Tunable geometrical frustration in magnonic vortex crystals.
ABSTRACT: A novel approach to investigate geometrical frustration is introduced using two-dimensional magnonic vortex crystals. The frustration of the crystal can be manipulated and turned on and off dynamically on the timescale of milliseconds. The vortices are studied using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. They are arranged analogous to the nanomagnets in artificial spin-ice systems. The polarization state of the vortices is tuned in a way that geometrical frustration arises. We demonstrate that frustrated polarization states and non-frustrated states can be tuned to the crystal by changing the frequency of the state formation process.
Project description:Geometrical frustration occurs when entities in a system, subject to given lattice constraints, are hindered to simultaneously minimize their local interactions. In magnetism, systems incorporating geometrical frustration are fascinating, as their behavior is not only hard to predict, but also leads to the emergence of exotic states of matter. Here, we provide a first look into an artificial frustrated system, the dipolar trident lattice, where the balance of competing interactions between nearest-neighbor magnetic moments can be directly controlled, thus allowing versatile tuning of geometrical frustration and manipulation of ground state configurations. Our findings not only provide the basis for future studies on the low-temperature physics of the dipolar trident lattice, but also demonstrate how this frustration-by-design concept can deliver magnetically frustrated metamaterials.Artificial magnetic nanostructures enable the study of competing frustrated interactions with more control over the system parameters than is possible in magnetic materials. Farhan et al. present a two-dimensional lattice geometry where the frustration can be controlled by tuning the unit cell parameters.
Project description:To function, biomolecules require sufficient specificity of interaction as well as stability to live in the cell while still being able to move. Thermodynamic stability of only a limited number of specific structures is important so as to prevent promiscuous interactions. The individual interactions in proteins, therefore, have evolved collectively to give funneled minimally frustrated landscapes but some strategic parts of biomolecular sequences located at specific sites in the structure have been selected to be frustrated in order to allow both motion and interaction with partners. We describe a framework efficiently to quantify and localize biomolecular frustration at atomic resolution by examining the statistics of the energy changes that occur when the local environment of a site is changed. The location of patches of highly frustrated interactions correlates with key biological locations needed for physiological function. At atomic resolution, it becomes possible to extend frustration analysis to protein-ligand complexes. At this resolution one sees that drug specificity is correlated with there being a minimally frustrated binding pocket leading to a funneled binding landscape. Atomistic frustration analysis provides a route for screening for more specific compounds for drug discovery.
Project description:We propose a method of quantifying the degree of frustration manifested by spatially local interactions in protein biomolecules. This method of localization smoothly generalizes the global criterion for an energy landscape to be funneled to the native state, which is in keeping with the principle of minimal frustration. A survey of the structural database shows that natural proteins are multiply connected by a web of local interactions that are individually minimally frustrated. In contrast, highly frustrated interactions are found clustered on the surface, often near binding sites. These binding sites become less frustrated upon complex formation.
Project description:Experiencing frustration while driving can harm cognitive processing, result in aggressive behavior and hence negatively influence driving performance and traffic safety. Being able to automatically detect frustration would allow adaptive driver assistance and automation systems to adequately react to a driver's frustration and mitigate potential negative consequences. To identify reliable and valid indicators of driver's frustration, we conducted two driving simulator experiments. In the first experiment, we aimed to reveal facial expressions that indicate frustration in continuous video recordings of the driver's face taken while driving highly realistic simulator scenarios in which frustrated or non-frustrated emotional states were experienced. An automated analysis of facial expressions combined with multivariate logistic regression classification revealed that frustrated time intervals can be discriminated from non-frustrated ones with accuracy of 62.0% (mean over 30 participants). A further analysis of the facial expressions revealed that frustrated drivers tend to activate muscles in the mouth region (chin raiser, lip pucker, lip pressor). In the second experiment, we measured cortical activation with almost whole-head functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while participants experienced frustrating and non-frustrating driving simulator scenarios. Multivariate logistic regression applied to the fNIRS measurements allowed us to discriminate between frustrated and non-frustrated driving intervals with higher accuracy of 78.1% (mean over 12 participants). Frustrated driving intervals were indicated by increased activation in the inferior frontal, putative premotor and occipito-temporal cortices. Our results show that facial and cortical markers of frustration can be informative for time resolved driver state identification in complex realistic driving situations. The markers derived here can potentially be used as an input for future adaptive driver assistance and automation systems that detect driver frustration and adaptively react to mitigate it.
Project description:Conflicting biological goals often meet in the specification of protein sequences for structure and function. Overall, strong energetic conflicts are minimized in folded native states according to the principle of minimal frustration, so that a sequence can spontaneously fold, but local violations of this principle open up the possibility to encode the complex energy landscapes that are required for active biological functions. We survey the local energetic frustration patterns of all protein enzymes with known structures and experimentally annotated catalytic residues. In agreement with previous hypotheses, the catalytic sites themselves are often highly frustrated regardless of the protein oligomeric state, overall topology, and enzymatic class. At the same time a secondary shell of more weakly frustrated interactions surrounds the catalytic site itself. We evaluate the conservation of these energetic signatures in various family members of major enzyme classes, showing that local frustration is evolutionarily more conserved than the primary structure itself.
Project description:Frustrated systems, typically characterized by competing interactions that cannot all be simultaneously satisfied, display rich behaviours not found elsewhere in nature. Artificial spin ice takes a materials-by-design approach to studying frustration, where lithographically patterned bar magnets mimic the frustrated interactions in real materials but are also amenable to direct characterization. Here, we introduce controlled topological defects into square artificial spin ice lattices in the form of lattice edge dislocations and directly observe the resulting spin configurations. We find the presence of a topological defect produces extended frustration within the system caused by a domain wall with indeterminate configuration. Away from the dislocation, the magnets are locally unfrustrated, but frustration of the lattice persists due to its topology. Our results demonstrate the non-trivial nature of topological defects in a new context, with implications for many real systems in which a typical density of dislocations could fully frustrate a canonically unfrustrated system.
Project description:Phase inhomogeneity of otherwise chemically homogenous electronic systems is an essential ingredient leading to fascinating functional properties, such as high-Tc superconductivity in cuprates, colossal magnetoresistance in manganites and giant electrostriction in relaxors. In these materials distinct phases compete and can coexist owing to intertwined ordered parameters. Charge degrees of freedom play a fundamental role, although phase-separated ground states have been envisioned theoretically also for pure spin systems with geometrical frustration that serves as a source of phase competition. Here we report a paradigmatic magnetostructurally inhomogenous ground state of the geometrically frustrated α-NaMnO2 that stems from the system's aspiration to remove magnetic degeneracy and is possible only due to the existence of near-degenerate crystal structures. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance and muon spin relaxation show that the spin configuration of a monoclinic phase is disrupted by magnetically short-range-ordered nanoscale triclinic regions, thus revealing a novel complex state of matter.
Project description:Natural protein domains must be sufficiently stable to fold but often need to be locally unstable to function. Overall, strong energetic conflicts are minimized in native states satisfying the principle of minimal frustration. Local violations of this principle open up possibilities to form the complex multifunnel energy landscapes needed for large-scale conformational changes. We survey the local frustration patterns of allosteric domains and show that the regions that reconfigure are often enriched in patches of highly frustrated interactions, consistent both with the idea that these locally frustrated regions may act as specific hinges or that proteins may "crack" in these locations. On the other hand, the symmetry of multimeric protein assemblies allows near degeneracy by reconfiguring while maintaining minimally frustrated interactions. We also anecdotally examine some specific examples of complex conformational changes and speculate on the role of frustration in the kinetics of allosteric change.
Project description:Localized spins and itinerant electrons rarely coexist in geometrically-frustrated spinel lattices. They exhibit a complex interplay between localized spins and itinerant electrons. In this paper, we study the origin of the unusual spin structure of the spinel CoV2O4, which stands at the crossover from insulating to itinerant behavior using the first principle calculation and neutron diffraction measurement. In contrast to the expected paramagnetism, localized spins supported by enhanced exchange couplings are frustrated by the effects of delocalized electrons. This frustration produces a non-collinear spin state even without orbital orderings and may be responsible for macroscopic spin-glass behavior. Competing phases can be uncovered by external perturbations such as pressure or magnetic field, which enhances the frustration.
Project description:We propose a simple agent-based model on a network to conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant expectations at the interplay of power, frustration, and initiative. Concepts imported from the statistical physics of frustrated systems in and out of equilibrium allow us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from or lose wealth to anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs. opportunity. This picture is however dramatically ameliorated when hard constraints are imposed over agents in the form of a limiting network of transactions. There, an out of equilibrium dynamics of the networks, based on a competition between power and frustration in the decision-making of agents, leads to network coevolution. The ratio of power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of equality. It also leads, for proper values of social initiative, to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class. Their dynamics, which appears mostly controlled by the middle class, drives a cyclical regime of dramatic social changes.