A randomized, comparative pilot trial of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for reducing psychosocial symptoms, disordered-eating, and excess weight gain in at-risk preadolescents with loss-of-control-eating.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. METHOD:A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n?=?15) or FB-HE (n?=?14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. RESULTS:FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI -7.23, -2.01, Cohen's d?=?1.23) and anxiety (95% CI -6.08, -0.70, Cohen's d?=?.79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI -3.93, -0.03, Cohen's d?=?.38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI -0.72, -0.05, Cohen's d?=?.66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI -8.82, 0.44, Cohen's d?=?.69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. DISCUSSION:Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of disordered-eating or excess weight gain requires further study.
Project description:Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain and reduces loss-of-control (LOC)-eating in adults. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) for preventing excess weight gain and reducing LOC-eating over 1-year in adolescent girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders. Limited data suggest that older and non-White youth may be especially responsive to IPT. In secondary analyses, we examined if age or race moderated weight and LOC-eating outcomes. The 113 participants (12-17 years; 56.6% White) from the original trial were re-contacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline and follow-up visits through 3 years, we assessed BMI, adiposity by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and LOC-eating presence. In linear mixed models, baseline age moderated 3-year BMI outcome; older girls in IPT had the lowest 3-year BMI gain compared to younger girls in IPT and all girls in HE, p = 0.04. A similar pattern was observed for adiposity. Race moderated 3-year LOC-eating; non-White girls in IPT were most likely to abstain from LOC-eating at 3 years compared to all other girls, p = 0.04. This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests future studies should determine if IPT is especially efficacious at reducing LOC-eating in older, non-White adolescents.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Military adolescent boys report similar levels of disordered-eating as their female counterparts. Yet, interventions for the prevention of full-threshold eating disorders in adolescent boys are lacking. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidenced-based therapy adapted for the prevention of BED and adult obesity, has been studied in adolescent girls, but it is unclear whether IPT might resonate with adolescent boys.<h4>Method</h4>The current case study elucidates the use of a 12-week IPT group intervention for the prevention of BED and adult obesity in adulthood for an African American adolescent military dependent boy with reported loss-of-control (LOC)-eating, obesity, and elevated mood symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>LOC-eating and body mass index metrics decreased immediately post-intervention and further decreased by one-year follow-up. Social functioning scores improved and anxiety and depression scores decreased from baseline to one-year follow-up. In contrast to previous observations among girls, these improvements were evidenced without the teen's explicit acknowledgement of the link between mood and eating behaviors.<h4>Discussion</h4>Although the mechanism of change may manifest differently than for girls, adapted IPT may be an effective intervention strategy for adolescent boys with LOC-eating and obesity who endorse elevated mood symptoms.
Project description:This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants' interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits [as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature] (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (p's ? 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that interpersonal problems lead to negative affect, which in turn contributes to the onset and/or persistence of LOC eating. Despite preliminary support, there are no data examining the construct validity of the interpersonal model of LOC eating using temporally sensitive reports of social stress, distinct negative affective states, and laboratory energy intake. METHOD:117 healthy adolescent girls (BMI: 75th-97th %ile) were recruited for a prevention trial targeting excess weight gain in adolescent girls who reported LOC eating. Prior to the intervention, participants completed questionnaires of recent social stress and consumed lunch from a multi-item laboratory test meal. Immediately before the test meal, participants completed a questionnaire of five negative affective states (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, anxiety). Bootstrapping mediation models were conducted to evaluate pre-meal negative affect states as explanatory mediators of the association between recent social stress and palatable (desserts and snack-type) food intake. All analyses adjusted for age, race, pubertal stage, height, fat mass percentage, and lean mass. RESULTS:Pre-meal state anxiety was a significant mediator for recent social stress and palatable food intake (ps<.05). By contrast, pre-meal state anger, confusion, depression, and fatigue did not mediate the relationship between social stress and palatable food intake (ps>.05). DISCUSSION:Pre-meal anxiety appears to be the salient mood state for the interpersonal model among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Interventions that focus on improving both social functioning and anxiety may prove most effective at preventing and/or ameliorating disordered eating and obesity in these adolescents.
Project description:Pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating is predictive of partial- and full-syndrome binge eating disorder. The interpersonal model proposes that LOC eating is used to cope with negative mood states resulting from interpersonal distress, possibly on a momentary level. We therefore examined temporal associations between interpersonal problems, negative affect, and LOC eating among overweight adolescent girls using ecological momentary assessment (EMA).Thirty overweight and obese (?85th body mass index (BMI) percentile; BMI: M?=?36.13, SD?=?7.49 kg/m(2)) adolescent females (Age: M?=?14.92, SD?=?1.54 y; 60.0% African American) who reported at least two LOC episodes in the past month completed self-report momentary ratings of interpersonal problems, state affect, and LOC eating for 2 weeks. A series of 2-level multilevel models with centering within subjects was conducted.Between- and within-subjects interpersonal problems (p's?<?.05), but not between- (p?=?.12) or within- (p?=?.32) subjects negative affect predicted momentary LOC eating. At the between-subjects level, interpersonal problems significantly predicted increases in negative affect (p?<?001).Naturalistic data lend support to the predictive value of interpersonal problems for LOC eating among adolescents. Interventions targeting interpersonal factors on a momentary basis may be useful during this developmental stage.
Project description:To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (aged 7-12 years) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health.Preadolescents with depression (N = 42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers.Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% versus 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R(2) = 0.35, ?R(2) = 0.22; B = -8.15, SE = 2.61, t = -3.13, p = .002, F(2) = 0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment compared with preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents' posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents' posttreatment depressive symptoms.Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information-Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02054312.
Project description:Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is an effective specialty treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL) and guided self-help based on cognitive behavior therapy (CBTgsh) have both resulted in short-term reductions in binge eating in obese patients with BED.To test whether patients with BED require specialty therapy beyond BWL and whether IPT is more effective than either BWL or CBTgsh in patients with a high negative affect during a 2-year follow-up.Randomized, active control efficacy trial.University outpatient clinics.Two hundred five women and men with a body mass index between 27 and 45 who met DSM-IV criteria for BED. Intervention Twenty sessions of IPT or BWL or 10 sessions of CBTgsh during 6 months.Binge eating assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination.At 2-year follow-up, both IPT and CBTgsh resulted in greater remission from binge eating than BWL (P < .05; odds ratios: BWL vs CBTgsh, 2.3; BWL vs IPT, 2.6; and CBTgsh vs IPT, 1.2). Self-esteem (P < .05) and global Eating Disorder Examination (P < .05) scores were moderators of treatment outcome. The odds ratios for low and high global Eating Disorder Examination scores were 2.8 for BWL, 2.9 for CBTgsh, and 0.73 for IPT; for self-esteem, they were 2.4 for BWL, 1.9 for CBTgsh, and 0.9 for IPT.Interpersonal psychotherapy and CBTgsh are significantly more effective than BWL in eliminating binge eating after 2 years. Guided self-help based on cognitive behavior therapy is a first-line treatment option for most patients with BED, with IPT (or full cognitive behavior therapy) used for patients with low self-esteem and high eating disorder psychopathology.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00060762.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Understanding the mechanisms of action of psychological treatments is a key first step in refining and developing more effective treatments. The present study examined hypothesized mediators of change of enhanced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy for eating disorders (IPT-ED).<h4>Method</h4>A series of mediation studies were embedded in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing 20?weeks of CBT-E and IPT-ED in a transdiagnostic, non-underweight sample of patients with eating disorders (N =?130) consecutively referred to the service. Three hypothesized mediators of change in CBT-E (regular eating, weighing frequency, and shape checking) and the key hypothesized mediator of IPT-ED (interpersonal problem severity) were studied.<h4>Results</h4>The data supported regular eating as being a mediator of the effect of CBT-E on binge-eating frequency. The findings were inconclusive regarding the role of the other putative mediators of the effects of CBT-E; and were similarly inconclusive for interpersonal problem severity as a mediator of the effect of IPT-ED.<h4>Discussion</h4>This research highlights the potential benefits of embedding mediation studies within RCTs to better understand how treatments work. The findings supported the role of regular eating in reducing patients' binge-eating frequency. Other key hypothesized mediators of CBT-E and IPT-ED were not supported, although the data were not inconsistent with them. Key methodological issues to address in future work include the need to capture both behavioral and cognitive processes of change in CBT-E, and identifying key time points for change in IPT-ED.