Relationships among muscle fiber type composition, fiber diameter and MRF gene expression in different skeletal muscles of naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep during postnatal development.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among muscle fiber-type composition, fiber diameter, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene expression in different skeletal muscles during development in naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep. Three major muscles (i.e. the Longissimus dorsi (LD), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were obtained from 20 Wuzhumuqin sheep and 20 castrated rams at each of the following ages: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Muscle fiber-type composition and fiber diameter were measured using histochemistry and morphological analysis, and MRF gene expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. In the LD muscle, changes in the proportion of each of different types of fiber (I, IIA and IIB) were relatively small. In the BF muscle, a higher proportion of type I and a 6.19-fold lower proportion of type IIA fibers were observed (P < 0.05). In addition, the compositions of type I and IIA fibers continuously changed in the TB muscle (P < 0.05). Moreover, muscle diameter gradually increased throughout development (P < 0.05). Almost no significant difference was found in MRF gene expression patterns, which appeared to be relatively stable. These results suggest that changes in fiber-type composition and increases in fiber size may be mutually interacting processes during muscle development.
Project description:Muscle function is determined by its structure and fiber type composition. Here we describe a protocol to examine muscle histology and myofiber types using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. H&E stain nucleus in blue and cytoplasm in red, therefore allowing for morphological analyses, such as myofiber diameter, the presence of degenerated and regenerated myofibers, and adipocytes and fibrotic cells. Muscle fibers in adult skeletal muscles of rodents are classified into 4 subtypes based on the expression of myosin heavy chain proteins: Myh7 (type I fiber), Myh2 (type IIA fiber), Myh1 (type IIX fiber), Myh4 (type IIB fiber). A panel of monoclonal antibodies can be used to specifically label these muscle fiber subtypes. These protocols are commonly used in the study of muscle development, growth and regeneration (for example: Wang et al., 2015; Nie et al., 2016; Yue et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017).
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms and sex differences are suggested to affect muscle fiber composition; however, no study has investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences in the Japanese population. The present study included 211 healthy Japanese individuals (102 men and 109 women). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (MHC-I, MHC-IIa, and MHC-IIx). Moreover, we analyzed polymorphisms in α-actinin-3 gene ( ACTN3; rs1815739 ), angiotensin-converting enzyme gene ( ACE; rs4341 ), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α gene ( rs11549465 ), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 gene ( rs1870377 ), and angiotensin II receptor, type 2 gene ( rs11091046 ), by TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. The proportion of MHC-I was 9.8% lower in men than in women, whereas the proportion of MHC-IIa and MHC-IIx was higher in men than in women (5.0 and 4.6%, respectively). Men with the ACTN3 RR + RX genotype had a 4.8% higher proportion of MHC-IIx than those with the ACTN3 XX genotype. Moreover, men with the ACE ID + DD genotype had a 4.7% higher proportion of MHC-I than those with the ACE II genotype. Furthermore, a combined genotype of ACTN3 R577X and ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) was significantly correlated with the proportion of MHC-I ( r = -0.23) and MHC-IIx ( r = 0.27) in men. In contrast, no significant correlation was observed between the examined polymorphisms and muscle fiber composition in women. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms independently affect the proportion of human skeletal muscle fibers MHC-I and MHC-IIx in men but not in women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In men, the RR + RX genotype of the α-actinin-3 gene ( ACTN3) R577X polymorphism was associated with a higher proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-IIx. The ID + DD genotype of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene ( ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, in contrast to a previous finding, was associated with a higher proportion of MHC-I in men. In addition, the combined genotype of these polymorphisms was correlated with the proportion of MHC-I and MHC-IIx in men. Thus ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms influence the muscle fiber composition in Japanese men.
Project description:PGC-1? regulates critical processes in muscle physiology, including mitochondrial biogenesis, lipid metabolism and angiogenesis. Furthermore, PGC-1? was suggested as an important regulator of fiber type determination. However, whether a muscle fiber type-specific PGC-1? content exists, whether PGC-1? content relates to basal levels of mitochondrial content, and whether such relationships are preserved between humans and classically used rodent models are all questions that have been either poorly addressed or never investigated. To address these issues, we investigated the fiber type-specific content of PGC-1? and its relationship to basal mitochondrial content in mouse, rat and human muscles using in situ immunolabeling and histochemical methods on muscle serial cross-sections. Whereas type IIa fibers exhibited the highest PGC-1? in all three species, other fiber types displayed a hierarchy of type IIx>I>IIb in mouse, type I?=?IIx> IIb in rat, and type IIx>I in human. In terms of mitochondrial content, we observed a hierarchy of IIa>IIx>I>IIb in mouse, IIa >I>IIx> IIb in rat, and I>IIa> IIx in human skeletal muscle. We also found in rat skeletal muscle that type I fibers displayed the highest capillarization followed by type IIa >IIx>IIb. Finally, we found in human skeletal muscle that type I fibers display the highest lipid content, followed by type IIa>IIx. Altogether, our results reveal that (i) the fiber type-specific PGC-1? and mitochondrial contents were only matched in mouse, (ii) the patterns of PGC-1? and mitochondrial contents observed in mice and rats do not correspond to that seen in humans in several respects, and (iii) the classical phenotypes thought to be regulated by PGC-1? do not vary exclusively as a function of PGC-1? content in rat and human muscles.
Project description:Evidence is emerging that the PGC-1 coactivators serve a critical role in skeletal muscle metabolism, function, and disease. Mice with total PGC-1 deficiency in skeletal muscle (PGC-1?(-/-)?(f/f/MLC-Cre) mice) were generated and characterized. PGC-1?(-/-)?(f/f/MLC-Cre) mice exhibit a dramatic reduction in exercise performance compared to single PGC-1?- or PGC-1?-deficient mice and wild-type controls. The exercise phenotype of the PGC-1?(-/-)?(f/f/MLC-Cre) mice was associated with a marked diminution in muscle oxidative capacity, together with rapid depletion of muscle glycogen stores. In addition, the PGC-1?/?-deficient muscle exhibited mitochondrial structural derangements consistent with fusion/fission and biogenic defects. Surprisingly, the proportion of oxidative muscle fiber types (I, IIa) was not reduced in the PGC-1?(-/-)?(f/f/MLC-Cre) mice. Moreover, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were not altered in the PGC-1?(-/-)?(f/f/MLC-Cre) mice. Taken together, we conclude that PGC-1 coactivators are necessary for the oxidative and mitochondrial programs of skeletal muscle but are dispensable for fundamental fiber type determination and insulin sensitivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The quantitative analysis of muscle histomorphometry has been growing in importance in both research and clinical settings. Accurate and stringent assessment of myofibers' changes in size and number, and alterations in the proportion of oxidative (type I) and glycolytic (type II) fibers is essential for the appropriate study of aging and pathological muscle, as well as for diagnosis and follow-up of muscle diseases. Manual and semi-automated methods to assess muscle morphometry in sections are time-consuming, limited to a small field of analysis, and susceptible to bias, while most automated methods have been only tested in rodent muscle. METHODS:We developed a new macro script for Fiji-ImageJ to automatically assess human fiber morphometry in digital images of the entire muscle. We tested the functionality of our method in deltoid muscle biopsies from a heterogeneous population of subjects with histologically normal muscle (male, female, old, young, lean, obese) and patients with dermatomyositis, necrotizing autoimmune myopathy, and anti-synthetase syndrome myopathy. RESULTS:Our macro is fully automated, requires no user intervention, and demonstrated improved fiber segmentation by running a series of image pre-processing steps before the analysis. Likewise, our tool showed high accuracy, as compared with manual methods, for identifying the total number of fibers (r?=?0.97, p?<?0.001), fiber I and fiber II proportion (r?=?0.92, p?<?0.001), and minor diameter (r?=?0.86, p?<?0.001) while conducting analysis in ~?5?min/sample. The performance of the macro analysis was maintained in pectoral and deltoid samples from subjects of different age, gender, body weight, and muscle status. The output of the analyses includes excel files with the quantification of fibers' morphometry and color-coded maps based on the fiber's size, which proved to be an advantageous feature for the fast and easy visual identification of location-specific atrophy and a potential tool for medical diagnosis. CONCLUSION:Our macro is reliable and suitable for the study of human skeletal muscle for research and for diagnosis in clinical settings providing reproducible and consistent analysis when the time is of the utmost importance.
Project description:Reduced exercise capacity is common in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and chronic smokers and is suggested to be related to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Previous studies using human muscle biopsies have shown fiber-type shifting in chronic smokers particularly those with COPD. These results, however, are confounded with aging effects because people with COPD tend to be older. In the present study, we implemented an acute 7-day cigarette smoke-exposed model using Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate early effects of cigarette smoking on soleus muscles. Rats (n = 5 per group) were randomly assigned to either a sham air (SA) or cigarette smoking (CS) groups of three different concentrations of total particulate matters (TPM) (CSTPM2.5, CSTPM5, CSTPM10). Significantly lower percentages of type I and higher type IIa fiber were detected in the soleus muscle in CS groups when compared with SA group. Of these, only CSTMP10 group exhibited significantly lower citrate synthase activity and higher muscle tumor necrosis factor-? level than that of SA group. Tumor necrosis factor-? level was correlated with the percentage of type I and IIa fibers. However, no significant between-group differences were found in fiber cross-sectional area, physical activities, or lung function assessments. In conclusion, acute smoking may directly trigger the onset of glycolytic fiber type shift in skeletal muscle independent of aging.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and muscle insulin resistance confers many negative health outcomes. Muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, and conventional analysis of whole muscles cannot elucidate fiber type differences at the cellular level. Previous research demonstrated that a brief (two weeks) high fat diet (HFD) caused insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study was to determine in rat skeletal muscle the influence of a brief (two weeks) HFD on glucose uptake (GU)?±?insulin in single fibers that were also characterized for fiber type. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG)?±?100?µU/ml insulin. Fiber type (myosin heavy chain expression) and 2DG accumulation were measured in whole muscles and single fibers. Although fiber type composition of whole muscles did not differ between diet groups, GU of insulin-stimulated whole muscles from LFD rats significantly exceeded HFD values (P?<?0.005). For HFD versus LFD rats, GU of insulin-stimulated single fibers was significantly (P?<?0.05) lower for IIA, IIAX, IIBX, IIB, and approached significance for IIX (P?=?0.100), but not type I (P?=?0.776) fibers. These results revealed HFD-induced insulin resistance was attributable to fiber type selective insulin resistance and independent of altered fiber type composition.
Project description:Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types in 23-26-month-old rats. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ± insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. We also determined CR-effects on abundance of several key metabolic proteins in single fibers. CR resulted in: (a) significantly (p < .05 to .001) greater glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated type I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX fibers; (b) significantly (p < .05 to .001) reduced abundance of several mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) proteins in type I, IIA, and IIBX but not IIB and IIX fibers; and (c) unaltered hexokinase II abundance in each fiber type. These results demonstrate that CR can enhance glucose uptake in each fiber type of rat skeletal muscle in the absence of upregulation of the abundance of hexokinase II or key mitochondrial ETC and OxPhos proteins.
Project description:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:Aging is associated with muscle fiber hypotrophy and decreased percentages of rapidly contracting myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type IIb muscle fibers. Tongue exercise programs used to treat dysphagia target age-related decline in tongue muscle function, but the impact of exercise on the intrinsic tongue muscles is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise would induce muscle fiber hypertrophy and increase the percentage of MyHC IIa fibers in the intrinsic tongue. STUDY DESIGN:Animal model. METHODS:Eight old and eight young-adult rats underwent 8 weeks of tongue exercise training, and 8 animals of each age group served as controls. Longitudinal, transverse, and verticalis muscle samples from the anterior, middle, and posterior regions of the tongue were sectioned and stained to determine muscle fiber diameter and MyHC composition. RESULTS:MyHC fiber type distribution was altered by exercise, and the effects differed by muscle and region of the tongue. In the exercise groups, as compared to the control groups, the anterior transverse and middle superior longitudinal muscles had significantly reduced percentages of MyHC IIx positive fibers and higher percentages of rapidly contracting fatigable MyHC IIb positive muscle fibers, whereas the middle transverse and posterior longitudinal muscles had increased percentages of the less rapidly contracting and more fatigue-resistant MyHC IIa fibers. The impact of exercise did not differ with age, as there was no significant interaction between age and exercise. Tongue exercise had no significant effect on muscle fiber diameter. CONCLUSIONS:The impact of exercise varied among the tongue muscles, which may indicate different functional contributions to the tongue exercise task. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:NA Laryngoscope, 128:2245-2251, 2018.
Project description:Variations in gene promoter/enhancer activity in different muscle fiber types after gene transduction was noticed previously, but poorly analyzed. The murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter drives strong, stable gene expression in hematopoietic stem cells and several other cells, including cerebellar Purkinje cells, but it has not been studied in muscle. We injected a lentiviral vector carrying an MSCV-EGFP cassette (LvMSCV-EGFP) into tibialis anterior muscles and observed strong EGFP expression in muscle fibers, primary cultured myoblasts, and myotubes isolated from injected muscles. We also generated lentiviral-mediated transgenic mice carrying the MSCV-EGFP cassette and detected transgene expression in striated muscles. LvMSCV-EGFP transgenic mice showed fiber type-dependent variations in expression: highest in types I and IIA, intermediate in type IID/X, and lowest in type IIB fibers. The soleus and diaphragm muscles, consisting mainly of types I and IIA, are most severely affected in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Further analysis of this promoter may have the potential to achieve certain gene expression in severely affected muscles of mdx mice. The Lv-mediated transgenic mouse may prove a useful tool for assessing the enhancer/promoter activities of a variety of different regulatory cassettes.