Neuroprotective effect of Cubebin: A dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.
ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors represent a major class of drugs which provide symptomatic relief and improvement in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, cubebin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, was isolated from Piper cubeba and investigated for its AChE inhibitory activity in an attempt to explore its potential for memory-enhancing activities in mice.Molecular docking of cubebin was carried out followed by in vitro AChE activity. Mice were treated with cubebin (25 & 50 mg/kg; i.p.), for three days and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg; i.p.). Memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and cholinergic function were estimated in brain.Molecular docking study revealed that cubebin was well bound within the binding site of the AChE enzyme showing interactions such as π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding with residues present therein. Cubebin inhibited AChE enzyme in an in vitro assay with IC50value of 992 μM. Scopolamine administration caused a significant impairment of learning and memory in mice, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and oxidative stress in mice brain. Pre-treatment of cubebin (25 and 50 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly prevented scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and oxidative stress level.Cubebin showed promising protective activity in scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. This could be attributed to its brain AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity.
Project description:For thousands of years, it has been widely believed that walnut is a kind of nut that has benefits for the human body. Walnut oil, accounting for about 70% of walnut, mainly consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To investigate the effect of walnut oil on memory impairment in mice, scopolamine (3 mg/kg body weight/d) was used to establish the animal model during Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Walnut oil was administrated orally at 10 mL/kg body weight/d for 8 consecutive weeks. The results showed that walnut oil treatment ameliorated the behavior of the memory-impaired mice in the MWM test. Additionally, walnut oil obviously inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (1.26 ± 0.12 U/mg prot) (p = 0.013) and increased choline acetyltransferase activity (129.75 ± 6.76 U/mg tissue wet weight) in the brains of scopolamine-treated mice (p = 0.024), suggesting that walnut oil could prevent cholinergic function damage in mice brains. Furthermore, walnut oil remarkably prevented the decrease in total superoxide dismutase activity (93.30 ± 5.50 U/mg prot) (p = 0.006) and glutathione content (110.45 ± 17.70 mg/g prot) (p = 0.047) and the increase of malondialdehyde content (13.79 ± 0.96 nmol/mg prot) (p = 0.001) in the brain of scopolamine-treated mice, indicating that walnut oil could inhibit oxidative stress in the brain of mice. Furthermore, walnut oil prevented histological changes of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions induced by scopolamine. These findings indicate that walnut oil could prevent memory impairment in mice, which might be a potential way for the prevention of memory dysfunctions.
Project description:Mangosteen extracts (ME) contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Protective effects of ME against ?-amyloid peptide (A?), induced cytotoxicity have been reported. Here, we further studied the protective effects of ME against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and demonstrated the protection against memory impairment in mice. The cytoprotective effects of ME were measured as cell viability and the reduction in ROS activity. In SK-N-SH cell cultures, 200 ?g/ml ME could partially antagonize the effects of 150 or 300 µM H2O2 on cell viability, ROS level and caspase-3 activity. At 200, 400 or 800 µg/ml, ME reduced AChE activity of SK-N-SH cells to about 60% of the control. In vivo study, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess the memory of the animals. ME, especially at 100 mg/kg body weight, could improve the animal's memory and also antagonize the effect of scopolamine on memory. The increase in ROS level and caspase-3 activity in the brain of scopolamine-treated mice were antagonized by the ME treatment. The study demonstrated cytoprotective effects of ME against H2O2 and PCB-52 toxicity and having AChE inhibitory effect in cell culture. ME treatment in mice could attenuate scopolamine-induced memory deficit and oxidative stress in brain.
Project description:Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a traditional herb with various therapeutic applications such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticholinesterase activities, and can be used for the prevention or treatment of dementia. In the present study, we tested whether Rosmarinus officinalis L. could counteract scopolamine-induced anxiety, dementia, and brain oxidative stress in the zebrafish model and tried to find the underlying mechanism. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO: 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish (Danio rerio) once daily for eight days while scopolamine (100 µM) treatment was delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. The antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing actions of the essential oil in the scopolamine zebrafish model was measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT) and Y-maze test. The chemical composition was identified by Gas chromatograph-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The brain oxidative status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also determined. REO reversed scopolamine-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and brain oxidative stress. In addition, a reduced brain AChE activity following the administration of REO in scopolamine-treated fish was observed. In conclusion, REO exerted antidepressant-like effect and cognitive-enhancing action and was able to abolish AChE alteration and brain oxidative stress induced by scopolamine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:E. coccinae (SIMS) G. (Asteraceae) is an annual plant commonly found throughout the plain of the Central Africa and widely used in Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of fever and convulsions in children. We previously reported that the methanolic extract of this plant improved spatial memory. However no underlying mechanism was explored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae on memory in scopolamine treated rats and to propose possible mechanisms of action. METHODS:Novel object recognition and Y-maze paradigm were used to test memory while oxidative profile, AChE and ACh level of the whole brain were assessed to outline the mechanism of nootropic activity of the extract. 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were chronically administrated during 14 consecutive days in separate groups of scopolamine intraperitoneal treated rats (1.5 mg/kg). RESULTS:The hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae (HEEC) at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly improved the memory of rats and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. In addition, we showed that this extract is decreasing the acetyl cholinesterase activity while also increasing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. HEEC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GSH and CAT) and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in the rat whole brain homogenates. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction in scopolamine treated rats through the blockage of the oxidative effect of scopolamine and inhibition of AChE activity.
Project description:Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, immunodeficiency diseases, and stomach ulcer in Asia. However, the anti-amnesic effect of T. chebula has not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to determine whether T. chebula extract (TCE) alleviates amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice. We also investigated possible mechanisms associated with cholinergic system and anti-oxidant effects.TCE (100 or 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice for fourteen days (days 1-14), and scopolamine was intraperitoneally injected to induce memory impairment for seven days (days 8-14). Learning and memory status were evaluated using the Morris water maze. Hippocampal levels of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were measured ex vivo. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus were also examined.In the Morris water maze task, TCE treatment reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in acquisition and retention. TCE reduced hippocampal AChE activities and increased ChAT and ACh levels in the scopolamine-induced model. Moreover, TCE treatment suppressed scopolamine-induced oxidative damage by ameliorating the increased levels of ROS, NO, and MDA.These findings suggest that TCE exerts potent anti-amnesic effects via cholinergic modulation and anti-oxidant activity, thus providing evidence for its potential as a cognitive enhancer for amnesia.
Project description:Over recent years, utilization of green synthesized nanomaterials has been widely growing on human body because of its special properties. With the increasing acceptance of nanoparticle approach for various clinical treatments, the biosafety and toxicological effects on the vital organs such as central nervous system, have received more concern. Main focus of this study was to evaluate acute exposure of n-butanol fraction of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce hydroethanolic extract (BuPC) and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles of BuPC (ZnOPC) on spatial cognition behavior, and to assess underlying mechanism by estimation of enzymatic antioxidative status along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice brain. Strongest in vitro antioxidant and AChE inhibitory activity exhibiting fraction, BuPC, was examined for inhibition kinetic study by Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots. BuPC was further used for fabrication ZnOPC and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X ray (EDX), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. Old male swiss albino mice were randomly divided into seven groups and treated for 21 days. Subsequently spatial memory was determined by two behavioral models [Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Hebbs William maze (HWM)] and supernatant of brain homogenate was analyzed for enzymatic antioxidant level and AChE inhibitory activity. Zinc content of blood plasma and brain was estimated. Results showed prolonged transfer latency (TL) and time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC) by scopolamine was not ameliorated by the ZnOPC group, whereas BuPC group showed significant reduction in scopolamine induced increase in TL and TRC compared to control and scopolamine treated groups. ZnOPC alleviated enzymatic antioxidant activity and AChE as compared to donepezil and BuPC treated groups. Study concludes that ZnOPC attenuated spatial learning and memory by increase in oxidative stress and decrease in AChE activity at both dose levels. Our results suggest that BuPC exhibited a strong neuroprotective effect on cognitive deficit mice and it may be employed as a strong substance for the treatment of dementia whereas the green synthesized ZnOPC was not proficient to reverse the memory impairment induced by scopolamine.
Project description:The current study aimed at investigating the existence of the cross state-dependent learning between morphine and scopolamine (SCO) in mice by passive avoidance method, pointing to the role of CA1 area.The effects of pre-training SCO (0.75, 1.5, and 3 μg, Intra-CA1), or morphine (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) was evaluated on the retrieval of passive avoidance learning using step-down task in mice (n=10). Then, the effect of pretest administration of morphine (1.5, 3, and 6 mg/kg, i.p.) was examined on passive avoidance retrieval impairment induced by pre-training SCO (3 μg/mice, Intra-CA1). Next, the effect of pretest Intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine (0.75, 1.5, and 3 μg/mice) was evaluated on morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-training deficits in this task in mice.The pre-training Intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine (1.5 and 3 μg/mouse), or morphine (3 and 6 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired the avoidance memory retrieval when it was tested 24 hours later. Pretest injection of both drugs improved its pre-training impairing effects on mice memory. Moreover, the amnesia induced by the pre-training injections of scopolamine (3 μg/mice) was restored significantly (P<0.01) by pretest injections of morphine (3 and 6 mg/kg, i.p.). Similarly, pretest injection of scopolamine (3 μg/mice) restored amnesia induced by the pre-training injections of morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly (P<0.01).The current study findings indicated a cross state-dependent learning between SCO and morphine at CA1 level. Therefore, it seems that muscarinic and opioid receptors may act reciprocally on modulation of passive avoidance memory retrieval, at the level of dorsal hippocampus, in mice.
Project description:Civilization diseases associated with memory disorders are important health problems occurring due to a prolonged life span. The manuscript shows the results of an in vivo study targeting the emergence of two drug candidates with anti-amnestic properties. The preceding quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies provided information on the ability of berberine and magnoflorine to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the light of these findings, both compounds were purified from crude plant extracts of barberries: berberine-from Berberis siberica using a method published earlier, and magnoflorine-from Berberis cretica by centrifugal partition chromatography (solvent system: ethyl acetate:butanol:water-0.6:1.5:3 v/v/v). Both the compounds were evaluated for their memory enhancing and scopolamine inhibitory properties in an in vivo passive avoidance (PA) test on mice towards short-term and long-term memory. Cognition enhancing properties were observed at the following doses: 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for berberine and 20 mg/kg (i.p.) for magnoflorine. In addition, both the tested isoquinolines with the co-administered scopolamine were found to block long-term but not short-term memory impairment. No influence on the locomotor activity was observed for the tested doses. The results confirmed a marked central activity of magnoflorine and showed the necessity to lower the dosage of berberine. Optimized purification conditions have been elaborated for magnoflorine.
Project description:The extract of Moringa oleifera seeds has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, we assessed the neuropharmacological effects of 70% ethanolic M. oleifera seed extract (MSE) on cognitive impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. MSE (250 or 500 mg/kg) was administered to mice by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days, and cognitive impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (4 mg/kg) for 1 or 6 days. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. MSE pretreatment significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and enhanced cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB in the hippocampus were significantly decreased by scopolamine, but these decreases were reversed by MSE treatment. These results suggest that MSE-induced ameliorative cognitive effects are mediated by enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmission system and neurogenesis via activation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MSE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its mechanism might be modulation of cholinergic activity via the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways.
Project description:Thymus vulgaris L. is an aromatic herb used for medicinal purposes such as antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antitumor, and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil enhances cognitive function via the action on cholinergic neurons using scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of memory impairments. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TEO, 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish once daily for 13 days, whereas memory impairment was induced by Sco (100 ?M), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. Spatial memory was assessed using the Y-maze test and novel object recognition test (NOR). Anxiety and depression were measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT). Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to study the phytochemical composition of TEO. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress response in the brain of zebrafish were determined. TEO ameliorated Sco-induced increasing of AChE activity, amnesia, anxiety, and reduced the brain antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that TEO may have preventive and/or therapeutic potentials in the management of memory deficits and brain oxidative stress in zebrafish with amnesia.