Acculturation orientations affect the evolution of a multicultural society.
ABSTRACT: The migration of people between different cultures has affected cultural change throughout history. To understand this process, cross-cultural psychologists have used the 'acculturation' framework, classifying 'acculturation orientations' along two dimensions: the willingness to interact with culturally different individuals, and the inclination to retain the own cultural identity ('cultural conservatism'). Here, using a cultural evolution approach, we construct a dynamically explicit model of acculturation. We show that the evolution of a multicultural society, where immigrant and resident culture stably coexist, is more likely if individuals readily engage in cross-cultural interactions, and if resident individuals are more culturally conservative than immigrants. This result holds if some cultural traits pay off better than others, and individuals use social learning to adopt more advantageous cultural traits. Our study demonstrates that formal dynamic models can help us understand how individual orientations towards immigration eventually determine the population-level distribution of cultural traits.
Project description:How do migration and acculturation (i.e. psychological or behavioral change resulting from migration) affect within- and between-group cultural variation? Here I address this question by drawing analogies between genetic and cultural evolution. Population genetic models show that migration rapidly breaks down between-group genetic structure. In cultural evolution, however, migrants or their descendants can acculturate to local behaviors via social learning processes such as conformity, potentially preventing migration from eliminating between-group cultural variation. An analysis of the empirical literature on migration suggests that acculturation is common, with second and subsequent migrant generations shifting, sometimes substantially, towards the cultural values of the adopted society. Yet there is little understanding of the individual-level dynamics that underlie these population-level shifts. To explore this formally, I present models quantifying the effect of migration and acculturation on between-group cultural variation, for both neutral and costly cooperative traits. In the models, between-group cultural variation, measured using F statistics, is eliminated by migration and maintained by conformist acculturation. The extent of acculturation is determined by the strength of conformist bias and the number of demonstrators from whom individuals learn. Acculturation is countered by assortation, the tendency for individuals to preferentially interact with culturally-similar others. Unlike neutral traits, cooperative traits can additionally be maintained by payoff-biased social learning, but only in the presence of strong sanctioning mechanisms (e.g. institutions). Overall, the models show that surprisingly little conformist acculturation is required to maintain realistic amounts of between-group cultural diversity. While these models provide insight into the potential dynamics of acculturation and migration in cultural evolution, they also highlight the need for more empirical research into the individual-level learning biases that underlie migrant acculturation.
Project description:School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants' acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement) through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland), those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal), and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia). In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students' ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.
Project description:Acculturative stress is a phenomenon describing negative emotions experienced by immigrants in their socio-cultural and psychological adaptation process to the host society's dominant culture and its population. Acculturative stress is assumed to be one the reasons for higher prevalence of postnatal depression among immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women. Theories and models of acculturation and coping strategies suggest that certain cultural orientations or behaviors could mitigate acculturative stress and postnatal depression. Nevertheless, quantitative studies applying these theories have so far revealed inconsistent results. Given this background, we ask: what can a qualitative study of immigrant women's postnatal experiences tell us about the interrelationships between immigrant mothers' acculturation behaviors or cultural orientations, and maternal psychological health? Particularly, we explore the postnatal experiences of Chinese and Japanese women who gave birth in Austria, focusing on their experiences and behaviors influenced by their heritage culture's postnatal practices (zuò yuè zi and satogaeri). Theoretically, we apply Berry's acculturation model through a focus on what we call 'Postnatal Acculturative Stress' (PAS). By doing so, we identify factors that prevent or mitigate PAS. Another aim of this article is to critically reassess Berry's model in the context of postnatal care and maternal psychological health. Data were analyzed using a combination of deductive and inductive method through the application of directed content analysis and phenomenological approach. Women's postnatal experiences were summarized as an 'unexpected solitary struggle in the midst of dual identity change' in four specific domains: postnatal rest and diet, social support, feelings toward significant others and identity. Preventive and mitigating factors against PAS included trust (in self and one's health beliefs) and mutual respectful relationships with and between the significant others. The application of Berry's acculturation model provided a useful framework of analysis. Nevertheless, the multifarious complexity involved in the process of acculturation as well as different power dynamics in the family and healthcare settings makes it difficult to draw causal relationships between certain acculturation behaviors or cultural orientations with specific health outcomes. Health professionals should be aware of the complex psychosocial processes, contexts as well as social environment that shape immigrants' acculturative behaviors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cultural changes faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities after moving to a host country may have a detrimental or beneficial influence on their oral health and oral health-related behaviors. Therefore, this paper reviews the literature to see the impact of acculturation on immigrants and ethnic minorities' oral health outcomes. METHODS:We searched seven electronic databases up to January 2018. All cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative studies that examined associations between acculturation and oral health status and/or oral health behaviors among ethnic minority and immigrant population[s] were included. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. The Newcastle-Ottawa checklist was used to appraise the methodological quality of the quantitative studies. A meta-analytic approach was not feasible. RESULTS:A total of 42 quantitative studies were identified. The studies showed a positive association between acculturation and oral health status/behaviors. The most frequently used acculturation indicators were language spoken by immigrant and ethnic minorities and length of stay at the host country. High-acculturated immigrant and ethnic minority groups demonstrated better oral health outcomes, oral health behaviors, dental care utilization, and dental knowledge. CONCLUSIONS:According to existing evidence, a positive effect of acculturation on oral health status and behaviors was found. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:Dental practitioners should be culturally competent to provide the appropriate services and treatments to immigrant and ethnic minorities. Policymakers should also be sensitive to cultural diversities and properly address the unique needs of each group in order to maintain oral health equity.
Project description:Many studies have explored the social consequences of ethnic essentialism in recent decades. In addition, a few studies have focused on the impact of perceived cultural context on ethnic essentialism. However, it is not clear why perceived cultural context can lead to changes in ethnic essentialism. In the present study, we hypothesized that the cultural anxiety of ethnic minorities may trigger a strong endorsement of and support for a multicultural ideology, thereby affecting beliefs about ethnic groups. To address the issue, 226 Tibetan and 102 Hui college students from Mainland China completed our questionnaires. The results across the two samples showed that (1) cultural anxiety was positively associated with both the endorsement of a multicultural ideology and ethnic essentialism, (2) cultural anxiety and the endorsement of a multicultural ideology positively predicted ethnic essentialism after controlling for demographic variables, and (3) cultural anxiety had both a direct effect on ethnic essentialism and an indirect effect on ethnic essentialism through the endorsement of a multicultural ideology. Our findings suggest that when ethnic minorities experience cultural anxiety, they might endorse a multicultural ideology and adopt essentialism to affirm their ethnic identities.
Project description:Few efficacious interventions for tobacco use exist for Latinos. Identification of cultural factors relevant to smoking among Latinos can inform the development of efficacious interventions for Latino smokers. Acculturation is associated with smoking, especially among Latinas, but extant research is limited by operationalization of acculturation with unidirectional, single-domain proxies. We examined associations of multiple domains of acculturation with gender and smoking status among Latino adults. Cross-sectional data from 140 bilingual Latino adults was utilized. Acculturation was measured with the 4 subscales of the Multidimensional Acculturation Scale II (MAS-II). Logistic regression analyses tested interaction effects between MAS-II American and Latino Cultural Identification subscales, English and Spanish Proficiency subscales, and their interactions with gender, on smoking status. Higher English Proficiency was associated with greater odds of being a smoker at Spanish Proficiency scores of 4.5 or higher. Higher Latino Cultural Identification was associated with lower odds of being a smoker among women, but not men. Acculturation toward American culture, per se, may not be a risk factor for smoking; rather, its influence depends on Latino culture maintenance. Unlike in other areas of mental/behavioral health among Latinos, biculturalism may not be protective against smoking. The association between acculturation and smoking among Latinas may be a function of loss of Latino culture identification. Intervention programs should consider targeting these at-risk individuals. Longitudinal work that corroborates current findings and identifies mechanisms underlying these associations is needed.
Project description:The population of immigrants in the U.S. continues to grow, with more than one million immigrants arriving every year. This study examines the acculturation of new immigrant and temporary resident children and their parents from Japan, as they navigate two cultures and seek a sense of belonging. Acculturation to a new culture poses various psychosocial challenges, including a loss of a sense of belonging, which can result in social isolation and withdrawal. Examination of the experiences of families from Japan, where group belonging is highly valued, can illuminate the role of belonging in acculturation. We examined individual interviews with 14 Japanese parents in U.S. southern cities. During the interviews, they described the experiences of a total of 23 children from preschool to 9th grade. Parents indicated an absence of a place for children where they feel a sense of belonging (i.e., <i>Ibasho</i>) in their local schools, which resulted in social isolation, psychological exhaustion, and a reluctance to seek support. Children, however, found their <i>Ibasho</i> at a Japanese Supplementary School, where they attended weekly to receive academic instruction in Japanese, enjoyed playing with Japanese friends, and gained energy to navigate challenges at their local schools. The Supplementary School also served as parents' <i>Ibasho</i> where they exchanged information to navigate cross-cultural experiences. This study has implications for how we can better support acculturation of new immigrant and temporary resident families including those from other cultural groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A well-established gender-differentiated association between acculturation and current smoking exists among Latino adults. There are far fewer studies on the potential influence of acculturation on smoking cessation, and extant findings are mixed. PURPOSE:Using a multidimensional measure of acculturation, the current study examined the independent and interactive associations of gender and acculturation with smoking cessation among Mexican American smokers engaged in a quit attempt. METHODS:Using a latent variable modeling approach to repeated measures analysis, the independent and interaction effects of acculturation in two cultural directions (American and Mexican) were examined for their prospective associations with smoking abstinence. Interactions of acculturation domains with gender were also examined. Acculturation was assessed at baseline and abstinence status was assessed at 3 and 26 weeks post-quit. RESULTS:The interaction of American and Mexican cultural identity was significantly associated with smoking abstinence, such that greater American cultural identity was positively associated with abstinence only among those with high Mexican cultural identity. The interaction of English proficiency with gender was significant such that English proficiency was positively associated with abstinence among men but not women. CONCLUSIONS:Findings in the cultural identity domain are consistent with a "benefits of biculturalism" perspective, and may be particularly relevant to the adoption of an American cultural orientation among persons with an already-strong heritage-culture orientation. Findings also replicate a gender-differentiated association between acculturation and cessation. Implications for treatment development and future research are discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We ascertained the degree to which language (English versus Spanish), and residence time in the US influence responses to survey questions concerning two topics: self-reported acculturation status, and recent physical activity (PA). This topic is likely to be of general interest because of growing numbers of immigrants in countries worldwide. METHODS: We carried out qualitative (cognitive) interviews of survey items on acculturation and physical activity on 27 Latino subjects from three groups: (a) In Spanish, of those of low residence time (less than five years living in the U.S.) (n = 9); (b) In Spanish, of those of high residence time (15 or more years in the U.S) (n = 9); and (c) in English, of those of high residence time (n = 9). RESULTS: There were very few language translation problems; general question design defects and socio-cultural challenges to survey responses were more common. Problems were found for both acculturation and PA questions, with distinct problem types for the two question areas. Residence time/language group was weakly associated with overall frequency of problems observed: low residence time/Spanish (86%), high residence time/Spanish (67%), and English speaking groups (62%). CONCLUSIONS: Standardized survey questions related to acculturation and physical activity present somewhat different cognitive challenges. For PA related questions, problems with such questions were similar regardless of subject residence time or language preference. For acculturation related questions, residence time/language or education level influenced responses to such questions. These observations should help in the interpretation of survey results for culturally diverse populations.
Project description:A systematic review of research published in English was conducted across seven electronic databases in psychology, health and social sciences. The aim was to ascertain the nature of mental health care workers' constructions about culturally and linguistically diverse individuals in order to facilitate provision of culturally appropriate service delivery and multicultural training. The constructs and perspectives of 5,870 mental health workers with regards to minority populations are represented across the 38 studies included. Key themes comprised: Aetiology of Constructions; Content of Constructions, Factors that Influence Constructions; Implications for Cultural Competence, Implications for the Therapeutic Alliance, Recommendations for Training, Recommendations for Practice and Recommendations for Research. The therapeutic alliance was most at risk when practitioners displayed low levels of cultural competency and high levels of racial and ethnic blindness. The changing and increasingly multicultural context within most countries means that mental health systems and workers need to prepare for an increasing range of culturally and linguistically diverse clients in need of support. Recommendations are explored for training, practice and research.