A kinase-dependent role for Haspin in antagonizing Wapl and protecting mitotic centromere cohesion.
ABSTRACT: Sister-chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is fundamental for precise chromosome segregation in mitosis. Through binding the cohesin subunit Pds5, Wapl releases the bulk of cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase, whereas centromeric cohesin is protected from Wapl until anaphase onset. Strong centromere cohesion requires centromeric localization of the mitotic histone kinase Haspin, which is dependent on the interaction of its non-catalytic N-terminus with Pds5B. It remains unclear how Haspin fully blocks the Wapl-Pds5B interaction at centromeres. Here, we show that the C-terminal kinase domain of Haspin (Haspin-KD) binds and phosphorylates the YSR motif of Wapl (Wapl-YSR), thereby directly inhibiting the YSR motif-dependent interaction of Wapl with Pds5B. Cells expressing a Wapl-binding-deficient mutant of Haspin or treated with Haspin inhibitors show centromeric cohesion defects. Phospho-mimetic mutation in Wapl-YSR prevents Wapl from binding Pds5B and releasing cohesin. Forced targeting Haspin-KD to centromeres partly bypasses the need for Haspin-Pds5B interaction in cohesion protection. Taken together, these results indicate a kinase-dependent role for Haspin in antagonizing Wapl and protecting centromeric cohesion in mitosis.
Project description:Heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) is a key component of heterochromatin. Reminiscent of the cohesin complex which mediates sister-chromatid cohesion, most HP1 proteins in mammalian cells are displaced from chromosome arms during mitotic entry, whereas a pool remains at the heterochromatic centromere region. The function of HP1 at mitotic centromeres remains largely elusive. Here, we show that double knockout (DKO) of HP1? and HP1? causes defective mitosis progression and weakened centromeric cohesion. While mutating the chromoshadow domain (CSD) prevents HP1? from protecting sister-chromatid cohesion, centromeric targeting of HP1? CSD alone is sufficient to rescue the cohesion defects in HP1 DKO cells. Interestingly, HP1-dependent cohesion protection requires Haspin, an antagonist of the cohesin-releasing factor Wapl. Moreover, HP1? CSD directly binds the N-terminal region of Haspin and facilitates its centromeric localization. The need for HP1 in cohesion protection can be bypassed by centromeric targeting of Haspin or inhibiting Wapl activity. Taken together, these results reveal a redundant role for HP1? and HP1? in the protection of centromeric cohesion through promoting Haspin localization at mitotic centromeres in mammalian cells.
Project description:The inner centromere region of a mitotic chromosome critically regulates sister chromatid cohesion and kinetochore-microtubule attachments. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inner centromere assembly remains elusive. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing in HeLa cells, we disrupted the interaction of Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) with histone H2A phosphorylated on Thr-120 (H2ApT120) to selectively release Sgo1 from mitotic centromeres. Interestingly, cells expressing the H2ApT120-binding defective mutant of Sgo1 have an elevated rate of chromosome missegregation accompanied by weakened centromeric cohesion and decreased centromere accumulation of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an integral part of the inner centromere and a key player in the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments. When artificially tethered to centromeres, a Sgo1 mutant defective in binding protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is not able to support proper centromeric cohesion and CPC accumulation, indicating that the Sgo1-PP2A interaction is essential for the integrity of mitotic centromeres. We further provide evidence indicating that Sgo1 protects centromeric cohesin to create a binding site for the histone H3-associated protein kinase Haspin, which not only inhibits the cohesin release factor Wapl and thereby strengthens centromeric cohesion but also phosphorylates histone H3 at Thr-3 to position CPC at inner centromeres. Taken together, our findings reveal a positive feedback-based mechanism that ensures proper assembly of the functional inner centromere during mitosis. They further suggest a causal link between centromeric cohesion defects and chromosomal instability in cancer cells.
Project description:Timely dissolution of sister-chromatid cohesion in mitosis ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. The complex of shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (SGO1-PP2A) protects cohesin at centromeres from premature removal by mitotic kinases and WAPL in prophase. Here we address the regulation and mechanism of human SGO1 in centromeric cohesion protection, and show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated, mitosis-specific phosphorylation of SGO1 activates its cohesion-protection function and enables its direct binding to cohesin. The phospho-SGO1-bound cohesin complex contains PP2A, PDS5 and hypophosphorylated sororin, but lacks WAPL. Expression of non-phosphorylatable sororin bypasses the requirement for SGO1-PP2A in centromeric cohesion. Thus, mitotic phosphorylation of SGO1 targets SGO1-PP2A to cohesin, promotes dephosphorylation of PDS5-bound sororin and protects centromeric cohesin from WAPL. PP2A-orchestrated, site-selective dephosphorylation of cohesin and its regulators underlies centromeric cohesion protection.
Project description:Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion and contributes to the organization of interphase chromatin through DNA looping. In vertebrate somatic cells, cohesin consists of Smc1, Smc3, Rad21, and either SA1 or SA2. Three additional factors Pds5, Wapl, and Sororin bind to cohesin and modulate its dynamic association with chromatin. There are two Pds5 proteins in vertebrates, Pds5A and Pds5B, but their functional specificity remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Pds5 proteins are essential for cohesion establishment by allowing Smc3 acetylation by the cohesin acetyl transferases (CoATs) Esco1/2 and binding of Sororin. While both proteins contribute to telomere and arm cohesion, Pds5B is specifically required for centromeric cohesion. Furthermore, reduced accumulation of Aurora B at the inner centromere region in cells lacking Pds5B impairs its error correction function, promoting chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy. Our work supports a model in which the composition and function of cohesin complexes differs between different chromosomal regions.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion depends on Sororin, a protein that stabilizes acetylated cohesin complexes on DNA by antagonizing the cohesin release factor Wings-apart like protein (Wapl). Cohesion is essential for chromosome biorientation but has to be dissolved to enable sister chromatid separation. To achieve this, the majority of cohesin is removed from chromosome arms in prophase and prometaphase in a manner that depends on Wapl and phosphorylation of cohesin's subunit stromal antigen 2 (SA2), whereas centromeric cohesin is cleaved in metaphase by the protease separase. Here we show that the mitotic kinases Aurora B and Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) destabilize interactions between Sororin and the cohesin subunit precocious dissociation of sisters protein 5 (Pds5) by phosphorylating Sororin, leading to release of acetylated cohesin from chromosome arms and loss of cohesion. At centromeres, the cohesin protector shugoshin (Sgo1)-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) antagonizes Aurora B and Cdk1 partly by dephosphorylating Sororin and thus maintains cohesion until metaphase. We propose that the stepwise loss of cohesion between chromosome arms and centromeres is caused by local regulation of Wapl activity, which is controlled by the phosphorylation state of Sororin.
Project description:Mammalian NIMA-like kinase-1 (NEK1) is a dual-specificity kinase highly expressed in mouse germ cells during prophase I of meiosis. Loss of NEK1 induces retention of cohesin on chromosomes at meiotic prophase I. Timely deposition and removal of cohesin is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Two processes regulate cohesin removal: a non-proteolytic mechanism involving WAPL, sororin, and PDS5B and direct cleavage by separase. Here, we demonstrate a role for NEK1 in the regulation of WAPL loading during meiotic prophase I, via an interaction between NEK1 and PDS5B. This regulation of WAPL by NEK1-PDS5B is mediated by protein phosphatase 1 gamma (PP1?), which both interacts with and is a phosphotarget of NEK1. Taken together, our results reveal that NEK1 phosphorylates PP1?, leading to the dephosphorylation of WAPL, which, in turn, results in its retention on chromosome cores to promote loss of cohesion at the end of prophase I in mammals.
Project description:Chromosome segregation depends on sister chromatid cohesion which is established by cohesin during DNA replication. Cohesive cohesin complexes become acetylated to prevent their precocious release by WAPL before cells have reached mitosis. To obtain insight into how DNA replication, cohesion establishment and cohesin acetylation are coordinated, we analysed the interaction partners of 55 human proteins implicated in these processes by mass spectrometry. This proteomic screen revealed that on chromatin the cohesin acetyltransferase ESCO2 associates with the MCM2-7 subcomplex of the replicative Cdc45-MCM-GINS helicase. The analysis of ESCO2 mutants defective in MCM binding indicates that these interactions are required for proper recruitment of ESCO2 to chromatin, cohesin acetylation during DNA replication, and centromeric cohesion. We propose that MCM binding enables ESCO2 to travel with replisomes to acetylate cohesive cohesin complexes in the vicinity of replication forks so that these complexes can be protected from precocious release by WAPL Our results also indicate that ESCO1 and ESCO2 have distinct functions in maintaining cohesion between chromosome arms and centromeres, respectively.
Project description:The ring-shaped cohesin complex regulates transcription, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation by dynamically entrapping chromosomes to promote chromosome compaction and sister-chromatid cohesion. The cohesin ring needs to open and close to allow its loading to and release from chromosomes. Cohesin dynamics are controlled by the releasing factors Pds5 and Wapl and the cohesin stabilizer Sororin. Here, we report the crystal structure of human Pds5B bound to a conserved peptide motif found in both Wapl and Sororin. Our structure establishes the basis for how Wapl and Sororin antagonistically influence cohesin dynamics. The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes.
Project description:Orderly termination of sister-chromatid cohesion during mitosis is critical for accurate chromosome segregation. During prophase, mitotic kinases phosphorylate cohesin and its protector sororin, triggering Wapl-dependent cohesin release from chromosome arms. The shugoshin (Sgo1)-PP2A complex protects centromeric cohesin until its cleavage by separase at anaphase onset. Here, we report the crystal structure of a human cohesin subcomplex comprising SA2 and Scc1. Multiple HEAT repeats of SA2 form a dragon-shaped structure. Scc1 makes extensive contacts with SA2, with one binding hotspot. Sgo1 and Wapl compete for binding to a conserved site on SA2-Scc1. At this site, mutations of SA2 residues that disrupt Wapl binding bypass the Sgo1 requirement in cohesion protection. Thus, in addition to recruiting PP2A to dephosphorylate cohesin and sororin, Sgo1 physically shields cohesin from Wapl. This unexpected, direct antagonism between Sgo1 and Wapl augments centromeric cohesion protection.
Project description:Cohesin is a chromatin-bound complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion and facilitates long-range interactions through DNA looping. How the transcription and replication machineries deal with the presence of cohesin on chromatin remains unclear. The dynamic association of cohesin with chromatin depends on WAPL cohesin release factor (WAPL) and on PDS5 cohesin-associated factor (PDS5), which exists in two versions in vertebrate cells, PDS5A and PDS5B. Using genetic deletion in mouse embryo fibroblasts and a combination of CRISPR-mediated gene editing and RNAi-mediated gene silencing in human cells, here we analyzed the consequences of PDS5 depletion for DNA replication. We found that either PDS5A or PDS5B is sufficient for proper cohesin dynamics and that their simultaneous removal increases cohesin's residence time on chromatin and slows down DNA replication. A similar phenotype was observed in WAPL-depleted cells. Cohesin down-regulation restored normal replication fork rates in PDS5-deficient cells, suggesting that chromatin-bound cohesin hinders the advance of the replisome. We further show that PDS5 proteins are required to recruit WRN helicase-interacting protein 1 (WRNIP1), RAD51 recombinase (RAD51), and BRCA2 DNA repair associated (BRCA2) to stalled forks and that in their absence, nascent DNA strands at unprotected forks are degraded by MRE11 homolog double-strand break repair nuclease (MRE11). These findings indicate that PDS5 proteins participate in replication fork protection and also provide insights into how cohesin and its regulators contribute to the response to replication stress, a common feature of cancer cells.