Allelic variants of OsSUB1A cause differential expression of transcription factor genes in response to submergence in rice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Flooding during seasonal monsoons affects millions of hectares of rice-cultivated areas across Asia. Submerged rice plants die within a week due to lack of oxygen, light and excessive elongation growth to escape the water. Submergence tolerance was first reported in an aus-type rice landrace, FR13A, and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor (TF) gene SUB1A-1 was identified as the major tolerance gene. Intolerant rice varieties generally lack the SUB1A gene but some intermediate tolerant varieties, such as IR64, carry the allelic variant SUB1A-2. Differential effects of the two alleles have so far not been addressed. As a first step, we have therefore quantified and compared the expression of nearly 2500 rice TF genes between IR64 and its derived tolerant near isogenic line IR64-Sub1, which carries the SUB1A-1 allele. Gene expression was studied in internodes, where the main difference in expression between the two alleles was previously shown. RESULTS:Nineteen and twenty-six TF genes were identified that responded to submergence in IR64 and IR64-Sub1, respectively. Only one gene was found to be submergence-responsive in both, suggesting different regulatory pathways under submergence in the two genotypes. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) mainly included MYB, NAC, TIFY and Zn-finger TFs, and most genes were downregulated upon submergence. In IR64, but not in IR64-Sub1, SUB1B and SUB1C, which are also present in the Sub1 locus, were identified as submergence responsive. Four TFs were not submergence responsive but exhibited constitutive, genotype-specific differential expression. Most of the identified submergence responsive DEGs are associated with regulatory hormonal pathways, i.e. gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA), apart from ethylene. An in-silico promoter analysis of the two genotypes revealed the presence of allele-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms, giving rise to ABRE, DRE/CRT, CARE and Site II cis-elements, which can partly explain the observed differential TF gene expression. CONCLUSION:This study identified new gene targets with the potential to further enhance submergence tolerance in rice and provides insights into novel aspects of SUB1A-mediated tolerance.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tolerance of complete submergence is recognized in a small number of accessions of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and can be conferred by the Sub1A-1 gene of the polygenic Submergence-1 (Sub1) locus. In all O. sativa varieties, the Sub1 locus encodes the ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes Sub1B and Sub1C. A third paralogous ERF gene, Sub1A, is limited to a subset of indica accessions. It is thought that O. sativa was domesticated from the gene pools of the wild perennial species O. rufipogon Griff. and/or the annual species O. nivara Sharma et Shastry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the orthologues of the Sub1 locus in the closest relatives of O. sativa to provide insight into the origin of the gene and allelic variation of the Sub1 locus. METHODS: Orthologues of the Sub1 genes were isolated from O. rufipogon and O. nivara by use of oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the most highly conserved regions of the Sub1 genes of domesticated rice. The phylogenetic relatedness of Sub1 genes of O. sativa and its wild relatives was evaluated. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Both O. rufipogon and O. nivara possess two Sub1 gene orthologues with strong sequence identity to the Sub1B and Sub1C alleles of cultivated rice. The phylogeny of the Sub1 genes of the domesticated and wild rice suggests that Sub1A arose from duplication of Sub1B. Variation in Sub1B alleles is correlated with the absence or presence of Sub1A. Together, the results indicate that genetic variation at the Sub1 locus is due to gene duplication and divergence that have occurred both prior to and after rice domestication.
Project description:Erratic rainfall leading to flash flooding causes huge yield losses in lowland rice. The traditional varieties and landraces of rice possess variable levels of tolerance to submergence stress, but gene discovery and utilization of these resources has been limited to the Sub1A-1 allele from variety FR13A. Therefore, we analysed the allelic sequence variation in three Sub1 genes in a panel of 179 rice genotypes and its association with submergence tolerance. Population structure and diversity analysis based on a 36-plex genome wide genic-SNP assay grouped these genotypes into two major categories representing Indica and Japonica cultivar groups with further sub-groupings into Indica, Aus, Deepwater and Aromatic-Japonica cultivars. Targetted re-sequencing of the Sub1A, Sub1B and Sub1C genes identfied 7, 7 and 38 SNPs making 8, 9 and 67 SNP haplotypes, respectively. Haplotype networks and phylogenic analysis revealed evolution of Sub1B and Sub1A genes by tandem duplication and divergence of the ancestral Sub1C gene in that order. The alleles of Sub1 genes in tolerant reference variety FR13A seem to have evolved most recently. However, no consistent association could be found between the Sub1 allelic variation and submergence tolerance probably due to low minor allele frequencies and presence of exceptions to the known Sub1A-1 association in the genotype panel. We identified 18 cultivars with non-Sub1A-1 source of submergence tolerance which after further mapping and validation in bi-parental populations will be useful for development of superior flood tolerant rice cultivars.
Project description:Crops with resilience to multiple climatic stresses are essential for increased yield stability. Here, we evaluate the interaction between two loci associated with flooding survival in rice (Oryza sativa L.). ANAEROBIC GERMINATION 1 (AG1), encoding trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase 7 (TPP7), promotes mobilization of endosperm reserves to enhance the elongation of a hollow coleoptile in seeds that are seeded directly into shallow paddies. SUBMERGENCE 1 (SUB1), encoding the ethylene-responsive transcription factor SUB1A-1, confers tolerance to complete submergence by dampening carbohydrate catabolism, to enhance recovery upon desubmergence. Interactions between AG1/TPP7 and SUB1/SUB1A-1 were investigated under three flooding scenarios using four near-isogenic lines by surveying growth and survival. Pyramiding of the two loci does not negatively affect anaerobic germination or vegetative-stage submergence tolerance. However, the pyramided AG1 SUB1 genotype displays reduced survival when seeds are planted underwater and maintained under submergence for 16 d. To better understand the roles of TPP7 and SUB1A-1 and their interaction, temporal changes in carbohydrates and shoot transcriptomes were monitored in the four genotypes varying at the two loci at four developmental timeponts, from day 2 after seeding through day 14 of complete submergence. TPP7 enhances early coleoptile elongation, whereas SUB1A-1 promotes precocious photoautotrophy and then restricts underwater elongation. By contrast, pyramiding of the AG1 and SUB1 slows elongation growth, the transition to photoautotrophy, and survival. mRNA-sequencing highlights time-dependent and genotype-specific regulation of mRNAs associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, chromatin modification, plastid biogenesis, carbohydrate catabolism and transport, elongation growth, and other processes. These results suggest that interactions between AG1/TPP7 and SUB1/SUB1A-1 could impact seedling establishment if paddy depth is not effectively managed after direct seeding.
Project description:Rice NSF45K microarray experiment to dissect submergence tolerance response in submergence tolerant rice plant, M202(Sub1): We previously characterized the rice (Oryza sativa L.) Sub1 locus encoding three Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) transcriptional regulators. Genotypes carrying the Sub1A-1 allele are tolerant of prolonged submergence. To elucidate the mechanism of Sub1A-1 mediated tolerance, we performed transcriptome analyses comparing the temporal submergence response of Sub1A-1 containing tolerant M202(Sub1) with the intolerant isoline M202 lacking this gene at three duration of submergence (0d, 1d, and 6d) with two biological replicates and one or two dye-swaps. We identified 898 genes displaying Sub1A-1-dependent regulation. Keywords: Abiotic stress tolerance response Overall design: Three-condition experiment, M202(Sub1) vs wild type control (M202) at three durations of submergence (0d, 1d and 6d). Biological replicates: 2, independently grown and harvested. Technical replicates replicates: 1-2 control.
Project description:Rice NSF45K microarray experiment to dissect submergence tolerance response in submergence tolerant rice plant, M202(Sub1): We previously characterized the rice (Oryza sativa L.) Sub1 locus encoding three Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) transcriptional regulators. Genotypes carrying the Sub1A-1 allele are tolerant of prolonged submergence. To elucidate the mechanism of Sub1A-1 mediated tolerance, we performed transcriptome analyses comparing the temporal submergence response of Sub1A-1 containing tolerant M202(Sub1) with the intolerant isoline M202 lacking this gene at three duration of submergence (0d, 1d, and 6d) with two biological replicates and one or two dye-swaps. We identified 898 genes displaying Sub1A-1-dependent regulation. Keywords: Abiotic stress tolerance response Three-condition experiment, M202(Sub1) vs wild type control (M202) at three durations of submergence (0d, 1d and 6d). Biological replicates: 2, independently grown and harvested. Technical replicates replicates: 1-2 control.
Project description:Submergence-tolerant rice maintains viability during complete submergence by limiting underwater elongation until floodwaters recede. Acclimation responses to submergence are coordinated by the submergence-inducible Sub1A, which encodes an ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factor (ERF). Sub1A is limited to tolerant genotypes and sufficient to confer submergence tolerance to intolerant accessions. Here we evaluated the role of Sub1A in the integration of ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin (GA) signaling during submergence. The submergence-stimulated decrease in ABA content was Sub1A-independent, whereas GA-mediated underwater elongation was significantly restricted by Sub1A. Transgenics that ectopically express Sub1A displayed classical GA-insensitive phenotypes, leading to the hypothesis that Sub1A limits the response to GA. Notably Sub1A increased the accumulation of the GA signaling repressors Slender Rice-1 (SLR1) and SLR1 Like-1 (SLRL1) and concomitantly diminished GA-inducible gene expression under submerged conditions. In the Sub1A overexpression line, SLR1 protein levels declined under prolonged submergence but were accompanied by an increase in accumulation of SLRL1, which lacks the DELLA domain. In the presence of Sub1A, the increase in these GA signaling repressors and decrease in GA responsiveness were stimulated by ethylene, which promotes Sub1A expression. Conversely, ethylene promoted GA responsiveness and shoot elongation in submergence-intolerant lines. Together, these results demonstrate that Sub1A limits ethylene-promoted GA responsiveness during submergence by augmenting accumulation of the GA signaling repressors SLR1 and SLRL1.
Project description:The rice gene SUB1A-1 confers flooding tolerance restricting shoot growth during submergence. Rice with SUB1A also show more rapid recovery after submergence ends, but mechanisms by which SUB1A improves recovery from submergence had not been examined. In this study, the transcriptome was sequenced at five time points over a 24 hour submergence recovery period in near-isogenic rice genotypes with and without SUB1A. Overall design: 36 samples, 2 genotypes: M202 and 202(Sub1), 2 conditions: unsubmerged and 3d whole shoot submergence, 5 time points: desubmergence (at midday following 3d submergence), dusk, midnight, dawn, midday (24 hours after desubmergence). 3 bioreplicates. Unsubmerged plants only sequenced for at desubmergence time point.
Project description:The rice SUB1A-1 gene, which encodes a group VII ethylene response factor (ERFVII), plays a pivotal role in rice survival under flooding stress, as well as other abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis, five ERFVII factors play roles in regulating hypoxic responses. A characteristic feature of Arabidopsis ERFVIIs is a destabilizing N terminus, which functions as an N-degron that targets them for degradation via the oxygen-dependent N-end rule pathway of proteolysis, but permits their stabilization during hypoxia for hypoxia-responsive signaling. Despite having the canonical N-degron sequence, SUB1A-1 is not under N-end rule regulation, suggesting a distinct hypoxia signaling pathway in rice during submergence. Herein we show that two other rice ERFVIIs gene, ERF66 and ERF67, are directly transcriptionally up-regulated by SUB1A-1 under submergence. In contrast to SUB1A-1, ERF66 and ERF67 are substrates of the N-end rule pathway that are stabilized under hypoxia and may be responsible for triggering a stronger transcriptional response to promote submergence survival. In support of this, overexpression of ERF66 or ERF67 leads to activation of anaerobic survival genes and enhanced submergence tolerance. Furthermore, by using structural and protein-interaction analyses, we show that the C terminus of SUB1A-1 prevents its degradation via the N-end rule and directly interacts with the SUB1A-1 N terminus, which may explain the enhanced stability of SUB1A-1 despite bearing an N-degron sequence. In summary, our results suggest that SUB1A-1, ERF66, and ERF67 form a regulatory cascade involving transcriptional and N-end rule control, which allows rice to distinguish flooding from other SUB1A-1-regulated stresses.
Project description:In rice (Oryza sativa L.), the haplotype at the multigenic SUBMERGENCE 1 (SUB1) locus determines survival of prolonged submergence. SUB1 encodes two or three group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family transcription factors, SUB1A, SUB1B and SUB1C. A highly submergence-inducible SUB1A allele is present in lines that are submergence tolerant. This gene is the determinant of submergence tolerance. Here, the heterologous ectopic expression of rice SUB1A and SUB1C in Arabidopsis thaliana was employed to assess the transcriptional network mobilized by ectopic expression of SUB1A and SUB1C. Overall design: Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants were stably transformed with constructs allowing the expression of 35S:FLAG-SUB1A and 35S:FLAG-SUB1C. Affymetrix ATH1 arrays were hybridized with RNA isolated from 7-day-old whole seedlings at midday (growth chamber, 0.5X MS-agar plates, 1 %(w/v) sucrose, 23 ºC, 16 h light/ 8 h dark, 125 uE m-2 s-1). Two biological replicates each.
Project description:This study evaluated transcriptomic responses to submergence in elongating and non-elongating leaves of rice near-isogenic lines with and without SUB1A using RNA-Seq. SUB1A is an ERF transcription factor gene and the key regulator of submergence tolerance in rice, restricting underwater elongation and avoiding starvation under the stress. Submergence induces mRNA accumulation of SUB1A similarly in elongating and non-elongating leaves. This study uncovered SUB1A-dependent and independent regulation of adaptive responses to submergence in the two functionally distinct leaves at the global level. Overall design: mRNAs extracted from elongating and non-elongating leaves of rice plants [M202 and M202(Sub1)] submerged for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days. Three independent biological replicates.