T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Perfusion Imaging Characterizes Tumor Response to Radiation Therapy in Chordoma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Chordomas notoriously demonstrate a paucity of changes following radiation therapy on conventional MR imaging. We hypothesized that dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging parameters of chordomas would change significantly following radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eleven patients with pathology-proved chordoma who completed dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging pre- and postradiation therapy were enrolled. Quantitative tumor measurements were obtained by 2 attending neuroradiologists. ROIs were used to calculate vascular permeability and plasma volume and generate dynamic contrast-enhancement curves. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine mean and maximum plasma volume and vascular permeability values, while semiquantitative analysis on averaged concentration curves was used to determine the area under the curve. A Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of P < .05 was used to assess differences of the above parameters between pre- and postradiation therapy. RESULTS:Plasma volume mean (pretreatment mean = 0.82; posttreatment mean = 0.42), plasma volume maximum (pretreatment mean = 3.56; posttreatment mean = 2.27), and vascular permeability mean (pretreatment mean = 0.046; posttreatment mean = 0.028) in the ROIs significantly decreased after radiation therapy (P < .05); this change thereby demonstrated the potential for assessing tumor response. Area under the curve values also demonstrated significant differences (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Plasma volume and vascular permeability decreased after radiation therapy, suggesting that these dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion parameters may be useful for monitoring chordoma growth and response to radiation therapy. Additionally, the characteristic dynamic MR signal intensity-time curve of chordoma may provide a radiographic means of distinguishing chordoma from other spinal lesions.
Project description:To compare differences in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging characteristics of recurrent neoplasm and radiation necrosis in patients with brain tumors previously treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery and chemotherapy.Patients with a history of brain neoplasm previously treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and surgery who developed a new enhancing lesion on posttreatment surveillance MRI were enrolled. DSC perfusion MRI and DTI were performed. Region of interest cursors were manually drawn in the contrast-enhancing lesions, in the perilesional white matter edema, and in the contralateral normal-appearing frontal lobe white matter. DTI and DSC perfusion MR indices were compared in recurrent tumor versus radiation necrosis.Twenty-two patients with 24 lesions were included. Sixteen (67%) lesions were placed into the recurrent neoplasm group and eight (33%) lesions were placed into the radiation necrosis group using biopsy results as the gold standard in all but three patients. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient values, mean parallel eigenvalues, and mean perpendicular eigenvalues in the contrast-enhancing lesion were significantly lower, and relative cerebral blood volume was significantly higher for the recurrent neoplasm group compared to the radiation necrosis group (P?<?0.01, P?=?0.03, P?<?0.01, and P?<?0.01, respectively).The combined assessment of DTI and DSC MR perfusion properties of new contrast-enhancing lesions is helpful in distinguishing recurrent neoplasm from radiation necrosis in patients with a history of brain neoplasm previously treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery and chemotherapy.
Project description:To investigate whether cerebral blood volume (CBV), peak height (PH), and percentage of signal intensity recovery (PSR) measurements derived from the results of T2-weighted dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast material-enhanced (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can be used to distinguish recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from radiation necrosis.Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in this HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved retrospective study after they received a diagnosis of GBM, underwent EBRT, and were examined with DSC MR imaging, which revealed progressive contrast enhancement within the radiation field. A definitive diagnosis was established at subsequent surgical resection or clinicoradiologic follow-up. Regions of interest were retrospectively drawn around the entire contrast-enhanced region. This created T2-weighted signal intensity-time curves that produced three cerebral hemodynamic MR imaging measurements: CBV, PH, and PSR. Welch t tests were used to compare measurements between groups.Mean, maximum, and minimum relative PH and relative CBV were significantly higher (P < .01) in patients with recurrent GBM than in patients with radiation necrosis. Mean, maximum, and minimum relative PSR values were significantly lower (P < .05) in patients with recurrent GBM than in patients with radiation necrosis.These findings suggest that DSC perfusion MR imaging may be used to differentiate recurrent GBM from EBRT-induced radiation necrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Glioblastoma and primary CNS lymphoma dictate different neurosurgical strategies; it is critical to distinguish them preoperatively. However, current imaging modalities do not effectively differentiate them. We aimed to examine the use of DWI and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced-MR imaging as potential discriminative tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients with primary CNS lymphoma and 36 matched patients with glioblastoma with pretreatment DWI and dynamic contrast-enhanced-MR imaging. VOIs were drawn around the tumor on contrast-enhanced T1WI and FLAIR images; these images were transferred onto coregistered ADC maps to obtain the ADC and onto dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion maps to obtain the plasma volume and permeability transfer constant. Histogram analysis was performed to determine the mean and relative ADCmean and relative 90th percentile values for plasma volume and the permeability transfer constant. Nonparametric tests were used to assess differences, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for optimal threshold calculations. RESULTS:The enhancing component of primary CNS lymphoma was found to have significantly lower ADCmean (1.1 × 10-3 versus 1.4 × 10-3; P < .001) and relative ADCmean (1.5 versus 1.9; P < .001) and relative 90th percentile values for plasma volume (3.7 versus 5.0; P < .05) than the enhancing component of glioblastoma, but not significantly different relative 90th percentile values for the permeability transfer constant (5.4 versus 4.4; P = .83). The nonenhancing portions of glioblastoma and primary CNS lymphoma did not differ in these parameters. On the basis of receiver operating characteristic analysis, mean ADC provided the best threshold (area under the curve = 0.83) to distinguish primary CNS lymphoma from glioblastoma, which was not improved with normalized ADC or the addition of perfusion parameters. CONCLUSIONS:ADC was superior to dynamic contrast-enhanced-MR imaging perfusion, alone or in combination, in differentiating primary CNS lymphoma from glioblastoma.
Project description:We explored the general feasibility of proton beam therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Clinical records and treatment-planning data of patients with the pathological diagnosis of chordoma or chondrosarcoma were examined. Proton beam therapy was administered for gross tumor mass as well as microscopic residual disease after surgery. The prescribed dose was determined to maximize the coverage of the target and to not exceed predefined constraints for the organs at risk. Eight cases of chordoma and eight cases of chondrosarcoma were enrolled. The median tumor volume was 40 cm(3) (range, 7 to 546 cm(3)). The prescribed dose ranged from 50 to 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), with a median of 63 Gy RBE. The median follow-up duration was 42 months (range 9 to 80 months). The overall survival rate was 100%, and the local control rate at 3 years of chordoma and chondrosarcoma were 100% and 86%. None of the patients developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy, brain stem injury, or other severe toxicity. Proton beam therapy is generally feasible for both chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base, with excellent local control and survival rates.
Project description:Women with biologically favorable early-stage breast cancer are increasingly treated with accelerated partial breast radiation (PBI). However, treatment-related morbidities have been linked to the large postoperative treatment volumes required for external beam PBI. Relative to external beam delivery, alternative PBI techniques require equipment that is not universally available. To address these issues, we designed a phase 1 trial utilizing widely available technology to 1) evaluate the safety of a single radiation treatment delivered preoperatively to the small-volume, intact breast tumor and 2) identify imaging and genomic markers of radiation response.Women aged ?55 years with clinically node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive, and/or progesterone receptor-positive HER2-, T1 invasive carcinomas, or low- to intermediate-grade in situ disease ?2 cm were enrolled (n=32). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was used to deliver 15 Gy (n=8), 18 Gy (n=8), or 21 Gy (n=16) to the tumor with a 1.5-cm margin. Lumpectomy was performed within 10 days. Paired pre- and postradiation magnetic resonance images and patient tumor samples were analyzed.No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. At a median follow-up of 23 months, there have been no recurrences. Physician-rated cosmetic outcomes were good/excellent, and chronic toxicities were grade 1 to 2 (fibrosis, hyperpigmentation) in patients receiving preoperative radiation only. Evidence of dose-dependent changes in vascular permeability, cell density, and expression of genes regulating immunity and cell death were seen in response to radiation.Preoperative single-dose radiation therapy to intact breast tumors is well tolerated. Radiation response is marked by early indicators of cell death in this biologically favorable patient cohort. This study represents a first step toward a novel partial breast radiation approach. Preoperative radiation should be tested in future clinical trials because it has the potential to challenge the current treatment paradigm and provide a path forward to identify radiation response biomarkers.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate microcirculatory differences between pathologic types of kidney tumor using 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion.<h4>Methods</h4>Perfusion imaging with 320-slice dynamic volume CT was prospectively performed in 85 patients with pathologically proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n?=?66), papillary RCC (n?=?7), chromophobe RCC (n?=?5), angiomyolipoma (AML) with minimal fat (n?=?7), or RCC (n?=?78). Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS; clearance/unit volume?=?permeability), and blood flow (BF) of tumor and normal renal cortex were measured and analyzed. Effective radiation dose was calculated.<h4>Results</h4>There was a significant difference in all three parameters between tumor and normal renal cortex (P<0.001). Equiv BV was significantly different between RCC and AML with minimal fat (P?=?0.038) and between clear cell RCC and AML with minimal fat (P<0.001). Mean Equiv BV and BF were significantly higher in clear cell RCC than in papillary RCC (P<0.001 for both) and mean Equiv BV was higher in clear cell RCC than in chromophobe RCC (P<0.001). The effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 18.5 mSv.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Perfusion imaging using 320-slice dynamic volume CT can be used to evaluate hemodynamic features of the whole kidney and kidney tumors, which may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these four pathologic types of kidney tumor.
Project description:Background:Standard therapy for chordoma consists of surgical resection followed by high-dose irradiation. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase involved in signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell differentiation, and DNA repair. LB100 is a small-molecule inhibitor of PP2A designed to sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage from irradiation and chemotherapy. A recently completed phase I trial of LB100 in solid tumors demonstrated its safety. Here, we show the therapeutic potential of LB100 in chordoma. Methods:Three patient-derived chordoma cell lines were used: U-CH1, JHC7, and UM-Chor1. Cell proliferation was determined with LB100 alone and in combination with irradiation. Cell cycle progression was assessed by flow cytometry. Quantitative ?-H2AX immunofluorescence and immunoblot evaluated the effect of LB100 on radiation-induced DNA damage. Ultrastructural evidence for nuclear damage was investigated using Raman imaging and transmission electron microscopy. A xenograft model was established to determine potential clinical utility of adding LB100 to irradiation. Results:PP2A inhibition in concert with irradiation demonstrated in vitro growth inhibition. The combination of LB100 and radiation also induced accumulation at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, the stage most sensitive to radiation-induced damage. LB100 enhanced radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Animals implanted with chordoma cells and treated with the combination of LB100 and radiation demonstrated tumor growth delay. Conclusions:Combining LB100 and radiation enhanced DNA damage-induced cell death and delayed tumor growth in an animal model of chordoma. PP2A inhibition by LB100 treatment may improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy for chordoma.
Project description:To compare in patients with untreated rectal cancer quantitative perfusion parameters calculated from 3rd-generation dual-source dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) with 3-Tesla-MR-perfusion with regard to data variability and tumour differentiation. In MR-perfusion, plasma flow (PF), plasma volume (PV) and mean transit time (MTT) were assessed in two measurements (M1 and M2) by the same reader. In dVPCT, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), MTT and permeability (PERM) were assessed respectively. CT dose values were calculated. 20 patients (60?±?13 years) were analysed. Intra-individual and intra-reader variability of duplicate MR-perfusion measurements was higher compared to duplicate dVPCT measurements. dVPCT-derived BF, BV and PERM could differentiate between tumour and normal rectal wall (significance level for M1 and M2, respectively, regarding BF: p?<?0.0001*/0.0001*; BV: p?<?0.0001*/0.0001*; MTT: p?=?0.93/0.39; PERM: p?<?0.0001*/0.0001*), with MR-perfusion this was true for PF and PV (p-values M1/M2 for PF: p?=?0.04*/0.01*; PV: p?=?0.002*/0.003*; MTT: p?=?0.70/0.27*). Mean effective dose of CT-staging incl. dVPCT was 29?±?6?mSv (20?±?5?mSv for dVPCT alone). In conclusion, dVPCT has a lower data variability than MR-perfusion while both dVPCT and MR-perfusion could differentiate tumour tissue from normal rectal wall. With 3rd-generation dual-source CT dVPCT could be included in a standard CT-staging without exceeding national dose reference values.
Project description:Systematic review.To determine evidence-based guidelines for the management of locally recurrent spinal chordoma.Chordoma of the spine is a low-grade malignant tumor with a strong propensity for local recurrence. Salvage therapy is challenging due to its relentless nature and refractoriness to adjuvant therapies. There are currently no guidelines regarding the best management of recurrent chordoma.We combined the results of a systematic review with expert opinion to address the following research questions: (1) For locally recurrent chordoma of the spine without systemic disease, if surgery is planned, should en bloc resection be attempted if technically feasible with acceptable morbidity? (2) For locally recurrent chordoma without systemic disease, in which wide en bloc excision is not possible, what is the treatment of choice? (2) Should adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiation therapy be used in the treatment of locally recurrent chordoma?A total of nine surgical and seven radiation therapy articles met study criteria. Evidence quality was low or very low. Recurrent disease is associated with predominantly poor outcome, regardless of treatment modality. As for primary chordoma, resection with wide margins appears to confer an advantage with respect to local control, although this effect is attenuated in the setting of relapse. Postoperative radiation therapy likely reduces the rate of further relapse.(1) For locally recurrent chordoma of the spine without systemic disease, when surgery is planned, wide en bloc resection should be performed if technically feasible with acceptable morbidity. Strong recommendation, Low Quality of Evidence. (2) For locally recurrent chordoma without systemic disease, in which wide en bloc excision is not possible, partial resection is the treatment of choice. Weak recommendation, Very Low Quality of Evidence. (3) For the treatment of locally recurrent chordoma, high-dose conformal radiation therapy should be administered postoperatively to reduce the risk of further recurrence, and may be considered as a primary therapy. Strong recommendation, Very Low Quality of Evidence.2.
Project description:Chordomas are relatively rare lesions of the bones. About 30% occur in the sacrococcygeal region. Surgical resection is still the standard treatment. Due to the size, proximity to neurovascular structures and the complex anatomy of the pelvis, a complete resection with adequate safety margin is difficult to perform. A radical resection with safety margins often leads to the loss of bladder and rectal function as well as motoric/sensoric dysfunction. The recurrence rate after surgery alone is comparatively high, such that adjuvant radiation therapy is very important for improving local control rates. Proton therapy is still the international standard in the treatment of chordomas. High-LET beams such as carbon ions theoretically offer biologic advantages in slow-growing tumors. Data of a Japanese study of patients with unresectable sacral chordoma showed comparable high control rates after hypofractionated carbon ion therapy only.This clinical study is a prospective randomized, monocentric phase II trial. Patients with histologically confirmed sacrococcygeal chordoma will be randomized to either proton or carbon ion radiation therapy stratified regarding the clinical target volume. Target volume delineation will be carried out based on CT and MRI data. In each arm the PTV will receive 64 GyE in 16 fractions. The primary objective of this trial is safety and feasibility of hypofractionated irradiation in patients with sacrococygeal chordoma using protons or carbon ions in raster scan technique for primary or additive treatment after R2 resection. The evaluation is therefore based on the proportion of treatments without Grade 3-5 toxicity (CTCAE, version 4.0) up to 12 months after treatment and/or discontinuation of the treatment for any reason as primary endpoint. Local-progression free survival, overall survival and quality of life will be analyzed as secondary end points.The aim of this study is to confirm the toxicity results of the Japanese data in raster scan technique and to compare it with the toxicity analysis of proton therapy given in the same fractionation. Using this data, a further randomized phase III trial is planned, comparing hypofractionated proton and carbon ion irradiation.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01811394.