Photoreceptor glucose metabolism determines normal retinal vascular growth.
ABSTRACT: The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation. Experimentally in a neonatal mouse model of postnatal hyperglycemia modeling early ROP, hyperglycemia caused photoreceptor dysfunction and delayed neurovascular maturation associated with changes in the APN pathway; recombinant mouse APN or APN receptor agonist AdipoRon treatment normalized vascular growth. APN deficiency decreased retinal mitochondrial metabolic enzyme levels particularly in photoreceptors, suppressed retinal vascular development, and decreased photoreceptor platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb). APN pathway activation reversed these effects. Blockade of mitochondrial respiration abolished AdipoRon-induced Pdgfb increase in photoreceptors. Photoreceptor knockdown of Pdgfb delayed retinal vascular formation. Stimulation of the APN pathway might prevent hyperglycemia-associated retinal abnormalities and suppress phase I ROP in premature infants.
Project description:We examined if hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants low APN levels correlate with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation. Experimentally in a neonatal mouse model of postnatal hyperglycemia modeling early ROP, hyperglycemia caused photoreceptor dysfunction and delayed neurovascular maturation associated with changes in the APN pathway; recombinant mouse APN or APN receptor agonist adipoRon treatment normalized vascular growth. APN deficiency decreased retinal mitochondrial metabolic enzyme levels particularly in photoreceptors, suppressed retinal vascular development and decreased photoreceptor platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb).
Project description:The association between lower circulating adiponectin (APN) levels and the development of pancreatic cancer has been reported. However, the effect of APN on the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells remains elusive. Here, we investigate the effects of the anti-diabetic APN receptor (AdipoR) agonist AdipoRon and APN on human pancreatic cancer cells. We found that AdipoRon, but not APN, induces MIAPaCa-2 cell death, mainly through necroptosis. Mechanistically, although both AdipoRon and APN activate AMPK and p38 MAPK in an AdipoR-dependent manner that elicits survival signals, only AdipoRon induces rapid mitochondrial dysfunction through mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, followed by superoxide production via RIPK1 and ERK1/2 activation. Oral administration of AdipoRon suppresses MIAPaCa-2 tumour growth without severe adverse effects and kills cancer cells isolated from patients with pancreatic cancer. Thus, AdipoRon could be a therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer as well as diabetes.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays an important role in development of the central nervous system, including the retina. Excessive PDGF signaling is associated with proliferative retinal disorders. We reported previously that transgenic mice in which PDGF-B was over-expressed under control of the nestin enhancer, nes/tk-PdgfB-lacZ, exhibited enhanced apoptosis in the developing corpus striatum. These animals display enlarged lateral ventricles after birth as well as behavioral aberrations as adults. Here, we report that in contrast to the relatively mild central nervous system phenotype, development of the retina is severely disturbed in nes/tk-PdgfB-lacZ mice. In transgenic retinas all nuclear layers were disorganized and photoreceptor segments failed to develop properly. Since astrocyte precursor cells did not populate the retina, retinal vascular progenitors could not form a network of vessels. With time, randomly distributed vessels resembling capillaries formed, but there were no large trunk vessels and the intraocular pressure was reduced. In addition, we observed a delayed regression of the hyaloid vasculature. The prolonged presence of this structure may contribute to the other abnormalities observed in the retina, including the defective lamination.
Project description:In preterm birth, the immature retina can develop a potentially blinding disorder of the eye known as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The vaso-proliferative phase of ROP begins at an approximate postmenstrual age (PMA) of 32 weeks. There is little or no evidence of an association between ROP development and retinal status in the early vaso-proliferative phase. We aimed to evaluate the retinal vascular findings of infants at 33-34 weeks PMA to determine their risk of ROP. We reviewed 130 serial wide-field retinal images from 65 preterm infants born before the gestational age of 31 weeks. ROP occurred more frequently in infants having a leading vascular edge within posterior Zone II. This was in contrast to normal infants, who are characterized by complete retinal vascularization up to Zone II at 34 weeks PMA. The probability of ROP development in preterm infants with retinal edge hemorrhage was 24.58 times higher than in preterm infants without retinal edge hemorrhage. Eyes with ROP that required treatment showed significantly delayed retinal vascularization accompanied by pre-plus disease. In conclusion, retinal status in the early vaso-proliferation phase might determine the risk of ROP.
Project description:Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease in premature infants. Serum adiponectin (APN) concentrations positively correlate with postnatal growth and gestational age, important risk factors for ROP development. Dietary ?-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 LCPUFAs) suppress ROP and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in a mouse model of human ROP, but the mechanism is not fully understood.We examined the role of APN in ROP development and whether circulating APN concentrations are increased by dietary ?-3 LCPUFAs to mediate the protective effect in ROP.Serum APN concentrations were correlated with ROP development and serum ?-3 LCPUFA concentrations in preterm infants. Mouse OIR was then used to determine whether ?-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases serum APN concentrations, which then suppress retinopathy.We found that in preterm infants, low serum APN concentrations positively correlate with ROP, and serum APN concentrations positively correlate with serum ?-3 LCPUFA concentrations. In mouse OIR, serum total APN and bioactive high-molecular-weight APN concentrations are increased by ?-3 LCPUFA feed. White adipose tissue, where APN is produced and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum, is the major source of serum APN. In mouse OIR, adipose endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased, and APN production is suppressed. ?-3 LCPUFA feed in mice increases APN production by reducing adipose endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Dietary ?-3 LCPUFA suppression of neovascularization is reduced from 70% to 10% with APN deficiency. APN receptors localize in the retina, particularly to pathologic neovessels.Our findings suggest that increasing APN by ?-3 LCPUFA supplementation in total parental nutrition for preterm infants may suppress ROP.
Project description:Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of childhood blindness globally, and the incidence is rising. The disease is characterized by initial arrested retinal vascularization followed by neovascularization and ensuing retinal detachment causing permanent visual loss. Although neovascularization can be effectively treated via retinal laser ablation, it is unknown which children are at risk of entering this vision-threatening phase of the disease. Laser ablation may itself induce visual field deficits, and there is therefore a need to identify targets for novel and less destructive treatments of ROP. Inflammation is considered a key contributor to the pathogenesis of ROP. A large proportion of preterm infants with ROP will have residual visual loss linked to loss of photoreceptor (PR) and the integrity of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the macular region. Recent studies using animal models of ROP suggest that choroidal degeneration may be associated with a loss of integrity of the outer retina, a phenomenon so far largely undescribed in ROP pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight inflammatory and neuron-derived factors related to ROP progression, as well, potential targets for new treatment strategies. We also introduce choroidal degeneration as a significant cause of residual visual loss following ROP. We propose that ROP should no longer be considered an inner retinal vasculopathy only, but also a disease of choroidal degeneration affecting both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor integrity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adiponectin (ApN) is a hormone known to exhibit insulin-sensitizing, fat-burning, and anti-inflammatory properties in several tissues, including the skeletal muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency with subsequent chronic inflammation, myofiber necrosis, and impaired regeneration. Previously, we showed that transgenic up-regulation of ApN could significantly attenuate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice (model of DMD). Recently, an orally active ApN receptor agonist, AdipoRon, has been identified. This synthetic small molecule has the advantage of being more easily produced and administrable than ApN. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of AdipoRon on the dystrophic muscle. METHODS:Four-week-old mdx mice (n = 6-9 per group) were orally treated with AdipoRon (mdx-AR) for 8 weeks and compared with untreated (mdx) mice and to control (wild-type) mice. In vivo functional tests were carried out to measure the global force and endurance of mice. Ex vivo biochemical and molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the pathophysiology of the skeletal muscle. Finally, in vitro tests were conducted on primary cultures of healthy and DMD human myotubes. RESULTS:AdipoRon treatment mitigated oxidative stress (-30% to 45% for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and peroxiredoxin 3, P < 0.0001) as well as inflammation in muscles of mdx mice (-35% to 65% for interleukin 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and cluster of differentiation 68, a macrophage maker, P < 0.0001) while increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (~5-fold, P < 0.0001). AdipoRon also improved the myogenic programme as assessed by a ~2-fold rise in markers of muscle proliferation and differentiation (P < 0.01 or less vs. untreated mdx). Plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were reduced by 30-40% in mdx-AR mice, reflecting less sarcolemmal damage (P < 0.0001). When compared with untreated mdx mice, mdx-AR mice exhibited enhanced physical performance with an increase in both muscle force and endurance and a striking restoration of the running capacity during eccentric exercise. AdipoRon mainly acted through ApN receptor 1 by increasing AMP-activated protein kinase signalling, which led to repression of nuclear factor-kappa B, up-regulation of utrophin (a dystrophin analogue), and a switch towards an oxidative and more resistant fibre phenotype. The effects of AdipoRon were then recapitulated in human DMD myotubes. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that AdipoRon exerts several beneficial effects on the dystrophic muscle. This molecule could offer promising therapeutic prospect for managing DMD or other muscle and inflammatory disorders.
Project description:PURPOSE:Bedside examination of premature infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is predominantly performed with ophthalmoscopic en face viewing of the retina. While postmortem retinal microstructures have been studied at the vascular-avascular junction, a critical location for pathogenesis of ROP, to date this has not been possible in vivo. Here we present bedside, non-sedated in vivo cross-sectional imaging and analysis of retinal microstructures at the vascular-avascular junction in infants with ROP using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). DESIGN:Prospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS:Eleven preterm infants consented for research imaging during ROP screening examinations. METHODS:We imaged the vascular-avascular junction in the temporal retina using a SDOCT system (Envisu, Bioptigen Inc., NC) in 18 eyes from 11 preterm infants with zone I or II, stage 0 through 4 ROP. B-scan and en face images were analyzed and compared to historical light micrographs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SDOCT morphology at the vascular-avascular junction. RESULTS:Multiple bedside SDOCT findings at the vascular-avascular junction were comparable to historic light micrographs: thickened inner retinal ridge structure in stage 2 ROP was comparable to thickened vanguard and rear guard cells in micrographs; vascular tufts on the posterior retinal surface in stage 2 ROP, broad arcs of neovascularization above the retina in stage 3 ROP, and splitting of inner retinal layers into clefts on either side of neovascularization mimicked findings of historic light micrographs. A unique findings was thickening of the avascular inner retinal band adjacent to neovascularization. On SDOCT imaging over several weeks, neovascularization and retinal clefts diminished after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Retinal morphology at the vascular-avascular junction imaged with handheld SDOCT is consistent with known histopathology, and provide the advantage of monitoring change in vivo over time. These unique findings provide new insights into preterm retinal neurovascular development in ROP.
Project description:Mutations in genes that code for components of the Norrin-FZD4 ligand-receptor complex cause the inherited childhood blinding disorder familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Statistical evidence from studies of patients at risk for the acquired disease retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) suggest that rare polymorphisms in these same genes increase the risk of developing severe ROP, implying that decreased Norrin-FZD4 activity predisposes patients to more severe ROP. To test this hypothesis, we measured the development and recovery of retinopathy in wild type and Fzd4 heterozygous mice in the absence or presence of ocular ischemic retinopathy (OIR) treatment. Avascular and total retinal vascular areas and patterning were determined, and vessel number and caliber were quantified. In room air, there was a small delay in retinal vascularization in Fzd4 heterozygous mice that resolved as mice reached maturity suggestive of a slight defect in retinal vascular development. Subsequent to OIR treatment there was no difference between wild type and Fzd4 heterozygous mice in the vaso-obliterated area following exposure to high oxygen. Importantly, after return of Fzd4 heterozygous mice to room air subsequent to OIR treatment, there was a substantial delay in retinal revascularization of the avascular area surrounding the optic nerve, as well as delayed vascularization toward the periphery of the retina. Our study demonstrates that a small decrease in Norrin-Fzd4 dependent retinal vascular development lengthens the period during which complications from OIR could occur.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A is implicated in aberrant angiogenesis and intravitreous neovascularization (IVNV) in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, VEGFA also regulates retinal vascular development and functions as a retinal neural survival factor. By using a relevant ROP model, the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model, we previously found that broad inhibition of VEGFA bioactivity using a neutralizing antibody to rat VEGF significantly reduced IVNV area compared with control IgG but also significantly reduced body weight gain in the pups, suggesting an adverse effect. Therefore, we propose that knockdown of up-regulated VEGFA in cells that overexpress it under pathological conditions would reduce IVNV without affecting physiological retinal vascular development or overall pup growth. Herein, we determined first that the VEGFA mRNA signal was located within the inner nuclear layer corresponding to CRALBP-labeled Müller cells of pups in the 50/10 OIR model. We then developed a lentiviral-delivered miR-30eembedded shRNA against VEGFA that targeted Müller cells. Reduction of VEGFA by lentivector VEGFA-shRNAetargeting Müller cells efficiently reduced 50/10 OIR up-regulated VEGFA and IVNV in the model, without adversely affecting physiological retinal vascular development or pup weight gain. Knockdown of VEGFA in rat Müller cells by lentivector VEGFA-shRNA significantly reduced VEGFR2 phosphorylation in retinal vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that targeted knockdown of overexpressed VEGFA in Müller cells safely reduces IVNV in a relevant ROP model.