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Phylogeny, novel bacterial lineage and enzymatic potential of haloalkaliphilic bacteria from the saline coastal desert of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT: This report describes cultivation-dependent diversity, phylogeny and enzymatic potential of the haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the unvegetated desert soil of yet unexplored, saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch (LRK), India. The LRK is a unique ecosystem displaying a combination of Dry Rann and Wet Rann. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated and characterized on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical profile, sugar utilization, secretion of the extracellular enzymes and antibiotic sensitivity. Further, the identification and phylogenetic relatedness of 23 bacteria were established by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates belong to the phylum Firmicutes, comprising low G + C, Gram-positive bacteria, with different genera: Bacillus (~ 39%), Staphylococcus (~ 30%), Halobacillus (~ 13%), Virgibacillus (~ 13%), Oceanobacillus (~ 4%). Majority of the bacterial isolates produced proteases (30% isolates) followed by cellulases (24% isolates), CMCases (24% isolates) and amylases (20% isolates). Halobacillus, Virgibacillus and Bacillus predominantly produced hydrolases, while many produced multiple enzymes at high salinity and alkaline pH. Highest antibiotic resistance was observed against Ampicillin and Penicillin (32%) followed by Cefaclor (20%); Colistin, Cefoperazone and Cefotaxime (16%); Cefuroxime (12%); Gentamycin and Cefixime (8%); Erythromycin, Cefadroxil, Azithromycin, Co-trimoxazole, Amoxycillin, Norfloxacin, Cefpodoxime, Amikacin and Augmentin (4%). KJ1-10-99 and KJ1-10-93 representing < 97% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity belong to a novel lineage within the family Bacillaceae. Comparison of the phenogram and phylogram revealed the contradiction of the phenogram pattern and the phylogenetic placement of the isolates. The isolates belonging to same species have shown considerable phenotypic variation. The study on the cultivable haloalkaliphilic bacteria of an unexplored enigmatic niche reflects ecological and biotechnological significance.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5754276 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01


REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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