QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis of cowpea reveals candidate genes for root-knot nematode resistance.
ABSTRACT: Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN). Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL) population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL) were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.
Project description:Genome resolution of a major QTL associated with the Rk locus in cowpea for resistance to root-knot nematodes has significance for plant breeding programs and R gene characterization. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a susceptible host of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN), major plant-parasitic pests in global agriculture. To date, breeding for host resistance in cowpea has relied on phenotypic selection which requires time-consuming and expensive controlled infection assays. To facilitate marker-based selection, we aimed to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring the resistance trait. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) and two F2:3 populations, each derived from a cross between a susceptible and a resistant parent, were genotyped with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The populations were screened in the field for root-galling symptoms and/or under growth-chamber conditions for nematode reproduction levels using M. incognita and M. javanica biotypes. One major QTL was mapped consistently on linkage group VuLG11 of each population. By genotyping additional cowpea lines and near-isogenic lines derived from conventional backcrossing, we confirmed that the detected QTL co-localized with the genome region associated with the Rk locus for RKN resistance that has been used in conventional breeding for many decades. This chromosomal location defined with flanking markers will be a valuable target in marker-assisted breeding and for positional cloning of genes controlling RKN resistance.
Project description:Host plant resistance is the most practical approach to control the Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita; RKN), which has emerged as one of the most serious economic pests of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Previous QTL analyses have identified a resistance locus on chromosome 11 (qMi-C11) affecting galling and another locus on chromosome-14 (qMi-C14) affecting egg production. Although these two QTL regions were fine mapped and candidate genes identified, expression profiling of genes would assist in further narrowing the list of candidate genes in the QTL regions. We applied the comparative transcriptomic approach to compare expression profiles of genes between RKN susceptible and resistance genotypes at an early stage of RKN development that coincides with the establishment of a feeding site and at the late stage of RKN development that coincides with RKN egg production. Sequencing of cDNA libraries produced over 315 million reads of which 240 million reads (76%) were mapped on to the Gossypium hirsutum genome. A total of 3,789 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified which were further grouped into four clusters based on their expression profiles. A large number of DEGs were found to be down regulated in the susceptible genotype at the late stage of RKN development whereas several genes were up regulated in the resistant genotype. Key enriched categories included transcription factor activity, defense response, response to phyto-hormones, cell wall organization, and protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Our results also show that the DEGs in the resistant genotype at qMi-C11 and qMi-C14 loci displayed higher expression of defense response, detoxification and callose deposition genes, than the DEGs in the susceptible genotype.
Project description:The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita; RKN) is one of the most important economic pests of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Host plant resistance, the ability of a plant to suppress nematode reproduction, is the most economical, practical, and environmentally sound method to provide protection against this subterranean pest. The resistant line Auburn 623RNR and a number of elite breeding lines derived from it remain the most important source of root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance. Prior genetic analysis has identified two epistatically interacting RKN resistance QTLs, qMi-C11 and qMi-C14, affecting gall formation and RKN reproduction, respectively.We developed a genetic population segregating only for the qMi-C14 locus and evaluated the genetic effects of this QTL on RKN resistance in the absence of the qMi-C11 locus. The qMi-C14 locus had a LOD score of 12 and accounted for 24.5 % of total phenotypic variation for egg production. In addition to not being significantly associated with gall formation, this locus had a lower main effect on RKN reproduction than found in our previous study, which lends further support to evidence of epistasis with qMi-C11 in imparting RKN resistance in the Auburn 623RNR source. The locus qMi-C14 was fine-mapped with the addition of 16 newly developed markers. By using the reference genome sequence of G. raimondii, we identified 20 candidate genes encoding disease resistance protein homologs in the newly defined 2.3 Mb region flanked by two SSR markers. Resequencing of an RKN resistant and susceptible G. hirsutum germplasm revealed non-synonymous mutations in only four of the coding regions of candidate genes, and these four genes are consequently of high interest.Our mapping results validated the effects of the qMi-C14 resistance locus, delimiting the QTL to a smaller region, and identified tightly linked SSR markers to improve the efficiency of marker-assisted selection. The candidate genes identified warrant functional studies that will help in identifying and characterizing the actual qMi-C14 defense gene(s) against root-knot nematodes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS) profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. RESULTS: Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk) were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi). At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue) and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue). At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.
Project description:The root knot nematodes (RKN), Meloydogine spp., particularly Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica species, parasitize several plant species and are responsible for large annual yield losses all over the world. Only a few available chemical nematicides are still authorized for RKN control owing to environmental and health reasons. Thus, plant resistance is currently considered the method of choice for controlling RKN, and research performed on the molecular interactions between plants and nematodes to identify genes of interest is of paramount importance. The present work aimed to identify the differential accumulation of root proteins of a resistant cowpea genotype (CE-31) inoculated with M. incognita (Race 3) in comparison with mock-inoculated control, using 2D electrophoresis assay, mass spectrometry identification and gene expression analyses by RT-PCR. The results showed that at least 22 proteins were differentially represented in response to RKN challenge of cowpea roots mainly within 4-6 days after inoculation. Amongst the up-represented proteins were SOD, APX, PR-1, ?-1,3-glucanase, chitinases, cysteine protease, secondary metabolism enzymes, key enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, proteins involved in MAPK pathway signaling and, surprisingly, leghemoglobin in non-rhizobium-bacterized cowpea. These findings show that an important rearrangement in the resistant cowpea root proteome occurred following challenge with M. incognita.
Project description:With the banning of most chemical nematicides, the control of root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in vegetable crops is now based essentially on the deployment of single, major resistance genes (R-genes). However, these genes are rare and their efficacy is threatened by the capacity of RKNs to adapt. In pepper, several dominant R-genes are effective against RKNs, and their efficacy and durability have been shown to be greater in a partially resistant genetic background. However, the genetic determinants of this partial resistance were unknown. Here, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the F2:3 population from the cross between Yolo Wonder, an accession considered partially resistant or resistant, depending on the RKN species, and Doux Long des Landes, a susceptible cultivar. A genetic linkage map was constructed from 130 F2 individuals, and the 130 F3 families were tested for resistance to the three main RKN species, Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica. For the first time in the pepper-RKN pathosystem, four major QTLs were identified and mapped to two clusters. The cluster on chromosome P1 includes three tightly linked QTLs with specific effects against individual RKN species. The fourth QTL, providing specific resistance to M. javanica, mapped to pepper chromosome P9, which is known to carry multiple NBS-LRR repeats, together with major R-genes for resistance to nematodes and other pathogens. The newly discovered cluster on chromosome P1 has a broad spectrum of action with major additive effects on resistance. These data highlight the role of host QTLs involved in plant-RKN interactions and provide innovative potential for the breeding of new pepper cultivars or rootstocks combining quantitative resistance and major R-genes, to increase both the efficacy and durability of RKN control by resistance genes.
Project description:The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita severely reduces yields of pepper (Capsicum annuum) worldwide. A single dominant locus, Me7, conferring RKN resistance was previously mapped on the long arm of pepper chromosome P9. In the present study, the Me7 locus was fine mapped using an F2 population of 714 plants derived from a cross between the RKN-susceptible parent C. annuum ECW30R and the RKN-resistant parent C. annuum CM334. CM334 exhibits suppressed RKN juvenile movement, suppressed feeding site enlargement and significant reduction in gall formation compared with ECW30R. RKN resistance screening in the F2 population identified 558 resistant and 156 susceptible plants, which fit a 3:1 ratio confirming that this RKN resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. Using the C. annuum CM334 reference genome and BAC library sequencing, fine mapping of Me7 markers was performed. The Me7 locus was delimited between two markers G21U3 and G43U3 covering a physical interval of approximately 394.7 kb on the CM334 chromosome P9. Nine markers co-segregated with the Me7 gene. A cluster of 25 putative nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type disease resistance genes were predicted in the delimited Me7 region. We propose that RKN resistance in CM334 is mediated by one or more of these NBS-LRR class R genes. The Me7-linked markers identified here will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for RKN resistance in pepper breeding programs, as well as functional analysis of Me7 candidate genes in C. annuum.
Project description:Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs.
Project description:The objective of this study was to use next-generation sequencing technologies to dissect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for southern root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance into individual genes in soybean. Two hundred forty-six recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between Magellan (susceptible) and PI 438489B (resistant) were evaluated for RKN resistance in a greenhouse and sequenced at an average of 0.19× depth. A sequence analysis pipeline was developed to identify and validate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), infer the parental source of each SNP allele, and genotype the RIL population. Based on 109,273 phased SNPs, recombination events in RILs were identified, and a total of 3,509 bins and 3,489 recombination intervals were defined. About 50.8% of bins contain 1 to 10 genes. A linkage map was subsequently constructed by using bins as molecular markers. Three QTL for RKN resistance were identified. Of these, one major QTL was mapped to bin 10 of chromosome 10, which is 29.7 kb in size and harbors three true genes and two pseudogenes. Based on sequence variations and gene-expression analysis, the candidate genes underlying the major QTL for RKN resistance were pinpointed. They are Glyma10g02150 and Glyma10g02160, encoding a pectin methylesterase inhibitor and a pectin methylesterase inhibitor -pectin methylesterase, respectively. This QTL mapping approach not only combines SNP discovery, SNP validation, and genotyping, but also solves the issues caused by genome duplication and repetitive sequences. Hence, it can be widely used in crops with a reference genome to enhance QTL mapping accuracy.
Project description:The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.