The construction and application of a cell line resistant to novel subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-K) infection.
ABSTRACT: A novel avian leukosis viruses (ALV) subgroup named ALV-K was recently isolated from Chinese indigenous chickens which is different from the subgroups (A to E and J) that have previously been reported to infect chickens. More and more ALV-K strains have recently been isolated from local breeds of Chinese chickens. However, there are no more effective diagnostic methods for ALV-K other than virus isolation followed by envelope gene sequencing and comparison. Viral infection can be blocked through expression of the viral receptor-binding protein. In this study, we have engineered a cell line, DF-1/K, that expresses ALV-K env protein and thereby confers resistance to ALV-K infection. DF-1/K can be used in combination with the ALV-K susceptible cell line DF-1 as a specific diagnostic tool for ALV-K and provides a good tool for further research into the molecular mechanisms of interaction between ALV-K env protein and the host cell receptor.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.
Project description:The expression of env proteins that bind to viral cell receptors on avian leukosis virus (ALV)-susceptible cells can block ALV infection. In this study, we constructed a cell line (DF-1/B) by expressing the ALV-B env protein in DF-1 cells. PCR, immune fluorescence assay, Western blot, and immune electron microscopy results showed that the env gene can be stably expressed in DF-1cells and the env protein could be detected on the DF-1 cell membrane. An antiviral experiment concluded that the DF-1/B cell line could be resistant to 1 × 104 TCID50 ALV-B virus infection, but had no inhibitory effect on other subgroup ALV. This means that the DF-1/B cell line is specifically resistant to ALV-B and can be used as a tool for ALV-B diagnosis.
Project description:Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek's disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemically with Iba1 antibody, indicating they were histiocytic cells. Some of them contained antigens of avian leukosis virus (ALV) by immunohistochemistry,and the env gene of ALV subgroup J was detected from the spleens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product indicated that the env gene might be descended from the American ADOL-7501 strain of ALV-J. These results suggest that the swollen livers and spleens of the meat-type chickens may come from histiocytic proliferation caused by ALV-J infection.
Project description:In spite of the purification of the laying hens and broilers of avian leukosis virus (ALV) has made remarkable achievements, the infection of ALV was still serious in Chinese indigenous chickens.In order to assess the epidemic state of avian leukosis virus in indigenous chickens in China, 10 novel strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J), named JS16JH01 to JS16JH10, were isolated and identified by virus isolation and immunofluorescence antibody assays from a Chinese local breed farm with a sporadic incidence of tumors. To understand their virological characteristics further, the proviral genome of ENV-LTR was sequenced and compared with the reference strains.The homology of the gp85 gene between the ten ALV-J strains and NX0101 was in the range from 89.7-94.8% at the nuclear acid level. In addition, their gp85 genes were quite varied, with identities of 92-98% with themselves at the nuclear acid level. There were several snp and indel sites in the amino acid sequence of gp85 genes after comparison with other reference strains of ALV. Interestingly, a novel insertion in the gp85 region was found in two strains, JS16JH01 and JS16JH07, compared with NX0101 and HPRS-103.At present, owing to the large-scale purification of ALV in China, laying hens and broiler chickens with ALV infection are rarely detected, but ALVs are still frequently detected in the local chickens, which suggests that more efforts should be applied to the purification of ALV from indigenous chickens.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens in 1988. No field cases of ALV-J infection or tumors in layer chickens were observed worldwide until 2004. However, layer flocks in China have experienced outbreaks of this virus in recent years. The molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains isolated from layer flocks was investigated. The env genes of 77.8% (21/27) of the ALV-J layer isolates with a high degree of genetic variation were significantly different from the env genes of the prototype strain of ALV-J (HPRS-103) and American and Chinese strains from meat-type chickens (designated ALV-J broiler isolates). A total of 205 nucleotides were deleted from the 3' untranslated region of 89.5% (17/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates. Approximately 94.7% (16/17) of the layer isolates contained a complete E element of 146 to 149 residues. The U3 sequences of 84.2% (16/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates displayed less than 92.5% sequence homology to those of the ALV-J broiler isolates, although the transcriptional regulatory elements that are typical of avian retroviruses were highly conserved. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in the env gene, the U3 region, and the E element of most of the ALV-J layer isolates were detected. These results suggested that the env gene, E element, and U3 region in the ALV-J layer isolates have evolved rapidly and were significantly different from those of the ALV-J broiler isolates. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of layer tumor diseases induced by ALV-J.
Project description:In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag, pol, long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97.8%). However, the gp85 genes displayed high variability with any known chicken ALV strains. Growth kinetics of DF-1 cells infected with the isolated ALV showed viral titers that were lower than those infected with the GD13 (ALV-A), CD08 (ALV-B), and CHN06 (ALV-J) on day 7 post-infection. The infected Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens could produce continuous viremia, atrophy of immune organs, growth retardation and no tumors were observed. These subgroup ALVs are unique and may be common in south China. The results suggested that updating the control and eradication program of exogenous ALV for yellow feather broiler breeders in south China needs to be considered because of the emergence of the new subgroup viruses.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen. The assay was also more sensitive than conventional PCR in tests of 86 clinical plasma samples. DF-1 tissue culture cells infected with 1 TCID50 ALV-K particle were identified as negative using ELISA but tested positive with the real-time PCR method. The viral loads in organs and tissues in infected chickens were highest in kidney, lungs, and glandular stomach, and these results matched ELISA findings.
Project description:No effective vaccine has been developed against the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). The genetic diversity of ALV-J might be related to the env gene, therefore, we selected conserved sequences of the env gene and designed interference sequence. In this study, microRNAs (miRNAs) were designed and synthesized, corresponding to conserved regions of the env gene. These miRNAs were cloned into the linearized eukaryotic expression vector. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into DF-1 cells. After transfection, the cells were inoculated with ALV-J. In reporter assays, the transfection efficiency is 80% by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Expression of the virus envelope glycoprotein was measured by IFA and western blotting assays. The relative expression of env gene was determined using quantitative PCR. Our results show that the mi-env 231 and mi-env 1384 could effectively suppress the replication of ALV-J with an efficiency of 68.7-75.2%. These data suggest that the miRNAs targeting the env can inhibit replication of ALV-J efficiently. This finding provides evidence that miRNAs could be used as a potential tool against ALV infection.
Project description:Background:Previously, we showed that targeted disruption of viral receptor genes in avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9))-based genome editing confers resistance to ALV subgroups B and J. Here, we used the same strategy to target the receptor expressed by ALV subgroup A (TVA) and generate chicken cells resistant to infection by this virus. Results:CRISPR/Cas9-based disruption of exon 2 within the tva gene of DF-1 fibroblasts conferred resistance to infection by ALV subgroup A regardless of whether frameshift mutations were introduced during editing. Conversely, overexpression of the wild-type TVA receptor (wtTVA) by tva-modified DF-1 clones restored susceptibility to ALV subgroup A. The results confirm that exon 2, which contains the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain of TVA, is critical for virus entry. Furthermore, we sequentially modified DF-1 cells by editing the tva, tvb, and Na+/H+ exchange 1 (chNHE1) genes, which are the specific receptors for ALV subgroups A, B, and J, respectively. Conclusions:Simultaneous editing of multiple receptors to block infection by different subgroups of ALV confirmed that ALV subgroups A, B, and J do not share host receptors. This strategy could be used to generate cells resistant to multiple viral pathogens that use distinct receptors for cell entry.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that had developed myeloid leukosis and since 2008, ALV-J infections in chickens have become widespread in China. A comparison of the sequence of ALV-J epidemic isolates with HPRS-103, the ALV-J prototype virus, revealed several distinct features, one of which is a 19-nucleotide (nt) insertion in the leader sequence. To determine the role of the 19-nt insertion in ALV-J pathogenicity, a pair of viruses were constructed and rescued. The first virus was an ALV-J Chinese isolate (designated rSD1009) containing the 19-nt insertion in its leader sequence. The second virus was a clone, in which the leader sequence had a deleted 19-nt sequence (designated rSD1009?19). Compared with rSD1009?19, rSD1009 displayed a moderate growth advantage in vitro. However, no differences were demonstrated in either viral replication or oncogenicity between the two rescued viruses in chickens. These results indicated that the 19-nt insertion contributed to ALV-J replication in vitro but was not related to its pathogenicity in vivo.