Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain WG5.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli strain WG5 is a widely used host for phage detection, including somatic coliphages employed as standard ISO method 10705-1 (2000). Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial E. coli WG5 strain.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium WG49 is widely used for enumeration of F-specific RNA (F-RNA) coliphages in water. Escherichia coli WG5 is broadly used for the detection and enumeration of somatic coliphages in water samples. We report here the genome sequences of these bacterial strains used in South Africa under ISO methods 10705-1 and 10705-2.
Project description:With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria the use of bacteriophages (phages) is gaining renewed interest as promising anti-microbial agents. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize phages from human fecal samples. Three new coliphages, ?APCEc01, ?APCEc02 and ?APCEc03, were isolated. Their phenotypic and genomic characteristics, and lytic activity against biofilm, and in combination with ciprofloxacin, were investigated. All three phages reduced the growth of E. coli strain DPC6051 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) between 10-3 and 105. A cocktail of all three phages completely inhibited the growth of E. coli. The phage cocktail also reduced biofilm formation and prevented the emergence of phage-resistant mutants which occurred with single phage. When combined with ciprofloxacin, phage alone or in cocktail inhibited the growth of E. coli and prevented the emergence of resistant mutants. These three new phages are promising biocontrol agents for E. coli infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phage therapy or use of lytic bacteriophages for eliminating bacterial populations has been developed for several aspects of human affairs such as medicine, agriculture and food industries. OBJECTIVES:The high load of coliforms of treated wastewater effluents that are discharged into the rivers or agricultural lands is a serious concern of the Iran Department of Environment and the reduction of coliforms using phages to overcome this problem is an asset. This research aimed to isolate and identify specific lytic coliphages and investigate their effects on native and standard Escherichia coli strains as well as coliform populations in municipal wastewater. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The wastewater sample was cultured on selective culture media to isolate a native coliform strain and characterized using molecular methods. River water was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45 ?m filter and its lytic coliphages were enriched and purified against a native E. coli as well as a standard E. coli strain. Municipal wastewater was treated with isolated lytic coliphages and most probable number (MPN) reduction was examined. RESULTS:E. coli SBSWF27, which is a native strain of E. coli from Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plant, was isolated and characterized. Also two novel bacteriophages related to Myoviridae and Podoviridae families of bacteriophages from Zayandehrood River (Isfahan, Iran) were isolated. These coliphages had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 as coliform's index. The myovirus had a hexagonal head measuring 27.28 nm and a noncontractile tail measuring 204.5 × 13.63 nm. The podovirus had an oval head measuring 98 × 35 nm and a tail, 14 nm in diameter. The treatment of municipal sewage with the coliphage mixture resulted in a 22-fold decrease of the coliform's MPN from 2400 to 110 after two hours of incubation. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report on isolation and identification of two novel lytic myovirus and podovirus from Zayandehrood River in Isfahan that had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 strains as well as coliform's population of Isfahan municipal wastewater. We suggest that the use of these lytic coliphages for reduction of coliform's population in sewage could be considered as an effective and simple alternative for costly replacement of instruments and establishments of the old wastewater treatment plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacteriophages (phages) have been used extensively as analytical tools to type bacterial cultures and recently for control of zoonotic foodborne pathogens in foods and in animal reservoirs. METHODS: We examined the host range, morphology, genome and proteome of the lytic E. coli O157 phage rV5, derived from phage V5, which is a member of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 phage typing set. RESULTS: Phage rV5 is a member of the Myoviridae family possessing an icosahedral head of 91 nm between opposite apices. The extended tail measures 121 x 17 nm and has a sheath of 44 x 20 nm and a 7 nm-wide core in the contracted state. It possesses a 137,947 bp genome (43.6 mol%GC) which encodes 233 ORFs and six tRNAs. Until recently this virus appeared to be phylogenetically isolated with almost 70% of its gene products ORFans. rV5 is closely related to coliphages Delta and vB-EcoM-FY3, and more distantly related to Salmonella phages PVP-SE1 and SSE-121, Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB_CsaM_GAP31, and coliphages phAPEC8 and phi92. A complete shotgun proteomic analysis was carried out on rV5, extending what had been gleaned from the genomic analyses. Host range studies revealed that rV5 is active against several other E. coli.
Project description:Bacteriophage St11Ph5 was isolated from a sewage sample on a particularly phage-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) up11 host strain. It appeared to be closely related to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from horse feces; however, it carries a highly divergent host recognition module.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence and characterization of the commercial strain Escherichia coli DSM 12242 (=ATCC 13706/60 =NZRM 3262) derived from strain C (ATCC 13706), which is suitable for the isolation of coliphages from environmental and clinical samples.
Project description:Phage vB_EcoM_CBA120 (CBA120), isolated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 from a cattle feedlot, is morphologically very similar to the classic phage ViI of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the ViI-like phages, and none targeting E. coli have been described in the literature. The genome of CBA120 has been fully sequenced and is highly similar to those of both ViI and the Shigella phage AG3. The core set of structural and replication-related proteins of CBA120 are homologous to those from T-even phages, but generally are more closely related to those from T4-like phages of Vibrio, Aeromonas and cyanobacteria than those of the Enterobacteriaceae. The baseplate and method of adhesion to the host are, however, very different from those of either T4 or the cyanophages. None of the outer baseplate proteins are conserved. Instead of T4's long and short tail fibers, CBA120, like ViI, encodes tail spikes related to those normally seen on podoviruses. The 158 kb genome, like that of T4, is circularly permuted and terminally redundant, but unlike T4 CBA120 does not substitute hmdCyt for cytosine in its DNA. However, in contrast to other coliphages, CBA120 and related coliphages we have isolated cannot incorporate 3H-thymidine (3H-dThd) into their DNA. Protein sequence comparisons cluster the putative "thymidylate synthase" of CBA120, ViI and AG3 much more closely with those of Delftia phage ?W-14, Bacillus subtilis phage SPO1, and Pseudomonas phage YuA, all known to produce and incorporate hydroxymethyluracil (hmdUra).
Project description:Bacteriophage phAPEC8 is an Escherichia coli-infecting myovirus, isolated on an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain. APEC strains cause colibacillosis in poultry, resulting in high mortality levels and important economic losses. Genomic analysis of the 147,737-bp double-stranded DNA phAPEC8 genome revealed that 53% of the 269 encoded proteins are unique to this phage. Its closest relatives include the Salmonella phage PVP-SE1 and the coliphage rv5, with 19% and 18% similar proteins, respectively. As such, phAPEC8 represents a novel, phylogenetically distinct clade within the Myoviridae, with molecular properties suitable for phage therapy applications.
Project description:The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is used as a probiotic for the treatment of certain gastrointestinal diseases in several European and non-European countries. In vitro studies showed EcN to efficiently inhibit the production of Shiga toxin (Stx) by Stx producing E. coli (STEC) such as Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). The occurrence of the latest EHEC serotype (O104:H4) responsible for the great outbreak in 2011 in Germany was due to the infection of an enteroaggregative E. coli by a Stx 2-encoding lambdoid phage turning this E. coli into a lysogenic and subsequently into a Stx producing strain. Since EHEC infected persons are not recommended to be treated with antibiotics, EcN might be an alternative medication. However, because a harmless E. coli strain might be converted into a Stx-producer after becoming host to a stx encoding prophage, we tested EcN for stx-phage genome integration. Our experiments revealed the resistance of EcN towards not only stx-phages but also against the lambda phage. This resistance was not based on the lack of or by mutated phage receptors. Rather the expression of certain genes (superinfection exclusion B (sieB) and a phage repressor (pr) gene) of a defective prophage of EcN was involved in the complete resistance of EcN to infection by the stx- and lambda phage. Obviously, EcN cannot be turned into a Stx producer. Furthermore, we observed EcN to inactivate phages and thereby to protect E. coli K-12 strains against infection by stx- as well as lambda-phages. Inactivation of lambda-phages was due to binding of lambda-phages to LamB of EcN whereas inactivation of stx-phages was caused by a thermostable protein of EcN. These properties together with its ability to inhibit Stx production make EcN a good candidate for the prevention of illness caused by EHEC and probably for the treatment of already infected people. Overall design: Total EcN bacterial RNA was isolated from 3 ml cultures after 16 h of a static incubation period with or without stx phages.
Project description:The 4.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli strain Tj, isolated from the Varzob River in Tajikistan, is presented. This strain possesses four prophage elements related to Shigella phage SfV, E. coli O157:H7-specific phage ?V10, lambdoid phage HK225, and coliphage Ayreon. It contains a gene encoding a hemolysin E toxin.