PANDER KO mice on high-fat diet are glucose intolerant yet resistant to fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.
ABSTRACT: The recent creation of the PANDER (pancreatic-derived factor) knockout (PANKO) and acute mouse models have revealed a biological function in the regulation of glycemic levels via promotion of hepatic glucose production (HGP) and pancreatic ?-cell insulin secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that the absence of PANDER may afford some degree of protection from high-fat diet (HFD) induced fasting hyperglycemia. On HFD, fasting glycemic levels were significantly lower in the PANKO mice. Also, fasting insulin levels and the in vivo insulin response following glucose injection were inhibited in PANKO mice. The lowered fasting glycemic levels are attributed to decreased HGP due to the absence of PANDER. Overall, our findings further indicate PANDER impacts glycemic levels and may represent a potential but complicated therapeutic target.
Project description:PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER) is a member of a superfamily of FAM3 proteins modulating glycemic levels by metabolic regulation of the liver and pancreas. The precise PANDER-induced hepatic signaling mechanism is still being elucidated and has been very complex due to the pleiotropic nature of this novel hormone. Our PANDER transgenic (PANTG) mouse displays a selective hepatic insulin resistant (SHIR) phenotype whereby insulin signaling is blunted yet lipogenesis is increased, a phenomena observed in type 2 diabetes. To examine the complex PANDER-induced mechanism of SHIR, we utilized quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) to reveal the global hepatic proteome differences within the PANTG under the metabolic states of fasting, fed and insulin-stimulated conditions. Proteomic analysis identified lipid metabolism as one of the top cellular functions differentially altered in all metabolic states. Differentially expressed proteins within the PANTG having a lipid metabolic role included ACC, ACLY, CD36, CYP7A1, FASN and SCD1. Central to the differentially expressed proteins involved in lipid metabolism was the predicted activation of the liver X receptor (LXR) pathway. Western analysis validated the increased hepatic expression of LXR? along with LXR-directed targets such as FASN and CYP7A1 within the PANTG liver. Furthermore, recombinant PANDER was capable of inducing LXR promoter activity in-vitro as determined by luciferase reporter assays. Taken together, PANDER strongly impacts hepatic lipid metabolism across metabolic states and may induce a SHIR phenotype via the LXR pathway.
Project description:Metformin is a first-line therapeutic option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, even though its underlying mechanisms of action are relatively unclear. Metformin lowers blood glucose levels by inhibiting hepatic glucose production (HGP), an effect originally postulated to be due to a hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. However, studies have questioned the contribution of hepatic AMPK to the effects of metformin on lowering hyperglycemia, and a gut-brain-liver axis that mediates intestinal nutrient- and hormone-induced lowering of HGP has been identified. Thus, it is possible that metformin affects HGP through this inter-organ crosstalk. Here we show that intraduodenal infusion of metformin for 50 min activated duodenal mucosal Ampk and lowered HGP in a rat 3 d high fat diet (HFD)-induced model of insulin resistance. Inhibition of duodenal Ampk negated the HGP-lowering effect of intraduodenal metformin, and both duodenal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp-1r)-protein kinase A (Pka) signaling and a neuronal-mediated gut-brain-liver pathway were required for metformin to lower HGP. Preabsorptive metformin also lowered HGP in rat models of 28 d HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and nicotinamide (NA)-streptozotocin (STZ)-HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. In an unclamped setting, inhibition of duodenal Ampk reduced the glucose-lowering effects of a bolus metformin treatment in rat models of diabetes. These findings show that, in rat models of both obesity and diabetes, metformin activates a previously unappreciated duodenal Ampk-dependent pathway to lower HGP and plasma glucose levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:To explore the effect of octreotide on pancreatic fibrosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and its mechanism of action. METHODS:Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to control, HFD, or octreotide treatment groups. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and fasting insulin (FINS), serum and pancreatic lipid levels, were measured, and the Lee's index and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index were calculated. The expression levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), desmin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), Smad3, and Smad7 in the pancreas were quantified. The LTC-14 cell line, which has features of primary rat pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), was used for in vitro studies. RESULTS:The AUC of ipGTT and ipITT, and FPG, FINS, lipid levels, were elevated after HFD feeding; however, they decreased after octreotide administration. The expression of ?-SMA, CTGF, TGF-?1, and Smad3 in the HFD group were increased relative to the control group, but Smad7 expression was decreased. After treatment with octreotide, ?-SMA, CTGF, TGF-?1, and Smad3 expression decreased, whereas the expression of Smad7 increased. In vitro studies showed that the expression of CTGF, TGF-?1, and Smad3 increased with palmitate treatment (PA), which mimics HFD treatment; and octreotide treatment decreased the expression of these proteins. The ?-SMA and Smad7 expression levels remained unchanged among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS:Octreotide can ameliorate pancreatic fibrosis and improve pancreatic beta-cell function induced in HFD treated rats, possibly by inhibiting PSC activation and by decreasing pancreatic extracellular matrix (ECM) through the TGF-?1/Smad signaling pathway.
Project description:FAM3B, also known as PANcreatic DERived factor (PANDER), promotes gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. However, the underlying mechanism(s) still remains largely unclear. This study determined the mechanism of PANDER-induced FOXO1 activation in hepatocytes. In mouse livers and cultured hepatocytes, PANDER protein is located in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Nuclear PANDER distribution was increased in the livers of obese mice. In cultured mouse and human hepatocytes, PANDER was co-localized with FOXO1 in the nucleus. PANDER directly interacted with FOXO1 in mouse and human hepatocytes. PANDER overexpression enhanced PANDER-FOXO1 interaction, and detained FOXO1 in the nucleus upon insulin stimulation in hepatocytes. With the increase in PANDER-FOXO1 interaction, PANDER overexpression upregulated the expression of gluconeogenic genes and promoted gluconeogenesis in both human and mouse hepatocytes. Luciferase reporter assays further revealed that PANDER augmented the transcriptional activity of FOXO1 on gluconeogenic genes. Moreover, PANDER overexpression also interfered the binding of AS1842856, a specific FOXO1 inhibitor, with FOXO1, and impaired its inhibitory effects on gluconeogenic gene expression and gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. siRNA mediated-silencing of FOXO1 inhibited PANDER-promoted gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in hepatocytes. In conclusion, PANDER protein is abundantly present in the nucleus, where it functions as a new co-activator of FOXO1 to induce gluconeogenic gene expression in hepatocytes.
Project description:Background:Dysregulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has various ancillary effects in addition to common blood pressure-lowering effects. The effects and mechanism of telmisartan on HGP have not been fully elucidated and, therefore, we investigated these phenomena in hyperglycemic HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Methods:Glucose production and glucose uptake were measured in HepG2 cells. Expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase α (G6Pase-α), and phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) were assessed by western blot analysis. Animal studies were performed using HFD-fed mice. Results:Telmisartan dose-dependently increased HGP, and PEPCK expression was minimally increased at a 40 μM concentration without a change in G6Pase-α expression. In contrast, telmisartan increased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser302 (p-IRS-1-Ser302) and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632 dose-dependently. Telmisartan dose-dependently increased p-PKCζ-Thr410 which is known to reduce insulin action by inducing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of dominant-negative PKCζ significantly attenuated telmisartan-induced HGP and p-IRS-1-Ser302 and -inhibited p-IRS-1-Tyr632. Among ARBs, including losartan and fimasartan, only telmisartan changed IRS-1 phosphorylation and pretreatment with GW9662, a specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, did not alter this effect. Finally, in the livers from HFD-fed mice, telmisartan increased p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632, which was accompanied by an increase in p-PKCζ-Thr410. Conclusion:These results suggest that telmisartan increases HGP by inducing p-PKCζ-Thr410 that increases p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreases p-IRS-1-Tyr632 in a PPARγ-independent manner.
Project description:Tissue macrophage inflammatory pathways contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here, we have examined the efficacy and mechanisms of action of a novel anti-inflammatory compound (HE3286) in vitro and in vivo. In primary murine macrophages, HE3286 attenuates LPS- and TNFalpha-stimulated inflammation. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression was downregulated in liver and adipose tissue by HE3286 treatment, as was macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In line with reduced inflammation, HE3286 treatment normalized fasting and fed glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and enhanced skeletal muscle and liver insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies. In phase 2 clinical trials, HE3286 treatment led to an enhancement in insulin sensitivity in humans. Gluconeogenic capacity was also reduced by HE3286 treatment, as evidenced by a reduced glycemic response during pyruvate tolerance tests and decreased basal hepatic glucose production (HGP) rates. Since serum levels of gluconeogenic substrates were decreased by HE3286, it indicates that the reduction of both intrinsic gluconeogenic capacity and substrate availability contributes to the decrease in HGP. Lipidomic analysis revealed that HE3286 treatment reduced liver cholesterol and triglyceride content, leading to a feedback elevation of LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase expression. Accordingly, HE3286 treatment markedly decreased total serum cholesterol. In conclusion, HE3286 is a novel anti-inflammatory compound, which displays both glucose-lowering and cholesterol-lowering effects.
Project description:While restoration of ACE2 activity in the pancreas leads to improvement of glycemia in experimental models of Type 2 diabetes, global deficiency in ACE2 disrupts ?-cell function and impairs glucose tolerance in mice, demonstrating the physiological role of ACE2 in glucose homeostasis. Although the contribution of pancreatic ACE2 to glucose regulation has been demonstrated in genetic models of diabetes and in models with overexpression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), it is unclear whether islet ACE2 is involved in glycemic control in common models of human Type 2 diabetes. To determine whether diet-induced diabetes deregulates glucose homeostasis via reduction of ACE2 in the pancreatic islets, wild-type (WT) and ACE2 knockout (KO) male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk. ACE2 KO mice were more susceptible than WT mice to HFD-mediated glycemic dysregulation. Islet ACE2 activity and expression of various genes, including ANG II type 1a receptor (mAT1aR) were then assessed. Surprisingly, we observed no change in islet ACE2 activity and expression despite local RAS overactivity, indicated by an upregulation of mAT1aR expression. Despite a predominant expression in islet ?-cells, further investigation highlighted a minor role for ACE2 on glucagon expression. Further, pancreatic ACE2 gene therapy improved glycemia in HFD-fed WT mice, leading to enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, reduced pancreatic ANG II levels, fibrosis, and ADAM17 activity. Altogether, our study demonstrates that HFD feeding increases RAS activity and mediates glycemic dysregulation likely through loss of ACE2 present outside the islets but independently of changes in islet ACE2.
Project description:Prolonged activation of p70 S6 kinase (S6K) by insulin and nutrients leads to inhibition of insulin signaling via negative feedback input to the signaling factor IRS-1. Systemic deletion of S6K protects against diet-induced obesity and enhances insulin sensitivity in mice. Herein, we present evidence suggesting that hypothalamic S6K activation is involved in the pathogenesis of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Extending previous findings that insulin suppresses hepatic glucose production (HGP) partly via its effect in the hypothalamus, we report that this effect was blunted by short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, with concomitant suppression of insulin signaling and activation of S6K in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Constitutive activation of S6K in the MBH mimicked the effect of the HFD in normal chow-fed animals, while suppression of S6K by overexpression of dominant-negative S6K or dominant-negative raptor in the MBH restored the ability of MBH insulin to suppress HGP after HFD feeding. These results suggest that activation of hypothalamic S6K contributes to hepatic insulin resistance in response to short-term nutrient excess.
Project description:Long non-coding RNA Gomafu is involved in diabetes-related diseases. However, its role in insulin resistance (IR) remains unclear. Our objective is to explore the role of Gomafu in hepatic IR and glucose intolerance. Gomafu expression was determined in livers of ob/ob mice and high-fat diet (HFD) mice. The binding activity of NF-?B on the Gomafu promoter was measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time PCR assays. Increased Gomafu expression was observed in the livers of obese mice. Besides, the binding of NF-?B on the Gomafu promoter was also observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Further study showed that knockdown of NF-?B p65 alleviated the increase in hepatic Gomafu expression in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of hepatic Gomafu inhibited hepatic glucose production (HGP) and improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice, whereas, overexpression of hepatic Gomafu resulted in an increase in random and fasting blood glucose levels in lean mice. In addition, we demonstrated that Gomafu functioned as miR-139 sponge and led to the de-repression of its target gene Foxo1, which played an important role in gluconeogenesis and HGP in hepatocytes. Finally, silenced Foxo1 expression abolished the effect of Gomafu overexpression on gluconeogenesis and glucose production in hepatocytes. Taken together, our data suggested that the increase in Gomafu expression contributed to hepatic IR in obese mice.
Project description:Objective: Recent studies demonstrate circulating serum spexin levels are reduced in obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and may play a role in glucose metabolism. The mechanism underlying is not known. In this study, we explore whether spexin has a role in insulin resistance and hepatic glucose metabolism. Methods: The correlation between serum spexin levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was studied in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. After intraperitoneal injection of exogenous spexin for 8 weeks, the effect of spexin on exogenous glucose infusion rates (GIR), and hepatic glucose production (HGP) were assessed by extended hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced rats. Glucose concentration with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of spexin expression in HepG2 cells culture was observed. Expression of transcription factors (Forkhead box O1, FoxO1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PGC-1?) and key enzymes (G-6-Pase and PEPCK) of gluconeogenesis pathway were observed in vitro and in vivo. Results: The serum spexin level was significantly low in newly diagnosed T2DM patients as compared with healthy patients and significantly negatively correlated with the HOMA-IR values. Exogenous spexin treatment resulted in weight loss and decrease of HOMA-IR value in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced rats. The exogenous glucose infusion rates (GIR) were higher in the HFD + spexin group than that in the HFD group (358 ± 32 vs. 285 ± 24 ?mol/kg/min, P < 0.05). Steady-state hepatic glucose production (HGP) was also suppressed by ~50% in the HFD + spexin group as compared with that in the HFD group. Furthermore, spexin inhibited gluconeogenesis in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in the insulin-resistant cell model. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown of spexin in HepG2 cells activated gluconeogenesis. Moreover, spexin was shown regulating gluconeogenesis by inhibiting FoxO1/PGC-1? pathway, and key gluconeogenic enzymes, (PEPCK and G-6-Pase) in both HFD-induced rats and insulin-resistant cells. Conclusions: Spexin plays an important role in insulin resistance in HFD-induced rats and insulin-resistant cells. Regulation of the effects of spexin on insulin resistance may hold therapeutic value for metabolic diseases.