R-CHOP 14 with or without radiotherapy in nonbulky limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: The benefit of radiotherapy (RT) after chemotherapy in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial. We conducted a randomized trial in patients with nonbulky limited-stage DLBCL to evaluate the benefit of RT after rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Patients were stratified according to the modified International Prognostic Index, including lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, age, and disease stage. The patients received 4 or 6 consecutive cycles of R-CHOP delivered once every 2 weeks, followed or not by RT at 40 Gy delivered 4 weeks after the last R-CHOP cycle. All patients were evaluated by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans performed at baseline, after 4 cycles of R-CHOP, and at the end of treatment. The primary objective of the trial was event-free survival (EFS) from randomization. The trial randomly assigned 165 patients in the R-CHOP arm and 169 in the R-CHOP plus RT arm. In an intent-to-treat analysis with a median follow-up of 64 months, 5-year EFS was not statistically significantly different between the 2 arms, with 89% ± 2.9% in the R-CHOP arm vs 92% ± 2.4% in the R-CHOP plus RT arm (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-1.2; P = .18). Overall survival was also not different at 92% (95% CI, 89.5%-94.5%) for patients assigned to R-CHOP alone and 96% (95% CI, 94.3%-97.7%) for those assigned to R-CHOP plus RT (P = not significant). R-CHOP alone is not inferior to R-CHOP followed by RT in patients with nonbulky limited-stage DLBCL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00841945.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ibrutinib has shown activity in non-germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This double-blind phase III study evaluated ibrutinib and rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in untreated non-germinal center B-cell DLBCL. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to ibrutinib (560 mg per day orally) plus R-CHOP or placebo plus R-CHOP. The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and the activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL subgroup. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS:A total of 838 patients were randomly assigned to ibrutinib plus R-CHOP (n = 419) or placebo plus R-CHOP (n = 419). Median age was 62.0 years; 75.9% of evaluable patients had ABC subtype disease, and baseline characteristics were balanced. Ibrutinib plus R-CHOP did not improve EFS in the ITT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.934) or ABC (HR, 0.949) population. A preplanned analysis showed a significant interaction between treatment and age. In patients age younger than 60 years, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP improved EFS (HR, 0.579), PFS (HR, 0.556), and OS (HR, 0.330) and slightly increased serious adverse events (35.7% v 28.6%), but the proportion of patients receiving at least six cycles of R-CHOP was similar between treatment arms (92.9% v 93.0%). In patients age 60 years or older, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP worsened EFS, PFS, and OS, increased serious adverse events (63.4% v 38.2%), and decreased the proportion of patients receiving at least six cycles of R-CHOP (73.7% v 88.8%). CONCLUSION:The study did not meet its primary end point in the ITT or ABC population. However, in patients age younger than 60 years, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP improved EFS, PFS, and OS with manageable safety. In patients age 60 years or older, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP was associated with increased toxicity, leading to compromised R-CHOP administration and worse outcomes. Further investigation is warranted.
Project description:Approximately 60% of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) are curable with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy. Epratuzumab (E) is an unlabeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed DLBCL. This phase 2 trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining E with R-CHOP (ER-CHOP) in untreated DLBCL. A secondary aim was to assess the efficacy of interim positron emission tomography (PET) to predict outcome in DLBCL. Standard R-CHOP with the addition of E 360 mg/m(2) intravenously was administered for 6 cycles. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. Toxicity was similar to standard R-CHOP. Overall response rate in the 81 eligible patients was 96% (74% CR/CRu) by computed tomography scan and 88% by PET. By intention to treat analysis, at a median follow-up of 43 months, the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in all 107 patients were 70% and 80%, respectively. Interim PET was not associated with EFS or OS. Comparison with a cohort of 215 patients who were treated with R-CHOP showed an improved EFS in the ER-CHOP patients. ER-CHOP is well tolerated and results appear promising as a combination therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00301821.
Project description:The international staging system (ISS), based on serum beta-2 microglobulin and albumin, is used to predict survival in multiple myeloma, but its prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unknown. Herein, we retrospectively analyzed 215 de novo DLBCL patients. According to ISS, there were 90 of 215 (41.9%) patients in stage I, 98 of 215 (45.6%) in stage II and 27 of 215 (12.6%) in stage III group. Patients with ISS stage II/III showed shorter overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) than those with stage I treated with R-CHOP (p = 0.012 and p = 0.043, respectively), but not those treated with CHOP regimen (p > 0.05). Multivariable analysis revealed that ISS, independent of IPI, indicated different survival in both OS (HR, 5.690; 95% CI, 1.270-25.495, p = 0.023) and EFS (HR, 2.116; 95% CI, 1.005-4.455, p = 0.049) in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ISS could identify patients with better outcome in intermediate-high/high IPI risk patients (p < 0.05). Our data suggests that advanced ISS stage is associated with inferior outcome in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ISS could identify a subgroup of DLBCL patients with superior outcome from high IPI risk patients, which may help to avoid intensive therapy.
Project description:We previously reported that constitutive STAT3 activation is a prominent feature of the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL). In this study, we investigated whether STAT3 activation can risk stratify patients with DLBCL.By an immunohistochemical method, we investigated phosphotyrosine STAT3 (PY-STAT3) expression from 185 patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). Cell line-based siRNA experiments were also performed to generate an 11-gene, PY-STAT3 activation signature, which was used to study a previously published cohort of 222 patients with DLBCL. The STAT3 activation status determined by these two methods and by STAT3 mRNA levels were then correlated with survival.PY-STAT3 was detected in 37% of DLBCL and enriched in ABC-DLBCL cases (P = .03). PY-STAT3 positivity significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS; P = .01) and event-free survival (EFS; P = .006). Similar observations were made for high levels of STAT3 mRNA. In multivariable analysis, PY-STAT3 status (P = .02), International Prognostic Index (P = .02), and BCL2 expression (P = .046) were independent prognosticators of OS in this cohort. Among the cell-of-origin subgroups, PY-STAT3 was associated with poor EFS among non-germinal center B-cell DLBCL cases only (P = .027). Similarly, the 11-gene STAT3 activation signature correlated with poor survival in the entire DLBCL cohort (OS, P < .001; EFS, P < .001) as well as the ABC-DLBCL subgroup (OS, P = .029; EFS, P = .025).STAT3 activation correlated with poor survival in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP, especially those with tumors of the ABC-DLBCL subtype.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. RESULTS:BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-?) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. CONCLUSION:The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rituximab (R) plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) is the current standard therapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Obinutuzumab (G), a glycoengineered, type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has shown activity and an acceptable safety profile when combined with CHOP (G-CHOP) in patients with advanced DLBCL. We present the final analysis results of the Phase III GOYA study (NCT01287741), which compared the efficacy and safety of G-CHOP versus R-CHOP in patients with previously untreated DLBCL. METHODS:Patients aged ? 18?years with previously untreated advanced DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive eight 21-day?cycles of R or G, plus six or eight cycles of CHOP. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, other time-to-event endpoints, and safety; investigator-assessed PFS by cell of origin subgroup was an exploratory endpoint. RESULTS:A total of 1418 patients were randomized, with 1414 included in this final analysis (G-CHOP, N = 704; R-CHOP, N = 710). Five-year PFS rates were 63.8% and 62.6% for G-CHOP and R-CHOP, respectively (stratified hazard ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.78-1.12; p = 0.48). The results of the secondary efficacy endpoints did not show a benefit of G-CHOP over R-CHOP. In the exploratory analysis, a trend towards benefit with G-CHOP over R-CHOP was apparent in the patients with germinal center B cell DLBCL. The safety profile of G-CHOP was as expected, and no new safety signals were observed. More grade 3-5 (75.1% vs 65.8%), serious (44.4% vs 38.4%), and fatal (6.1% vs 4.4%) adverse events (AEs) were observed in the G-CHOP arm compared with the R-CHOP arm, respectively, with the most common fatal AEs being infections. A higher incidence of late-onset neutropenia occurred in the G-CHOP arm (8.7%) versus the R-CHOP arm (4.9%). CONCLUSIONS:The final analysis, similar to the primary analysis, did not show a PFS benefit of G-CHOP over R-CHOP in previously untreated patients with DLBCL. The results of the secondary endpoints were consistent with the primary endpoint. Further exploratory analyses and investigation of biomarkers are ongoing.
Project description:In the S0313 trial, we evaluated the impact of adding ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation to 3 cycles of standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy plus involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) in patients with limited-stage aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (LD-NHL). Patients with at least 1 stage-modified adverse risk factor (nonbulky stage II, age >60 years, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, or World Health Organization performance status of 2) were treated with CHOP on days 1, 22, and 43, followed 3 weeks later by 40 to 50 Gy of IFRT. An ibritumomab tiuxetan regimen was initiated 3 to 6 weeks following IFRT. Forty-six patients were registered and eligible, with median follow-up of 7.3 years. The progression-free survival estimate is 89% at 2 years, 82% at 5 years, and 75% at 7 years. The overall survival estimate is 91% at 2 years, 87% at 5 years, and 82% at 7 years. Grade 4 adverse events occurring more than once included neutropenia (8), leukopenia (5), and lymphopenia (2). Febrile neutropenia was observed in 4 patients. No cases of treatment-related myeloid neoplasms were noted. In conclusion, patients with high-risk LD-NHL treated with 3 cycles of CHOP plus IFRT followed by ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation had outcomes that compare favorably to our historical experience. The clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00070018.
Project description:Although standard clinical prognostic factors predict outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), predicting the outcome of patients might be further refined using biological factors. We tested whether serum cytokines could provide prognostic information in DLBCL patients. Thirty cytokines were measured in pretreatment samples from newly diagnosed DLBCL patients using a multiplex ELISA. Sixty-nine patients treated with R-CHOP plus epratuzumab were used in an initial cohort and 185 patients treated with standard R-CHOP served as a subsequent validation cohort. In the initial cohort, elevated serum interleukin-10 [IL-10; hazard ratio (HR) = 6.6, P = 0.022], granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (HR = 10.8, P= 0.027) and IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein-10, CXCL10; HR = 3.32, P = 0.015) were associated with event-free survival (EFS). An identical analysis of the subsequent validation cohort confirmed that elevated serum levels of IP-10 were strongly associated with a poor EFS (HR = 2.42, P = 0.0007); and also identified interleukin-8 (IL-8; HR = 3.40, P = 0.00002) and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R, CD25; HR = 2.59, P = 0.0012) as significantly associated with prognosis. The prognostic significance of elevated IP-10 remained significant after adjustment for the International Prognostic Index (EFS - HR 1.99, P = 0.009, overall survival-HR 1.93, P = 0.021). Elevated pretreatment serum IP-10 levels are therefore associated with an increased likelihood of disease relapse and an inferior survival in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:The prognostic role of tumor-related parameters in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a matter of controversy.We investigated the prognostic value of phenotypic and genotypic profiles in DLBCL in clinical trial (NCT00544219) patients homogenously treated with six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP), followed by two cycles of R (R-CHOP-14). The primary endpoint was event-free survival at 2 years (EFS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Immunohistochemical (bcl2, bcl6, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD95, CD168, cyclin E, FOXP1, GCET, Ki-67, LMO2, MUM1p, pSTAT3) and in situ hybridization analyses (BCL2 break apart probe, C-MYC break apart probe and C-MYC/IGH double-fusion probe, and Epstein-Barr virus probe) were performed and correlated with the endpoints.One hundred twenty-three patients (median age 58 years) were evaluable. Immunohistochemical assessment succeeded in all cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was successful in 82 instances. According to the Tally algorithm, 81 cases (66%) were classified as non-germinal center (GC) DLBCL, while 42 cases (34%) were GC DLBCL. BCL2 gene breaks were observed in 7/82 cases (9%) and C-MYC breaks in 6/82 cases (8%). "Double-hit" cases with BCL2 and C-MYC rearrangements were not observed. Within the median follow-up of 53 months, there were 51 events, including 16 lethal events and 12 relapses. Factors able to predict worse EFS in univariable models were failure to achieve response according to international criteria, failure to achieve positron emission tomography response (p < 0.005), expression of CD5 (p = 0.02), and higher stage (p = 0.021). Factors predicting inferior PFS were failure to achieve response according to international criteria (p < 0.005), higher stage (p = 0.005), higher International Prognostic Index (IPI; p = 0.006), and presence of either C-MYC or BCL2 gene rearrangements (p = 0.033). Factors predicting inferior OS were failure to achieve response according to international criteria and expression of FOXP1 (p < 0.005), cyclin E, CD5, bcl2, CD95, and pSTAT3 (p = 0.005, 0.007, 0.016, and 0.025, respectively). Multivariable analyses revealed that expression of CD5 (p = 0.044) and FOXP1 (p = 0.004) are independent prognostic factors for EFS and OS, respectively.Phenotypic studies with carefully selected biomarkers like CD5 and FOXP1 are able to prognosticate DLBCL course at diagnosis, independent of stage and IPI and independent of response to R-CHOP.
Project description:A negative interim positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) after 1 to 3 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in patients with newly diagnosed, nonbulky stage I or II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) predicts a low relapse rate. This phase 2 trial was designed to determine if a population of patients with early-stage disease can be treated with short-course ABVD without radiation therapy (RT) on the basis of a negative interim PET/CT, thereby limiting the risks of treatment. Between 15 May 2010 and 21 February 2013, 164 previously untreated patients with nonbulky stage I/II HL were enrolled, and 149 were included in the final analysis. Patients received 2 cycles of ABVD followed by PET. Deauville scores 1 to 3 were negative (? liver uptake) based on central review. PET- patients received 2 more cycles of ABVD, and PET+ patients received 2 cycles of dose-intense bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (escalated BEACOPP) plus 3060-cGy involved-field RT. The primary objective was to determine 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) for the PET- group. One hundred thirty-five patients (91%) were interim PET-, and 14 patients (9%) were PET+ With median follow-up time of 3.8 years, the estimated 3-year PFS was 91% for the PET- group and 66% for the PET+ group (hazard ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-9.84; P = .011). There was 1 death as a result of suicide. Four cycles of ABVD resulted in durable remissions for a majority of patients with early-stage nonbulky HL and a negative interim PET. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01132807.