The clinical value of miR-193a-3p in non-small cell lung cancer and its potential molecular mechanism explored in silico using RNA-sequencing and microarray data.
ABSTRACT: miR-193a-3p is a tumor-related miRNA playing an essential role in tumorigenesis and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between miR-193a-3p expression and clinical value and to further explore the potential signaling of miR-193a-3p in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC. RNA-sequencing and microarray data were collected from the databases GEO, ArrayExpress and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Furthermore, in silico assessments were performed to analyze the prospective pathways and networks of the target genes of miR-193a-3p. In total, 453 cases of NSCLC patients and 476 normal controls were included in blood samples, while 920 cases of NSCLC patients and 406 normal controls were included in tissue samples. The pooled positive likelihood ratio, the pooled negative likelihood ratio and the pooled diagnostic odds ratio were calculated to reflect the diagnostic value of miR-193a-3p in blood and tissue samples. Moreover, the areas under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of blood and tissue were 0.64 and 0.79, respectively. In addition, we found a lower level of miR-193a in NSCLC tissues than in non-cancerous controls based on TCGA. A gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis demonstrated that miR-193a-3p could be related to key signaling pathways in NSCLC. Also, several vital pathways were illustrated by KEGG. Lower expression of miR-193a-3p in tissue samples of NSCLC may be associated with tumorigenesis and be a predictor of deterioration of NSCLC patients, and pathway analysis revealed crucial signaling pathways correlated with the incidence and progress of NSCLC.
Project description:Thyroid cancer (TC) is a frequently occurring malignant tumor with a rising steadily incidence. microRNA (miRNA/miR)?193a?3p is an miRNA that is associated with tumors, playing a crucial role in the genesis and progression of various cancers. However, the expression levels of miR?193a?3p and its molecular mechanisms in TC remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to probe the expression of miR?193a?3p and its clinical significance in TC, including its underlying molecular mechanisms. Microarray and RNA sequencing data gathered from three major databases, specifically Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), ArrayExpress and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases, and the relevant data from the literature were used to examine miR?193a?3p expression. Meta?analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between clinicopathological parameters and miR?193a?3p in 510 TC and 59 normal samples from the TCGA database. miRWalk 3.0, and the TCGA and GEO databases were used to predict the candidate target genes of miR?193a?3p. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and protein?protein interaction network enrichment analyses were conducted by using the predicted candidate target genes to investigate the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. A dual luciferase assay was performed to validate the targeting regulatory association between the most important hub gene cyclin D1 (CCND1) and miR?193a?3p. miR?193a?3p expression was considerably downregulated in TC compared with in the non?cancer controls (P<0.001). The area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristic was 0.80. Downregulation of miR?193a?3p was also significantly associated with age, sex and metastasis (P=0.020, 0.044 and 0.048, respectively). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that a low miR?193a?3p expression may augment CCND1 expression to affect the biological processes of TC. In addition, CCND1, as a straightforward target, was validated through a dual luciferase assay. miR?193a?3p and CCND1 may serve as prognostic biomarkers of TC. Finally, miR?193a?3p may possess a crucial role in the genesis and progression of TC by altering the CCND1 expression.
Project description:Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-highest cause of malignancy-related death worldwide, and many physiological and pathological processes, including cancer, are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-193a-3p is an anti-oncogene that plays an important part in health and disease biology by interacting with specific targets and signals. Methods:In vitro assays were performed to explore the influences of miR-193a-3p on the propagation and apoptosis of HCC cells. The sequencing data for HCC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the expression levels of miR-193a-3p in HCC and non-HCC tissues were calculated. The differential expression of miR-193a-3p in HCC was presented as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in Stata SE. The impact of miR-193a-3p on the prognoses of HCC patients was determined by survival analysis. The potential targets of miR-193a-3p were then predicted using miRWalk 2.0 and subjected to enrichment analyses, including Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network analysis. The interaction between miR-193a-3p and one predicted target, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), was verified by dual luciferase reporter assays and Pearson correlation analysis. Results:MiR-193a-3p inhibited the propagation and facilitated the apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro. The pooled SMD indicated that miR-193a-3p had a low level of expression in HCC (SMD: -0.88, 95% CI [-2.36 -0.59]). Also, HCC patients with a higher level of miR-193a-3p expression tended to have a favorable overall survival (OS: HR = 0.7, 95% CI [0.43-1.13], P = 0.14). For the KEGG pathway analysis, the most related pathway was "proteoglycans in cancer", while the most enriched GO term was "protein binding". The dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated the direct interaction between miR-193a-3p and CCND1, and the Pearson correlation analysis suggested that miR-193a-3p was negatively correlated with CCND1 in HCC tissues (R = - 0.154, P = 0.002). Conclusion:miR-193a-3p could suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis by targeting CCND1 in HCC cells. Further, miR-193a-3p can be used as a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that act as regulators of gene expression. Circulating blood miRNAs offer great potential as cancer biomarkers. The objective of this study was to correlate the differential expression of miRNAs in tissue and blood in the identification of biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS:The study was divided into two phases: (I) Marker discovery by miRNA microarray using paired cancer tissues (n = 30) and blood samples (CRC, n = 42; control, n = 18). (II) Marker validation by stem-loop reverse transcription real time PCR using an independent set of paired cancer tissues (n = 30) and blood samples (CRC, n = 70; control, n = 32). Correlation analysis was determined by Pearson's test. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were applied to obtain diagnostic utility of the miRNAs. RESULTS:Seven miRNAs (miR-150, miR-193a-3p, miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-338-5p, miR-342-3p and miR-483-3p) have been found to be differentially expressed in both tissue and blood samples. Significant positive correlations were observed in the tissue and blood levels of miR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p. Moreover, increased expressions of these miRNAs were detected in the more advanced stages. MiR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p were demonstrated as a classifier for CRC detection, yielding a receiver operating characteristic curve area of 0.887 (80.0% sensitivity, 84.4% specificity and 83.3% accuracy). CONCLUSION:Dysregulations in circulating blood miRNAs are reflective of those in colorectal tissues. The triple miRNA classifier of miR-193a-3p, miR-23a and miR-338-5p appears to be a potential blood biomarker for early detection of CRC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that miR-144-3p might be a potential biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, the comprehensive mechanism behind the effects of miR-144-3p on the origin, differentiation, and apoptosis of NSCLC, as well as the relationship between miR-144-3p and clinical parameters, has been rarely reported. METHODS:We investigated the correlations between miR-144-3p expression and clinical characteristics through data collected from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarrays, the relevant literature, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and real-time quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses to determine the clinical role of miR-144-3p in NSCLC. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of miR-144-3p by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was created to identify the hub genes. RESULTS:From the comprehensive meta-analysis, the combined SMD of miR-144-3p was - 0.95 with 95% CI of (- 1.37, - 0.52), indicating that less miR-144-3p was expressed in the NSCLC tissue than in the normal tissue. MiR-144-3p expression was significantly correlated with stage, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion (all P < 0.05). As for the bioinformatics analyses, a total of 37 genes were chosen as the potential targets of miR-144-3p in NSCLC. These promising target genes were highly enriched in various key pathways such as the protein digestion and absorption and the thyroid hormone signaling pathways. Additionally, PPI revealed five genes-C12orf5, CEP55, E2F8, STIL, and TOP2A-as hub genes with the threshold value of 6. CONCLUSIONS:The current study validated that miR-144-3p was lowly expressed in NSCLC. More importantly, miR-144-3p might function as a latent tumor biomarker in the prognosis prediction for NSCLC. The results of bioinformatics analyses may present a new method for investigating the pathogenesis of NSCLC.
Project description:Human growth factor receptor-bound protein-7 (GRB7) is a pivotal mediator involved in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and governing diverse cellular processes. Aberrant upregulation of GRB7 is frequently associated with the progression of human cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the upregulation of GRB7 remain largely unknown. Here, we propose that the epigenetic modification of GRB7 at the post-transcriptional level may be a crucial factor leading to GRB7 upregulation in ovarian cancers. Methods: The upstream miRNA regulators were predicted by in silico analysis. Expression of GRB7 was examined by qPCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses, while miR-193a-3p levels were evaluated by qPCR and in situ hybridization in ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical tissue arrays. MS-PCR and pyrosequencing analyses were used to assess the methylation status of miR-193a-3p. Stable overexpression or gene knockdown and Tet-on inducible approaches, in combination with in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic assays, were employed to investigate the functions of GRB7 and miR-193a-3p in ovarian cancer cells. Results: Both miR-193a-3p and its isoform, miR-193b-3p, directly targeted the 3' UTR of GRB7. However, only miR-193a-3p showed a significantly inverse correlation with GRB7-upregulated ovarian cancers. Epigenetic studies revealed that methylation-mediated silencing of miR-193a-3p led to a stepwise decrease in miR-193a-3p expression from low to high-grade ovarian cancers. Intriguingly, miR-193a-3p not only modulated GRB7 but also ERBB4, SOS2 and KRAS in the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway to enhance the oncogenic properties of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These findings suggest that epigenetic silencing of miR-193a-3p by DNA hypermethylation is a dynamic process in ovarian cancer progression, and miR-193a-3p may be explored as a promising miRNA replacement therapy in this disease.
Project description:Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and despite recent improvements in lung cancer treatments patient mortality remains high. miR-193a-5p serves a crucial role in the initiation and development of cancer; it is necessary to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-193a-5p in lung cancer, which may enable the development of improved clinical diagnoses and therapies. The present study investigated the diagnostic value of peripheral blood and tissue miR-193a-5p expression using a microarray meta-analysis. Peripheral blood miR-193a-5p was revealed to be upregulated in patients with lung cancer. The pooled area under the curve (AUC) was 0.67, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.74 and 0.56, respectively. Conversely, the peripheral tissue miR-193a-5p expression in patients with lung cancer was significantly downregulated. The pooled AUC was 0.83, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. Through bioinformatics analysis, three Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) terms, pathways in cancer, prostate cancer and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, were identified as associated with miR-193a-5p in lung cancer. In addition, in lung cancer, six key miR-193a-5p target genes, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ERBB2), nuclear cap-binding protein subunit 2 (NCBP2), collagen α-1(I) chain (COL1A1), roprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), casein kinase II subunit α (CSNK2A1) and nucleolar transcription factor 1 (UBTF), were identified, five of which were significantly upregulated (ERBB2, NCBP2, COL1A1, CSNK2A1 and UBTF). The protein expression of ERBB2, NCBP2, COL1A1, CSNK2A1 and UBTF was also upregulated. NCBP2 and CSNK2A1 were negatively correlated with miR-193a-5p. The results demonstrated that miR-193a-5p exhibited opposite expression patterns in peripheral blood and tissue. Upregulated peripheral blood miR-193a-5p and downregulated tissue miR-193a-5p may be promising diagnostic biomarkers in lung cancer. In addition, the KEGG terms pathways in cancer, prostate cancer and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway may suggest which pathways serve vital roles in lung cancer by regulating miR-193a-5p. In addition, six genes, ERBB2, COL1A1, PCSK9, UBTF and particularly NCBP2 and CSNK2A1, may be key target genes of miR-193a-5p in lung cancer.
Project description:Emerging data show that microRNA 193a-3p (miR-193a-3p) has a suppressive role in many cancers and is often downregulated in tumors, as compared to surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, mimics of miR-193a-3p could be used as an attractive therapeutic approach in oncology. To better understand and document the molecular mechanism of action of 1B3, a novel synthetic miRNA-193a-3p mimic, RNA sequencing was performed after transfection of 1B3 in six different human tumor cell lines. Genes differentially expressed (DE) in at least three cell lines were mapped by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and interestingly, these results strongly indicated upregulation of the tumor-suppressive phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) pathway, as well as downregulation of many oncogenic growth factor signaling pathways. Importantly, although unsurprisingly, IPA identified miR-193a-3p as a strong upstream regulator of DE genes in an unbiased manner. Furthermore, biological function analysis pointed to an extensive link of 1B3 with cancer, via expected effects on tumor cell survival, proliferation, migration, and cell death. Our data strongly suggest that miR-193a-3p/1B3 is a potent tumor suppressor agent that targets various key oncogenic pathways across cancer types. Therefore, the introduction of 1B3 into tumor cells may represent a promising strategy for cancer treatment.
Project description:There is accumulating evidence that miRNA might serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for various types of cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of malignant lesion but the significance of miRNAs in HCC remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to establish the diagnostic value of miR-101-3p/5p in HCC and then further investigate the prospective molecular mechanism via a bioinformatic analysis. First, the miR-101 expression profiles and parallel clinical parameters from 362 HCC patients and 50 adjacent non-HCC tissue samples were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Second, we aggregated all miR-101-3p/5p expression profiles collected from published literature and the Gene Expression Omnibus and TCGA databases. Subsequently, target genes of miR-101-3p and miR-101-5p were predicted by using the miRWalk database and then overlapped with the differentially expressed genes of HCC identified by natural language processing. Finally, bioinformatic analyses were conducted with the overlapping genes. The level of miR-101 was significantly lower in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues (P < 0.001), and the area under the curve of the low miR-101 level for HCC diagnosis was 0.925 (P < 0.001). The pooled summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) of miR-101-3p was 0.86, and the combined SROC curve of miR-101-5p was 0.80. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the target genes of both miR-101-3p and miR-101-5p are involved in several pathways that are associated with HCC. The hub genes for miR-101-3p and miR-101-5p were also found. Our results suggested that both miR-101-3p and miR-101-5p might be potential diagnostic markers in HCC, and that they exert their functions via targeting various prospective genes in the same pathways.
Project description:Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have various biological functions in the development of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer. The aim of the present study is to reveal the mechanism of miR‑193a‑3p inhibiting the progress of HER2 positive breast cancer. The expression of miR‑193a‑3p was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The methylation status of miR‑193a‑3p was evaluated by PCR and pyrosequencing analysis. Overexpression of miR‑193a‑3p and growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (GRB7) combined with in vitro tumorigenic assays were conducted to determine the carcinostatic capacities of miR‑193a‑3p in HER2 positive breast cancer cells. The association between miR‑193a‑3p and GRB7 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. Protein level was evaluated using western blot analysis. miR‑193a‑3p was downregulated in HER2 positive breast cancer cells and clinical tissues. Methylation‑mediated silencing led to decreased expression of miR‑193a‑3p in HER2 positive breast cancer. Overexpression of miR‑193a‑3p could inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of GRB7 could abolish this effect. miR‑193a‑3p could directly target the 3' untranslated region of GRB7. miR‑193a‑3p could directly or indirectly target extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) signaling. In conclusion, it was identified that silencing of miR‑193a‑3p through hypermethylation can promote HER2 positive breast cancer progress by targeting GRB7, ERK1/2 and FOXM1 signaling. The function of miR‑193a‑3p in HER2 positive breast cancer implicates its potential application in therapy.