A systematic review of chronic disease management interventions in primary care.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Primary and community care are key settings for the effective management of long term conditions. We aimed to evaluate the pattern of health outcomes in chronic disease management interventions for adults with physical health problems implemented in primary or community care settings. METHODS:The methods were based on our previous review published in 2006. We performed database searches for articles published from 2006 to 2014 and conducted a systematic review with narrative synthesis using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care taxonomy to classify interventions and outcomes. The interventions were mapped to Chronic Care Model elements. The pattern of outcomes related to interventions was summarized by frequency of statistically significant improvements in health care provision and patient outcomes. RESULTS:A total of 9589 journal articles were retrieved from database searches and snowballing. After screening and verification, 165 articles that detailed 157 studies were included. There were few studies with Health Care Organization (1.9% of studies) or Community Resources (0.6% of studies) as the primary intervention element. Self-Management Support interventions (45.8% of studies) most frequently resulted in improvements in patient-level outcomes. Delivery System Design interventions (22.6% of studies) showed benefits in both professional and patient-level outcomes for a narrow range of conditions. Decision Support interventions (21.3% of studies) had impact limited to professional-level outcomes, in particular use of medications. The small number of studies of Clinical Information System interventions (8.9%) showed benefits for both professional- and patient-level outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The published literature has expanded substantially since 2006. This review confirms that Self-Management Support is the most frequent Chronic Care Model intervention that is associated with statistically significant improvements, predominately for diabetes and hypertension.
Project description:This review assesses the effectiveness of integrated primary health and social care hubs on mental health outcomes for children experiencing adversity and describes common integration dimensions of effective hubs. PubMed, OVID Medline and PyschINFO databases were systematically searched for relevant articles between 2006-2020 that met the inclusion criteria: (i) interventional studies, (ii) an integrated approach to mental health within a primary health care setting, (iii) validated measures of child mental health outcomes, and (iv) in English language. Of 5961 retrieved references, four studies involving children aged 0-12 years experiencing one or more adversities were included. Most children were male (mean: 60.5%), and Hispanic or African American (82.5%). Three studies with low-moderate risk of bias reported improvements in mental health outcomes for children experiencing adversity receiving integrated care. The only RCT in this review did not show significant improvements. The most common dimensions of effective integrated hubs based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care were clinical integration (including case management, patient-centred care, patient education, and continuity of care), professional integration, and organisational integration including co-location. These results suggest hubs incorporating effective integration dimensions could improve mental health outcomes for children experiencing adversity; however, further robust studies are required. <b>Registered with Prospero:</b> CRD42020206015.
Project description:Background and aims: Chronic disease, particularly inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), requires a multifaceted approach to managing patients, but it is apparent that primary care pharmacists are being underutilized. To demonstrate the benefits of pharmacist interventions in primary care, a systematic review was conducted of interventions in asthma and type 2 diabetes where pharmacists have a defined role in chronic disease management. We also explored potential opportunities for primary care pharmacists to deliver tailored care to patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: The search strategy retrieved original research articles from seven databases; eligible articles were assessed for inclusion. Quality appraisal was performed independently by two reviewers. Results: Thirty-seven included studies were grouped into four categories of interventions: education/counseling (43%), medication management (34%), monitoring/follow-up (17%), and screening/risk prevention (6%). Education plus counseling was reported as the main intervention delivered by pharmacists. Three measurable outcomes were identified: clinical, humanistic (e.g., quality of life), and economic. Clinical outcomes (63%) were reported more commonly than humanistic (26%) and economic (11%) outcomes. Pharmacist interventions led to statistically significant improvements in control of disease, severity, and medication adherence, as well as improvements in overall patient satisfaction, quality of life among patients with asthma and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible sources of primary health care, pharmacists are well-placed to minimize the impact of chronic diseases on patients and communities. Evidence suggests there are opportunities for primary care pharmacists to play a more active role in the management of chronic diseases such as IBD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anxiety disorders are common in general practice and are associated with several problems regarding recognition and management.<h4>Aim</h4>To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving recognition, diagnosis, and management of patients with anxiety disorders.<h4>Design of study</h4>Systematic review.<h4>Method</h4>MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Clinical Trials' Register were searched up until 2003. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before/after trials, and interrupted time series for professional, organisational, financial, and regulatory interventions were eligible. Primary effect measures consisted of anxiety outcomes, diagnosis, prescription, and referral. Two reviewers independently made eligibility judgments: eight out of 563 articles were found to be eligible. Two reviewers participated independently in the quality assessment and data extraction process using a standardised form based on the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care checklist. Relative risks or standardised mean differences were calculated when possible.<h4>Results</h4>Four professional interventions and three organisational interventions were examined. In general, the professional interventions seemed to increase recognition, referral, and prescription as well as improving anxiety outcomes. Two out of three organisational interventions showed a positive effect on anxiety outcomes. The one study that took prescription into account showed no effect.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The quality of care for patients with anxiety can be improved. A combination of professional and organisational interventions in which an external expert is introduced seems to be most promising. Additional research is nevertheless necessary to determine the exact effects of such interventions using patient effect measures, economic evaluations, and feasibility studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Against a backdrop of rising healthcare costs, variability in care provision and an increased emphasis on patient satisfaction, the need for effective interventions to improve quality of care has come to the fore. This is the first ten year (2000-2010) systematic review of interventions which sought to improve quality of care in a hospital setting. This review moves beyond a broad assessment of outcome significance levels and makes recommendations for future effective and accessible interventions.<h4>Methods</h4>Two researchers independently screened a total of 13,195 English language articles from the databases PsychInfo, Medline, PubMed, EmBase and CinNahl. There were 120 potentially relevant full text articles examined and 20 of those articles met the inclusion criteria.<h4>Results</h4>Included studies were heterogeneous in terms of approach and scientific rigour and varied in scope from small scale improvements for specific patient groups to large scale quality improvement programmes across multiple settings. Interventions were broadly categorised as either technical (n = 11) or interpersonal (n = 9). Technical interventions were in the main implemented by physicians and concentrated on improving care for patients with heart disease or pneumonia. Interpersonal interventions focused on patient satisfaction and tended to be implemented by nursing staff. Technical interventions had a tendency to achieve more substantial improvements in quality of care.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The rigorous application of inclusion criteria to studies established that despite the very large volume of literature on quality of care improvements, there is a paucity of hospital interventions with a theoretically based design or implementation. The screening process established that intervention studies to date have largely failed to identify their position along the quality of care spectrum. It is suggested that this lack of theoretical grounding may partly explain the minimal transfer of health research to date into policy. It is recommended that future interventions are established within a theoretical framework and that selected quality of care outcomes are assessed using this framework. Future interventions to improve quality of care will be most effective when they use a collaborative approach, involve multidisciplinary teams, utilise available resources, involve physicians and recognise the unique requirements of each patient group.
Project description:To conduct a systematic review examining the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions in changing clinical practice and patient outcomes.MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for studies published from January 1980 to July 2012 that reported and evaluated an implemented KT intervention in spinal cord injury (SCI) care. We reviewed and summarized results from studies that documented the implemented KT intervention, its impact on changing clinician behavior and patient outcomes as well as the facilitators and barriers encountered during the implementation.A total of 13 articles featuring 10 studies were selected and abstracted from 4650 identified articles. KT interventions included developing and implementing patient care protocols, providing clinician education and incorporating outcome measures into clinical practice. The methods (or drivers) to facilitate the implementation included organizing training sessions for clinical staff, introducing computerized reminders and involving organizational leaders. The methodological quality of studies was mostly poor. Only 3 out of 10 studies evaluated the success of the implementation using statistical analyses, and all 3 reported significant behavior change. Out of the 10 studies, 6 evaluated the effect of the implementation on patient outcomes using statistical analyses, with 4 reporting significant improvements. The commonly cited facilitators and barriers were communication and resources, respectively.The field of KT in SCI is in its infancy with only a few relevant publications. However, there is some evidence that KT interventions may change clinician behavior and improve patient outcomes. Future studies should ensure rigorous study methods are used to evaluate KT interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improving access to specialty care has been identified as a critical issue in the delivery of health services, especially given an increasing burden of chronic disease. Identifying and addressing problems that impact access to specialty care for patients referred to speciality care for non-emergent procedures and how these deficiencies can be managed via health system delivery interventions is important to improve care for patients with chronic conditions. However, the primary-specialty care interface is complex and may be impacted by a variety of potential health services delivery deficiencies; with an equal range of interventions developed to correct them. Consequently, the literature is also diverse and difficult to navigate. We present a narrative review to identify existing literature, and provide a conceptual map that categorizes problems at the primary-specialty care interface with linkages to corresponding interventions aimed at ensuring that patient transitions across the primary-specialty care interface are necessary, appropriate, timely and well communicated. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January 1, 2005 until Dec 31, 2014, grey literature and reference lists to identify articles that report on interventions implemented to improve the primary-specialty care interface. Selected articles were categorized to describe: 1) the intervention context, including the deficiency addressed, and the objective of the intervention 2) intervention activities, and 3) intervention outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 106 articles, producing four categories of health services delivery deficiencies based in: 1) clinical decision making; 2) information management; 3) the system level management of patient flows between primary and secondary care; and 4) quality-of-care monitoring. Interventions were divided into seven categories and fourteen sub-categories based on the deficiencies addressed and the intervention strategies used. Potential synergies and trade-offs among interventions are discussed. Little evidence exists regarding the synergistic and antagonistic interactions of alternative intervention strategies. CONCLUSION:The categorization acts as an aid in identifying why the primary-specialty care interface may be failing and which interventions may produce improvements. Overlap and interconnectedness between interventions creates potential synergies and conflicts among co-implemented interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Self-management, which enables patients to better manage their health, presents a potentially-scalable means of mitigating the growing burden of NCDs in LMICs. Though the effectiveness of self-management interventions in high-income countries is well-documented, the use of these strategies in LMICs has yet to be thoroughly summarized. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the nature and effectiveness of past interventions that have enabled the self-management of NCDs in LMICs. METHODS:Using the scoping review methodology proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, PubMed was searched for relevant articles published between January 2007 and December 2018. The implemented search strategy comprised three major themes: self-management, NCDs and LMICs. RESULTS:Thirty-six original research articles were selected for inclusion. The selected studies largely focused on the self-management of diabetes (N = 21), hypertension (N = 7) and heart failure (N = 5). Most interventions involved the use of short message service (SMS, N = 17) or phone calls (N = 12), while others incorporated educational sessions (N = 10) or the deployment of medical devices (N = 4). The interventions were generally effective and often led to improvements in physiologic indicators, patient self-care and/or patient quality of life. However, the studies emphasized results in small populations, with little indication of future scaling of the intervention. Furthermore, the results indicate a need for further research into the self-management of cardiovascular diseases, as well as for the co-management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS:Self-management appears to be an effective means of improving health outcomes in LMICs. Future strategies should include patients and clinicians in all stages of design and development, allowing for a focus on long-term sustainability, scalability and interoperability of the intervention in the target setting.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Limited research examining the relationship between team-based models of care and patient satisfaction in the hospital setting is available. The purpose of this literature review was to explore this relationship as well as the relationships between team composition, team-based interventions, patient satisfaction, and other outcomes of care when measured as part of the study.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic appraisal of research studies published through February 2017 was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, Ovid, gray literature and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were 1) experimental (randomized control trials), quasi-experimental, or non-experimental (cross-sectional) study design; 2) team-based care interventions; 3) hospital setting; 4) patient satisfaction measured as an outcome; and 5) published in English.<h4>Results</h4>The literature search yielded 15,247 citations. In total, 142 articles were retrieved for full-text screening; 21 studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, 57% of the studies identified a statistically significant improvement in patient satisfaction associated with team-based care. Team-based care interventions ranged from single team activities such as multidisciplinary rounds to comprehensive team-based models of care. Patient satisfaction scores were greater with teams that had more than two professions and more comprehensive team-based models. About one-quarter of studies that measured patient satisfaction and at least one additional outcome demonstrated improvement in both.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Team-based care may positively affect patient satisfaction. Team composition and type of team intervention appears to influence the strength of the relationship. Improvements in satisfaction are not consistently accompanied by improvements in other outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Falls are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased involvement of people with Parkinson's (PwP) in their care has been associated with enhanced satisfaction. Self-management programmes in other long-term conditions (LTCs) have led to improvements in physical and psychological outcomes. These have been more effective when targeted toward a specific behavior. OBJECTIVE:This paper aimed to identify and review falls self-management interventions for PwP. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted. Electronic databases were searched in June 2018. Primary research studies (any design) reporting the delivery of falls self-management interventions to PwP were included. Data was extracted from each article and synthesised narratively. RESULTS:Six articles were identified, relating to five different self-management interventions. All described a self-management intervention delivered alongside physiotherapy. Intervention delivery was through either group discussion (n = 3) or falls booklets (n = 3). Interventions were often incompletely described; the most common components were information about the condition, training/ rehearsal for psychological strategies and lifestyle advice and support. Arising from the design of articles included the effects of self-management and physiotherapy could not be separated. Three articles measured falls, only one led to a reduction. Four articles measured quality of life, only one led to improvement. No articles assessed skill acquisition or adherence to the self-management intervention. CONCLUSIONS:Few falls self-management interventions for PwP have been evaluated and reported. The components of an effective intervention remain unclear. Given the benefits of self-management interventions in other LTCs, it is important that falls self-management interventions are developed and evaluated to support PwP.
Project description:Despite a robust evidence base for its effectiveness, implementation of supported self-management for asthma is suboptimal. Professional education is an implementation strategy with proven effectiveness, though the specific features linked with effectiveness are often unclear. We performed a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials (published from 1990 and updated to May 2017 using forward citation searching) to determine the effectiveness of professional education on asthma self-management support and identify features of effective initiatives. Primary outcomes reflected professional behaviour change (provision of asthma action plans) and patient outcomes (asthma control; unscheduled care). Data were coded using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Taxonomy, the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), and Bloom's Taxonomy and synthesised narratively. Of 15,637 articles identified, 18 (reporting 15 studies including 21 educational initiatives) met inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was high for five studies, and unclear for 10. Three of 6 initiatives improved action plan provision; 1/2 improved asthma control; and 2/7 reduced unscheduled care. Compared to ineffective initiatives, effective initiatives were more often coded as being guideline-based; involving local opinion leaders; including inter-professional education; and addressing the TDF domains 'social influences'; 'environmental context and resources'; 'behavioural regulation'; 'beliefs about consequences'; and 'social/professional role and identity'. Findings should be interpreted cautiously as many strategies were specified infrequently. However, identified features warrant further investigation as part of implementation strategies aiming to improve the provision of supported self-management for asthma.