Inhibition of neddylation facilitates cell migration through enhanced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 in PC3 and U373MG cells.
ABSTRACT: Protein neddylation is a post-translational modification by a covalent conjugation with the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8). Although this process has been reported to participate in diverse cellular signaling, little is known about its role in cancer cell migration. Given a recent proteomics report showing that NEDD8 is downregulated in prostate cancer tissues versus normal prostate tissues, we tested the possibility that neddylation plays a role in cancer evolution, and then tried to identify target proteins of the neddylation.The neddylation process was inhibited by transfecting cancer cells with NEDD8-targeting siRNAs or by treating the cells with a NAE1 inhibitor MLN4924. Cell migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound-healing assay and a Transwell migration assay. His/NEDD8-conjugated proteins were pulled down with nickel-affinity beads under a denaturing condition, and identified by Western blotting. All data were processed using the Microsoft Excel program and analyzed statistically by two-sided, unpaired Student's t-test.Caveolin-1, which plays a critical role in cell migration, was identified to be conjugated with NEDD8. When the neddylation was inhibited, the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at Tyr14 was augmented in PC3 and U373MG cells, thereby leading to increased cell migration. Such consequences by neddylation inhibition were abolished in the presence of a Src family kinase inhibitor PP2.NEDD8 seems to inhibit the Src-mediated phosphorylation of caveolin-1 by modifying the structure of caveolin-1 protein, which blocks the migration of cancer cells. Although the neddylation process is currently regarded as an emerging target for cancer therapy, our results suggest the possibility that the inhibition of neddylation could facilitate cancer invasion or metastasis at least in some types of cancers.
Project description:Sorafenib remains the standard care for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) even though it has low antitumor efficacy. Protein neddylation is abnormally activated in many types of human cancer. However, whether dysregulation of neddylation is involved in HCC progression and whether targeting neddylation sensitizes HCC cells to sorafenib need to be ascertained. In the present study, it was demonstrated that high expression of neddylation components, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8) and NEDD8‑activating enzyme 1 (NAE1), were associated with poor survival of patients with HCC. Inhibition of neddylation by MLN4924, a small‑molecule inhibitor of NAE1, significantly inhibited HCC growth, reduced clonogenic survival, increased apoptosis, and decreased migration capacity. Sorafenib alone exhibited minimal anticancer efficacy. However, a combination of sorafenib with MLN4924 at a low concentration significantly enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration as well as the induction of apoptosis induced by sorafenib. In vivo HCC xenograft mouse models also showed that MLN4924 increased the antitumor efficacy of sorafenib. Mechanistically, MLN4924 enhanced the antitumor activity of sorafenib in HCC cells via upregulation of cullin‑RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL)/Skp1‑Cullin1‑F box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase substrates p21, p27, Deptor and IκBɑ. Taken together, these findings suggest that combination therapy of MLN4924 with sorafenib appears to present an additive effect with a maximal in the treatment of HCC.
Project description:Therapeutic intervention in neddylation pathway is an emerging area for cancer treatment. Herein, we evaluated the clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Immunohistochemistry of neddylation pathway components in a cohort of 322 cases showed that E1 (NAE1 and UBA3) and E2 (UBC12) enzymes, as well as global NEDD8 conjugation, were upregulated in over 2/3 of human ICC. Notably, NAE1 was identified as an independent prognosticator for postoperative recurrence (P=0.009) and a combination of NEDD8 and NAE1 provided a better power for predicting patient clinical outcomes. In vitro treatment with MLN4924, a small-molecule NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, led to a dose-dependent decrease of viability in both established and primary cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Additionally, MLN4924 exhibited at least additive effect when combined with cisplatin. By blocking cullins neddylation, MLN4924 inactivated Cullin-Ring ligase (CRL) and caused the accumulation of CRL substrates that triggered cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Meanwhile, MLN4924 was well-tolerated and significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model of cholangiocarcinoma. Taken together, our findings indicated that upregulated neddylation pathway was involved in ICC progression and interference in this pathway could be a promising target for ICC therapy.
Project description:During development, ventricular chamber maturation is a crucial step in the formation of a functionally competent postnatal heart. Defects in this process can lead to left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy and heart failure. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ventricular chamber development remain incompletely understood. Neddylation is a posttranslational modification that attaches ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to protein targets via NEDD8-specific E1-E2-E3 enzymes. Here, we report that neddylation is temporally regulated in the heart and plays a key role in cardiac development. Cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of NAE1, a subunit of the E1 neddylation activating enzyme, significantly decreased neddylated proteins in the heart. Mice lacking NAE1 developed myocardial hypoplasia, ventricular noncompaction, and heart failure at late gestation, which led to perinatal lethality. NAE1 deletion resulted in dysregulation of cell cycle-regulatory genes and blockade of cardiomyocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro, which was accompanied by the accumulation of the Hippo kinases Mst1 and LATS1/2 and the inactivation of the YAP pathway. Furthermore, reactivation of YAP signaling in NAE1-inactivated cardiomyocytes restored cell proliferation, and YAP-deficient hearts displayed a noncompaction phenotype, supporting an important role of Hippo-YAP signaling in NAE1-depleted hearts. Mechanistically, we found that neddylation regulates Mst1 and LATS2 degradation and that Cullin 7, a NEDD8 substrate, acts as the ubiquitin ligase of Mst1 to enable YAP signaling and cardiomyocyte proliferation. Together, these findings demonstrate a role for neddylation in heart development and, more specifically, in the maturation of ventricular chambers and also identify the NEDD8 substrate Cullin 7 as a regulator of Hippo-YAP signaling.
Project description:Dysregulation of the neddylation pathway is related to various cancers. However, the specific role of the neddylation pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unclear. In this study, the neddylation pathway in HCC and adjacent noncancerous liver (ANL) tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting, and qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction). The results showed that the entire neddylation pathway, including NEDD8 (the IHC staining of NEDD8 represents the global-protein neddylation), E1 NEDD8-activating enzymes (NAE1 and UBA3), E2 NEDD8-conjugating enzymes (UBE2F and UBE2M), E3 NEDD8-ligases (MDM2, RBX1 and RNF7), and deneddylation enzymes (COPS5, UCHL1 and USP21), was overactivated in HCC. Furthermore, the upregulation of NEDD8 in HCC was correlated with aggressive characteristics and was an independent risk factor for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with HCC after hepatectomy. The upregulation of NAE1, UBE2M, and UCHL1 in HCC was associated with aggressive characteristics and poor OS and RFS in patients with HCC after hepatectomy. In conclusion, our research reveals that the entire neddylation pathway is overactivated in HCC and associated with clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with HCC.
Project description:Neddylation is a post-translational protein modification process associated with carcinogenesis and cancer development. MLN4924, a pharmaceutical neddylation inhibitor, induces potent anti-cancer effects in multiple types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of MLN4924 on human osteosarcoma (OS). Levels of both NEDD8 activating enzyme E1 (NAE1) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2M (Ube2M), two critical components of the neddylation pathway, were much higher in OS tissues and cells than in normal osseous tissues and cells. MLN4924 treatment led to DNA damage, reduced cell viability, senescence and apoptosis in OS cells. Moreover, MLN4924 inhibited OS xenograft tumor growth in mice. Mechanistically, MLN4924 blocked the neddylation of cullins and induced accumulation of several tumor-suppressive substrates of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), including CDT1, Wee1, p21, p27, Noxa, and p16. These results suggest clinical studies investigating the utility of MLN4924 for the treatment of OS are warranted.
Project description:Neddylation is a process by which NEDD8 is covalently conjugated to target proteins by sequential enzymatic reaction. Its role in cancer cell migration has only been recently acknowledged. Previously in cancer cell migration, the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process has been well-known to play an important role in both invasion and metastasis by promoting mesenchymal phenotype in epithelial cells. However, the role of neddylation in the EMT process and its mechanistic details are yet to be elucidated. We recently reported that neddylation plays a crucial role in cancer cell migration through the PI3K-Akt pathway. Here, we report that inhibiting neddylation activates the hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) through the PI3K-Akt pathway, which eventually regulates the EMT-activator ZEB1 (zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1) in various cancer cell lines. As induction of HIF-1? is known to deteriorate the state of cancer and EMT process is one of the hallmarks of metastasis in cancer, our findings uncover the role of neddylation between HIF-1? and ZEB1.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the USA with a 5-year survival rate less than 3% to 5%. Gemcitabine remains as a standard care for PDAC patients. Although protein neddylation is abnormally activated in many human cancers, whether neddylation dysregulation is involved in PDAC and whether targeting neddylation would sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine remain elusive. Here we report that high expression of neddylation components, NEDD8 and NAE1, are associated with poor survival of PDAC patients. Blockage of neddylation by MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor targeting this modification, significantly sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, as evidenced by reduced growth both in monolayer culture and soft agar, reduced clonogenic survival, decreased invasion capacity, increased apoptosis, G2/M arrest, and senescence. Importantly, combinational treatment of MLN4924-gemcitabine near completely suppressed in vivo growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Mechanistically, accumulation of NOXA, a pro-apoptotic protein and ERBIN, a RAS signal inhibitor, appears to play, at least in part, a causal role in MLN4924 chemo-sensitization. Our study demonstrates that neddylation modification is a valid target for PDAC, and provides the proof-of-concept evidence for future clinical trial of MLN4924-gemcitabine combination for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) shows limited therapeutic efficacy. PARP inhibitor has been approved to treat advanced BRCA-mutant breast cancer but shows high resistance. Therefore, the development of new therapeutics that sensitize TNBC irrespective of BRCA status is urgently needed. The neddylation pathway plays a critical role in many physiological processes by regulating the degradation of proteins. MLN4924, a selective inhibitor of the key neddylation enzyme NEDD8 Activation Enzyme (NAE1), shows higher sensitivity to both BRCA1-wild type and -mutant TNBCs compared to other breast cancer subtypes. MLN4924 induced re-replication with >4N DNA content leading to robust DNA damage. Accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage resulted in S and G2/M arrest causing apoptosis and senescence, due to the stabilization of the replication initiation protein CDT1 and the accumulation of cell cycle proteins upon MLN4924 treatment. Moreover, adding MLN4924 to the standard TNBC chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin increased the DNA damage level, further enhancing the sensitivity. In vivo, MLN4924 reduced tumor growth in a NOD-SCID mouse xenograft model by inducing DNA damage which was further augmented with the MLN4924 and cisplatin cotreatment. NAE1 is overexpressed in TNBC cell lines and in patients compared to other breast cancer subtypes suggesting that NAE1 status is prognostic of MLN4924 treatment response and outcome. Taken together, we demonstrated the mechanism of TNBC sensitization by the MLN4924 and MLN4924/cisplatin treatments irrespective of BRCA1 status, provided a strong justification for using MLN4924 alone or in combination with cisplatin, and identified a genetic background in which this combination will be particularly effective.
Project description:The cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) play crucial roles in modulating the stability of proteins in the cell and are, in turn, regulated by post-translational modification by the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein NEDD8. This process, termed neddylation, is reversible through the action of the COP9 signalosome (CSN); a multi-subunit metalloprotease conserved among eukaryotes that plays direct or indirect roles in DNA repair, cell signaling and cell cycle regulation in part through modulating the activity of the CRLs. Previously, inhibition of CRL neddylation by MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of the NEDD8-activating enzyme 1 (NAE1), was shown to induce interphase cell cycle arrest and cell death. Using fixed and living cell microscopy, we re-evaluated the cell cycle effects of inhibition of neddylation by MLN4924 in both asynchronous and mitotic cell populations. Consistent with previous studies, treatment of asynchronous cells with MLN4924 increased CDT1 expression levels, induced G2 arrest and increased nuclear size. However, in synchronized cells treated in mitosis, mitotic defects were observed including lagging chromosomes and binucleated daughter cells. Consistent with neddylation and deneddylation playing a role in cytokinesis, NEDD8, as well as subunits of the CSN, could be localized at the midbody and cleavage furrow. Finally, treatment of mitotic cells with MLN4924 induced the premature accumulation of MKLP1 at the cleavage furrow, a key regulator of cytokinesis, which was concomitant with increased abscission delay and failure. Thus, these studies uncover an uncharacterized mitotic effect of MLN4924 on MKLP1 accumulation at the midbody and support a role for neddylation during cytokinesis. Abbreviations: CSN, COP9 Signalosome; MKLP1, mitotic kinesin-like protein 1; NEDD8, Neural precursor cell Expressed, Developmentally Down-regulated 8.
Project description:Neddylation is a post-translational modification that controls the cell cycle and proliferation by conjugating the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to specific targets. Here we report that glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS), an essential enzyme in protein synthesis, also plays a critical role in neddylation. In human cells, knockdown of GlyRS, but not knockdown of a different tRNA synthetase, decreased the global level of neddylation and caused cell-cycle abnormality. This function of GlyRS is achieved through direct interactions with multiple components of the neddylation pathway, including NEDD8, E1, and E2 (Ubc12). Using various structural and functional approaches, we show that GlyRS binds the APPBP1 subunit of E1 and captures and protects activated E2 (NEDD8-conjugated Ubc12) before the activated E2 reaches a downstream target. Therefore, GlyRS functions as a chaperone that critically supports neddylation. This function is probably conserved in all eukaryotic GlyRS enzymes and may contribute to the strong association of GlyRS with cancer progression.