneity across studies was high for all-cause mortality and relatively low for cardiovascular mortality, with an I-squared of respectively 78.6% and 39.6%. Subgroup analyses showed that the association between depression and mortality not significantly change when excluding three articles presenting odds ratios, yet this decreased heterogeneity substantially (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.39-1.61, I-squared = 15.1%). A comparison between type 1 and type 2 diabetes could not be undertaken, as only one study reported on type 1 diabetes specifically. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with an almost 1.5-fold increased risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Research should focus on both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death associated with depression, and determine the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may explain this association.
Project description:Recently, a number of observational studies have suggested that use of statins reduces mortality in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To obtain a more valid assessment, we update the meta-analysis of the effect of statins on COPD exacerbation and mortality. We searched for eligible articles using PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Databases and Web of Science between January 2006 and February 2017, with no restrictions. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plot and Begg's test. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Twenty studies with a total of 303,981 patients were included. Thirteen articles provided data on all-cause mortality (165,221 participants), and the pooled hazard ratio of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.57-0.74, <i>P</i> < 0.001). Nine cohorts involving 155,435 patients reported data for COPD exacerbation with or without hospitalization, and they gave a HR of 0.58(95%CI: 0.48-0.72, <i>P</i> < 0.001). Our systematic review of exclusively observational studies showed a clear benefit of statins for patients suffering from COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in people living with HIV (PLWH). We conducted a meta analysis to assess the effect of tuberculosis on mortality in people living with HIV. METHODS: Meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing the effect of tuberculosis on mortality in PLWH. To identify eligible studies we systematically searched electronic databases (until December 2008), performed manual searches of citations from relevant articles, and reviewed conference proceedings. Multivariate hazard ratios (HR) of mortality in PLWH with and without tuberculosis, estimated in individual cohort studies, were pooled using random effect weighting according to "Der Simonian Laird method" if the p-value of the heterogeneity test was <0.05. RESULTS: Fifteen cohort studies were systematically retrieved. Pooled overall analysis of these 15 studies estimating the effect of tuberculosis on mortality in PLWH showed a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-2.3). Subanalysis of 8 studies in which the cohort was not exposed to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed an HR of 2.6 (95% CI: 1.8-3.6). Subanalysis of 6 studies showed that tuberculosis did not show an effect on mortality in PLWH exposed to HAART: HR 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9-1.3). CONCLUSION: These results provide an indication of the magnitude of benefit to an individual that could have been expected if tuberculosis had been prevented. It emphasizes the need for additional studies assessing the effect of preventing tuberculosis or early diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in PLWH on reducing mortality. Furthermore, the results of the subgroup analyses in cohorts largely exposed to HAART provide additional support to WHO's revised guidelines, which include promoting the initiation of HAART for PLWH co-infected with tuberculosis. The causal effect of tuberculosis on mortality in PLWH exposed to HAART needs to be further evaluated once the results of more cohort studies become available.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on cardiovascular (CV) risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) are uncertain. Our objective was to analyze the effects of ACE/ARBs, on the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, CV events, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive patients with T2 DM. METHOD: PubMed and Embase databases were searched through January 2014 to identify studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria and references in the published articles were also reviewed. Two investigators independently extracted the information with either fixed-effect model or random-effect model to assess the effects of ACE/ARBs treatment in hypertensive patients with T2 DM. RESULTS: Ten randomized controlled studies were included with a total of 21,871 participants. Overall, treatment with ACE/ARBs in hypertensive patients with T2 DM was associated with a statistically significant 10% reduction in CV events, pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 0.90 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.82-0.98] with no heterogeneity (I2 = 19.50%; P = 0.275);and 17% reduction in CV mortality, pooled HR of 0.83 [95% CI: 0.72-0.96] with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0.9%; P = 0.388). ACE/ARBs was not associated with MI, stroke and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ACE/ARBs results in significant reduction in CV events and mortality in hypertensive patients with T2 DM.
Project description:Background:Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder,. although controversial, growing evidence relates the presence of RLS to an increased risk of mortality, mainly due to cardiovascular events. The aim of this article was to review the role of RLS as a risk factor of mortality according to independent cohort studies. Methods:We performed a literature review via PubMed database for articles relating RLS and mortality. We used the random-effects model to calculate the pooled effect estimates on mortality. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results:Out of 100 articles identified, 13 were finally included. Although studies were heterogeneous (p = 0.001), no significant publication bias was found. When all cohort studies were considered, the random-effects model yielded a significantly increased risk of mortality in RLS versus non-RLS patients (13 studies, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.80). However, this association was not statistically significant when only cohort studies using the international RLS diagnostic criteria were considered (5 studies, HR = 1.63, 95% CI 0.94-2.81). Discussion:The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RLS seems to be a risk factor of mortality, although this association is conditioned by the diagnostic criteria used in the studies. Future long-term follow-up standardized mortality studies are needed to address this important question that carries potential impact on population global health.
Project description:Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15-1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20-1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (? 2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83-1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (> 2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aims to review the evidence of sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among nursing home residents.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies.<h4>Data sources</h4>PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant articles.<h4>Participants</h4>Nursing home residents.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>All-cause mortality.<h4>Data analysis</h4>Summary-adjusted HRs or risk ratios (RRs) were calculated by fixed-effects model. The risk of bias was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.<h4>Results</h4>Of 2292 studies identified through the systematic review, six studies (1494 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality among nursing home residents (pooled HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.45, p<0.001, I<sup>2</sup>=0). In addition, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with all-cause mortality (pooled HR 1.87,95% CI 1.38 to 2.52, p<0.001) when studies with a follow-up period of 1?year or more were analysed; however, this was not found for studies with the follow-up period less than 1?year. Furthermore, sarcopenia was significantly associated with the risk of mortality among older nursing home residents when using bioelectrical impedance analysis to diagnosis muscle mass (pooled HR 1.88, 95%?CI 1.39 to 2.53, p<0.001); whereas, it was not found when anthropometric measures were used to diagnosis muscle mass.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Sarcopenia is a significant predictor of all-cause mortality among older nursing home residents. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat sarcopenia to reduce mortality rates among nursing home residents.<h4>Prospero registration number</h4>CRD42018081668.