Molecular Defects of the Disease-Causing Human Arrestin-1 C147F Mutant.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular defect in the disease-causing human arrestin-1 C147F mutant.The binding of wild-type (WT) human arrestin-1 and several mutants with substitutions in position 147 (including C147F, which causes dominant retinitis pigmentosa in humans) to phosphorylated and unphosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin was determined. Thermal stability of WT and mutant human arrestin-1, as well as unfolded protein response in 661W cells, were also evaluated.WT human arrestin-1 was selective for phosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin. Substitutions of Cys-147 with smaller side chain residues, Ala or Val, did not substantially affect binding selectivity, whereas residues with bulky side chains in the position 147 (Ile, Leu, and disease-causing Phe) greatly increased the binding to unphosphorylated rhodopsin. Functional survival of mutant proteins with bulky substitutions at physiological and elevated temperature was also compromised. C147F mutant induced unfolded protein response in cultured cells.Bulky Phe substitution of Cys-147 in human arrestin-1 likely causes rod degeneration due to reduced stability of the protein, which induces unfolded protein response in expressing cells.
Project description:Arrestin-1 selectively binds active phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*), demonstrating much lower affinity for inactive phosphorylated (P-Rh) and unphosphorylated active (Rh*) forms. Receptor interaction induces significant conformational changes in arrestin-1, which include large movement of the previously neglected 139-loop in the center of the receptor binding surface, away from the incoming receptor. To elucidate the functional role of this loop, in mouse arrestin-1 we introduced deletions of variable lengths and made several substitutions of Lys-142 in it and Asp-72 in the adjacent loop. Several mutants with perturbations in the 139-loop demonstrate increased binding to P-Rh*, dark P-Rh, Rh*, and phospho-opsin. Enhanced binding of arrestin-1 mutants to non-preferred forms of rhodopsin correlates with decreased thermal stability. The 139-loop perturbations increase P-Rh* binding of arrestin-1 at low temperatures and further change its binding profile on the background of 3A mutant, where the C-tail is detached from the body of the molecule by triple alanine substitution. Thus, the 139-loop stabilizes basal conformation of arrestin-1 and acts as a brake, preventing its binding to non-preferred forms of rhodopsin. Conservation of this loop in other subtypes suggests that it has the same function in all members of the arrestin family.
Project description:Arrestins demonstrate strong preference for phosphorylated over unphosphorylated receptors, but how arrestins "sense" receptor phosphorylation is unclear. A conserved lysine in the lariat loop of arrestins directly binds the phosphate in crystal structures of activated arrestin-1, -2, and -3. The lariat loop supplies two negative charges to the central polar core, which must be disrupted for arrestin activation and high-affinity receptor binding. Therefore, we hypothesized that receptor-attached phosphates pull the lariat loop via this lysine, thus removing the negative charges and destabilizing the polar core. We tested the role of this lysine by introducing charge elimination (Lys->Ala) and reversal (Lys->Glu) mutations in arrestin-1, -2, and -3. These mutations in arrestin-1 only moderately reduced phospho-rhodopsin binding and had no detectable effect on arrestin-2 and -3 binding to cognate non-visual receptors in cells. The mutations of Lys300 in bovine and homologous Lys301 in mouse arrestin-1 on the background of pre-activated mutants had variable effects on the binding to light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin, while affecting the binding to unphosphorylated rhodopsin to a greater extent. Thus, conserved lysine in the lariat loop participates in receptor binding, but does not play a critical role in phosphate-induced arrestin activation.
Project description:Arrestins specifically bind active and phosphorylated forms of their cognate G protein-coupled receptors, blocking G protein coupling and often redirecting the signaling to alternative pathways. High-affinity receptor binding is accompanied by two major structural changes in arrestin: release of the C-tail and rotation of the two domains relative to each other. The first requires detachment of the arrestin C-tail from the body of the molecule, whereas the second requires disruption of the network of charge-charge interactions at the interdomain interface, termed the polar core. These events can be facilitated by mutations destabilizing the polar core or the anchoring of the C-tail that yield "preactivated" arrestins that bind phosphorylated and unphosphorylated receptors with high affinity. Here we explored the functional role in arrestin activation of the three native cysteines in the N domain, which are conserved in all arrestin subtypes. Using visual arrestin-1 and rhodopsin as a model, we found that substitution of these cysteines with serine, alanine, or valine virtually eliminates the effects of the activating polar core mutations on the binding to unphosphorylated rhodopsin while only slightly reducing the effects of the C-tail mutations. Thus, these three conserved cysteines play a role in the domain rotation but not in the C-tail release.
Project description:Arrestin-1 preferentially binds active phosphorylated rhodopsin. Previously, a mutant with enhanced binding to unphosphorylated active rhodopsin (Rh*) was shown to partially compensate for lack of rhodopsin phosphorylation in vivo. Here we showed that reengineering of the receptor binding surface of arrestin-1 further improves the binding to Rh* while preserving protein stability. In mammals, arrestin-1 readily self-associates at physiological concentrations. The biological role of this phenomenon can only be elucidated by replacing wild type arrestin-1 in living animals with a non-oligomerizing mutant retaining all other functions. We demonstrate that constitutively monomeric forms of arrestin-1 are sufficiently stable for in vivo expression. We also tested the idea that individual functions of arrestin-1 can be independently manipulated to generate mutants with the desired combinations of functional characteristics. Here we showed that this approach is feasible; stable forms of arrestin-1 with high Rh* binding can be generated with or without the ability to self-associate. These novel molecular tools open the possibility of testing of the biological role of arrestin-1 self-association and pave the way to elucidation of full potential of compensational approach to gene therapy of gain-of-function receptor mutations.
Project description:Solution NMR spectroscopy of labeled arrestin-1 was used to explore its interactions with dark-state phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh), phosphorylated opsin (P-opsin), unphosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin (Rh*), and phosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin (P-Rh*). Distinct sets of arrestin-1 elements were seen to be engaged by Rh* and inactive P-Rh, which induced conformational changes that differed from those triggered by binding of P-Rh*. Although arrestin-1 affinity for Rh* was seen to be low (K(D) > 150 ?M), its affinity for P-Rh (K(D) ~80 ?M) was comparable to the concentration of active monomeric arrestin-1 in the outer segment, suggesting that P-Rh generated by high-gain phosphorylation is occupied by arrestin-1 under physiological conditions and will not signal upon photo-activation. Arrestin-1 was seen to bind P-Rh* and P-opsin with fairly high affinity (K(D) of~50 and 800 nM, respectively), implying that arrestin-1 dissociation is triggered only upon P-opsin regeneration with 11-cis-retinal, precluding noise generated by opsin activity. Based on their observed affinity for arrestin-1, P-opsin and inactive P-Rh very likely affect the physiological monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium of arrestin-1, and should therefore be taken into account when modeling photoreceptor function. The data also suggested that complex formation with either P-Rh* or P-opsin results in a global transition in the conformation of arrestin-1, possibly to a dynamic molten globule-like structure. We hypothesize that this transition contributes to the mechanism that triggers preferential interactions of several signaling proteins with receptor-activated arrestins.
Project description:Arrestins are a small family of proteins that bind G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestin binds to active phosphorylated GPCRs with higher affinity than to all other functional forms of the receptor, including inactive phosphorylated and active unphosphorylated. The selectivity of arrestins suggests that they must have two sensors, which detect receptor-attached phosphates and the active receptor conformation independently. Simultaneous engagement of both sensors enables arrestin transition into a high-affinity receptor-binding state. This transition involves a global conformational rearrangement that brings additional elements of the arrestin molecule, including the middle loop, in contact with a GPCR, thereby stabilizing the complex. Here, we review structural and mutagenesis data that identify these two sensors and additional receptor-binding elements within the arrestin molecule. While most data were obtained with the arrestin-1-rhodopsin pair, the evidence suggests that all arrestins use similar mechanisms to achieve preferential binding to active phosphorylated GPCRs.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:Arrestins rapidly bind phosphorylated activated forms of their cognate G protein-coupled receptors, thereby preventing G protein coupling and often switching signaling to other pathways. Amphipathic alpha-helix I (residues 100-111) has been implicated in receptor binding, but the mechanism of its action has not been determined yet. Here we show that several mutations in the helix itself and in adjacent hydrophobic residues in the body of the N-domain reduce arrestin1 binding to light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*). On the background of phosphorylation-independent mutants that bind with high affinity to both P-Rh* and light-activated unphosphorylated rhodopsin, these mutations reduce the stability of the arrestin complex with P-Rh*, but not with light-activated unphosphorylated rhodopsin. Using site-directed spin labeling, we found that the local structure around alpha-helix I changes upon binding to rhodopsin. However, the intramolecular distances between alpha-helix I and adjacent beta-strand I (or the rest of the N-domain), measured using double electron-electron resonance, do not change, ruling out relocation of the helix due to receptor binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that alpha-helix I plays an indirect role in receptor binding, likely keeping beta-strand I, which carries several phosphate-binding residues, in a position favorable for its interaction with receptor-attached phosphates.
Project description:Arrestins are regulatory molecules for G-protein coupled receptor function. In visual rhodopsin, selective binding of arrestin to the cytoplasmic side of light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*) terminates signaling via the G-protein transducin. While the "phosphate-sensor" of arrestin for the recognition of receptor-attached phosphates is identified, the molecular mechanism of arrestin binding and the involvement of receptor conformations in this process are still largely hypothetic. Here we used fluorescence pump-probe and time-resolved fluorescence depolarization measurements to investigate the kinetics of arrestin conformational changes and the corresponding nanosecond dynamical changes at the receptor surface. We show that at least two sequential conformational changes of arrestin occur upon interaction with P-Rh*, thus providing a kinetic proof for the suggested multistep nature of arrestin binding. At the cytoplasmic surface of P-Rh*, the structural dynamics of the amphipathic helix 8 (H8), connecting transmembrane helix 7 and the phosphorylated C-terminal tail, depends on the arrestin interaction state. We find that a high mobility of H8 is required in the low-affinity (prebinding) but not in the high-affinity binding state. High-affinity arrestin binding is inhibited when a bulky, inflexible group is bound to H8, indicating close interaction. We further show that this close steric interaction of H8 with arrestin is mandatory for the transition from prebinding to high-affinity binding; i.e., for arrestin activation. This finding implies a regulatory role for H8 in activation of visual arrestin, which shows high selectivity to P-Rh* in contrast to the broad receptor specificity displayed by the two nonvisual arrestins.
Project description:Arrestin-1 is the arrestin family member responsible for inactivation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in photoreceptors. Arrestin-1 is also well-known to interact with additional protein partners and to affect other signaling cascades beyond phototransduction. In this study, we investigated one of these alternative arrestin-1 binding partners, the glycolysis enzyme enolase-1, to map the molecular contact sites between these two proteins and investigate how the binding of arrestin-1 affects the catalytic activity of enolase-1. Using fluorescence quench protection of strategically placed fluorophores on the arrestin-1 surface, we observed that arrestin-1 primarily engages enolase-1 along a surface that is opposite of the side of arrestin-1 that binds photoactivated rhodopsin. Using this information, we developed a molecular model of the arrestin-1-enolase-1 complex, which was validated by targeted substitutions of charge-pair interactions. Finally, we identified the likely source of arrestin's modulation of enolase-1 catalysis, showing that selective substitution of two amino acids in arrestin-1 can completely remove its effect on enolase-1 activity while still remaining bound to enolase-1. These findings open up opportunities for examining the functional effects of arrestin-1 on enolase-1 activity in photoreceptors and their surrounding cells.