Transcriptome profiling of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) leaves infected with powdery mildew.
ABSTRACT: Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM. More than 7600 transcripts were examined in pumpkin leaves, and 3129 and 3080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in inbred line "112-2" at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi), respectively. Based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database and GO (Gene Ontology) database, a complex regulatory network for PM resistance that may involve hormone signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and defense responses was revealed at the transcription level. In addition, the expression profiles of 16 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the transcript levels of 6 DEGs, including bHLH87 (Basic Helix-loop-helix transcription factor), ERF014 (Ethylene response factor), WRKY21 (WRKY domain), HSF (heat stress transcription factor A), MLO3 (Mildew Locus O), and SGT1 (Suppressor of G-Two Allele of Skp1), in PM-resistant "112-2" were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated both before 9 hpi and at 24 hpi or 48 hpi; this behavior differed from that observed in the PM-susceptible material (cultivar "Jiujiangjiaoding"). The transcriptome data provide novel insights into the response of Cucurbita moschata to PM stress and are expected to be highly useful for dissecting PM defense mechanisms in this major vegetable and for improving pumpkin breeding with enhanced resistance to PM.
Project description:Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.
Project description:Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Podosphaera xanthii, is a major threat to the global cucurbit yield. The molecular mechanisms underlying the PM resistance of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) are largely unknown. A homolog of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor was previously identified through a transcriptomic analysis of a PM-resistant pumpkin. In this study, this bHLH homolog in pumpkin has been functionally characterized. CmbHLH87 is present in the nucleus. CmbHLH87 expression in the PM-resistant material was considerably downregulated by PM; and abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and NaCl treatments induced CmbHLH87 expression. Ectopic expression of CmbHLH87 in tobacco plants alleviated the PM symptoms on the leaves, accelerated cell necrosis, and enhanced H2O2 accumulation. The expression levels of PR1a, PR5, and NPR1 were higher in the PM-infected transgenic plants than in PM-infected wild-type plants. Additionally, the chlorosis and yellowing of plant materials were less extensive and the concentration of bacteria at infection sites was lower in the transgenic tobacco plants than in the wild-type plants in response to bacterial wilt and scab pathogens. CmbHLH87 may be useful for genetic engineering of novel pumpkin cultivars in the future.
Project description:Powdery mildew (PM), which is mainly caused by Podosphaera xanthii, is a serious biotrophic pathogen disease affecting field-grown and greenhouse-grown cucurbit crops worldwide. Because fungicides poorly control PM, the development and cultivation of PM-resistant varieties is critical. A homolog of SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1), which encodes a key component of the plant disease-associated signal transduction pathway, was previously identified through a transcriptomic analysis of a PM-resistant pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) inbred line infected with PM. In this study, we have characterized this SGT1 homolog in C. moschata, and investigated its effects on biotic stress resistance. Subcellular localization results revealed that CmSGT1 is present in the nucleus. Additionally, CmSGT1 expression levels in the PM-resistant material was strongly induced by PM, salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In contrast, SA and H2O2 downregulated CmSGT1 expression in the PM-susceptible material. The ethephon (Eth) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments upregulated CmSGT1 expression in both plant materials. The constitutive overexpression of CmSGT1 in Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) minimized the PM symptoms on the leaves of PM-infected seedlings, accelerated the onset of cell necrosis, and enhanced the accumulation of H2O2. Furthermore, the expression levels of PR1a and PR5, which are SA signaling transduction markers, were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. Thus, the transgenic N. benthamiana plants were significantly more resistant to Erysiphe cichoracearum than the wild-type plants. This increased resistance was correlated with cell death, H2O2 accumulation, and upregulated expression of SA-dependent defense genes. However, the chlorosis and yellowing of plant materials and the concentration of bacteria at infection sites were greater in the transgenic N. benthamiana plants than in the wild-type plants in response to infections by the pathogens responsible for bacterial wilt and scab. Therefore, CmSGT1-overexpressing N. benthamiana plants were hypersensitive to these two diseases. The results of this study may represent valuable genetic information for the breeding of disease-resistant pumpkin varieties, and may also help to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying CmSGT1 functions.
Project description:Phyllosphere microbiota play a crucial role in plant-environment interactions and their microbial community and function are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. However, there is little research on how pathogens affect the microbial community of phyllosphere fungi. In this study, we collected 16 pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) leaf samples which exhibited powdery mildew disease, with a severity ranging from L1 (least severe) to L4 (most severe). The fungal community structure and diversity was examined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the fungal communities were dominated by members of the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. The Podosphaera was the most dominant genus on these infected leaves, which was the key pathogen responsible for the pumpkin powdery mildew. The abundance of Ascomycota and Podosphaera increased as disease severity increased from L1 to L4, and was significantly higher at disease severity L4 (P < 0.05). The richness and diversity of the fungal community increased from L1 to L2, and then declined from L2 to L4, likely due to the biotic pressure (i.e., symbiotic and competitive stresses among microbial species) at disease severity L4. Our results could give new perspectives on the changes of the leaf microbiome at different pumpkin powdery mildew disease severity.
Project description:Three pumpkin species Cucurbita maxima, C. moschata, and C. pepo are commonly cultivated worldwide. To identify genome-wide SNPs in these cultivated pumpkin species, we collected 48 F1 cultivars consisting of 40 intraspecific hybrids (15 C. maxima, 18 C. moschata, and 7 C. pepo) and 8 interspecific hybrids (C. maxima x C. moschata). Genotyping by sequencing identified a total of 37,869 confident SNPs in this collection. These SNPs were filtered to generate a subset of 400 SNPs based on polymorphism and genome distribution. Of the 400 SNPs, 288 were used to genotype an additional 188 accessions (94 F1 cultivars, 50 breeding lines, and 44 landraces) with a SNP array-based platform. Reliable polymorphisms were observed in 224 SNPs (78.0%) and were used to assess genetic variations between and within the four predefined populations in 223 cultivated pumpkin accessions. Both principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering found four major clusters representing three pumpkin species and interspecific hybrids. This genetic differentiation was supported by pairwise F st and Nei's genetic distance. The interspecific hybrids showed a higher level of genetic diversity relative to the other three populations. Of the 224 SNPs, five subsets of 192, 96, 48, 24, and 12 markers were evaluated for variety identification. The 192, 96, and 48 marker sets identified 204 (91.5%), 190 (85.2%), and 141 (63.2%) of the 223 accessions, respectively, while other subsets showed <25% of variety identification rates. These SNP markers provide a molecular tool with many applications for genetics and breeding in cultivated pumpkin.
Project description:Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of four endophytic bacilli isolated from surface-sterilized seeds of three cucurbit species, Bacillus sp. strains EKM417B and EKM420B (from Citrullus lanata [watermelon]) and EKM501B (from Cucurbita moschata [butternut squash]) and Paenibacillus sp. strain EKM301P (from Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo L. [pumpkin]). These strains previously demonstrated biostimulant and biocontrol activities.
Project description:During 2006, pumpkin leaf curl-a new disease was observed in the experimental field at Indian Agricultural Research Institute. The disease was characterized by upward leaf curl with chlorotic patches and stunting of plant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with coat protein specific primers to Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) indicated association of a begomovirus with the disease. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the complete DNA genome further revealed the identity of the virus as ToLCNDV. The study provides evidence that ToLCNDV is associated with the leaf curl of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) in northern India.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata; Cucurbitaceae) are valued for their fruits and seeds and are rich in nutrients. Carotenoids and sugar contents, as main feature of pumpkin pulp, are used to determine the fruit quality. RESULTS:Two pumpkin germplasms, CMO-X and CMO-E, were analyzed regarding the essential quality traits such as dry weight, soluble solids, organic acids, carotenoids and sugar contents. For the comparison of fruit development in these two germplasms, fruit transcriptome was analyzed at 5 different developmental stages from 0 d to 40 d in a time course manner. Putative pathways for carotenoids biosynthesis and sucrose metabolism were developed in C. moschata fruit and homologs were identified for each key gene involved in the pathways. Gene expression data was found consistent with the accumulation of metabolites across developmental stages and also between two germplasms. PSY, PDS, ZEP, CRTISO and SUS, SPS, HK, FK were found highly correlated with the accumulation of carotenoids and sucrose metabolites, respectively, at different growth stages of C. moschata as shown by whole transcriptomic analysis. The results of qRT-PCR analysis further confirmed the association of these genes. CONCLUSION:Developmental regulation of the genes associated with the metabolite accumulation can be considered as an important factor for the determination of C. moschata fruit quality. This research will facilitate the investigation of metabolic profiles in other cultivars.
Project description:Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Olkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety "Lady Godiva" (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety "Bianco Friulano" (CN), which are the parents of our previous F(2) mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%.
Project description:Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) is one of the most serious diseases in barley. The numerous barley varieties across China provide valuable genetic resources to screen the resistant germplasm and to discover the primary genes of resistance to powdery mildew. In this study, Chinese barley variety Feng 7 was identified as a highly resistant genotype which limited Bgh colonization by cell apoptosis using leaf staining assay, while another variety Hua 30 showed high susceptibility. The performance of high resistance to Bgh in F1 plants from the two varieties suggested dominant gene(s) controlled the resistance to powdery mildew in Feng 7. To understand the host transcriptional response to Bgh infection, these two barley varieties Feng 7 and Hua 30 were inoculated with Bgh, and their transcriptional profiling using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) at four time points (12 h post-inoculation (hpi), 24 hpi, 48 hpi, and 72 hpi) were compared. 4318 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 2244 upregulated and 2074 downregulated genes, were detected in Feng 7, compared with Hua 30 at 12 hpi. 4907 DEGs (2488 upregulated and 2419 downregulated) were detected at 24 hpi. 4758 DEGs (2295 upregulated and 2463 downregulated) were detected at 48 hpi. 3817 DEGs (2036 upregulated and 1781 downregulated) were detected at 72 hpi. The results showed the number of DEGs between two varieties peaked at 24 hpi (for the upregulated) or 48 hpi (for the downregulated), which is matched with the processing of Bgh infection. In addition, the number of upregulated DEGs involved in the functional pathways of plant defense (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and plant hormone signal transduction) is elevated remarkably at 24 hpi. Six candidate genes (PR13, glutaredoxin, alcohol dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450) were identified in Feng 7. All of them present continuous expression at higher levels upon Bgh infection, compared with the performance in Hua 30, which revealed the potential contribution to Feng 7 mediate resistance to Bgh. In conclusion, the candidate genes and relevant pathways provided key information towards understanding the defense of barley to Bgh attack and the molecular mechanisms of different genetic resistance to powdery mildew.