Hybrid Surfactants with N-Heterocyclic Carbene Heads as a Multifunctional Platform for Interfacial Catalysis.
ABSTRACT: Processing of substrates with different solvent compatibility is a persistent problem in homogeneous catalysis, in particular when one starting compound is water soluble and the other is not. A promising concept reported in the literature is micellar catalysis. However, the process of developing catalysts that are surfactants at the same time is still in its early stages. We report the synthesis of a new surfactant system with an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) moiety as a head group. Characteristic surfactant properties such as the formation of micelles or liquid crystals is documented. The new surfactant ligand forms coordination compounds with various metals, most importantly Pd2+ , in square planar geometry. In addition, the Pd-NHC compound shows surfactant features, and can be used successfully for C-C cross-coupling reactions (Suzuki, Heck). The boost in catalytic activity by one order of magnitude compared to analogous but non-amphiphilic species is reported.
Project description:Herein, we introduce a new class of bench-stable <i>N</i>-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) nickel-precatalysts for homogeneous nickel-catalysis. The nickel(II) complexes are readily activated to Ni<sup>0</sup> in?situ under mild conditions, via a proposed Heck-type mechanism. The precatalysts are shown to facilitate carbonyl-ene, hydroalkenylation, and amination reactions.
Project description:Axially chiral mono(NHC)-Pd(II) and mono(NHC)-Au(I) complexes with one side shaped 1,1'-biphenyl backbone have been prepared from chiral 6,6'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diamine. The complexes were characterized by X-ray crystal structure diffraction. The Pd(II) complex showed good catalytic activities in the Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck-Mizoroki coupling reactions, and the (S)-Au(I) complexes also showed good catalytic activities in the asymmetric intramolecular hydroamination reaction to give the corresponding product in moderate ee.
Project description:A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II)-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes. Both activated and deactivated aryl chlorides work well to give the corresponding coupling products in good to excellent yields by using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as the ionic liquid.
Project description:Macrocycles consisting of a 20-membered ring containing two imidazolium salt functionalities and of the formula [PhCH2N(CH2CH2CH2)Im(CH2CH2CH2)2][Br]2 (Im = imidazole = 3a, benzimidazole = 3b) were synthesized in 70-75% yields. These salts serve as precursors to macrocycles containing two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) moieties. Reaction of the macrocyclic salts 3a and 3b with silver oxide afforded macrocyclic-bis(NHC)silver(i) complexes 4a and 4b. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of macrocyclic-bis(NHC)silver(i) complex 4a revealed a tetranuclear silver core with a short Ag-Ag distance (2.9328 Å). Complexes 4a and 4b serve as carbene transfer reagents to Pd. The treatment of macrocyclic-bis(NHC)silver(i) complexes 4a and 4b with one equivalent of PdCl2(MeCN)2 in methylene chloride afforded square-planar trans-macrocyclic-bis(NHC)Pd(ii)X2 complexes 5a and 5b. Preliminary screening of these palladium complexes showed they are competent precatalysts for Heck and Suzuki coupling reactions.
Project description:For years, Cu(iii)NHCs have been proposed as active intermediates in Cu(i)NHC catalyzed reactions, yielding the desired products by reductive elimination, but until today, no one has ever reported the characterisation of such a compound. When working on the synthesis of biomimetic transition metal (NHC) complexes and their application in homogeneous catalysis, we recently found a highly unusual reactivity for Cu(ii) acetate in the presence of a particular cyclic tetra(NHC) ligand. Therein, the formation of the first stable CuNHC compound, displaying Cu in the formal oxidation state +III, by simple disproportionation of Cu(ii) acetate in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was observed. At elevated temperatures selective mono-oxidation of the NHC ligand occurs, even under anaerobic conditions. Acetate was identified as the origin of the oxygen atom by 18O-labelling experiments. The remarkably high stability of the title compound was furthermore proven electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry. An in-depth investigation of its reactivity revealed the involvement of four additional compounds. Three of them could be isolated and characterised by 1H/13C-NMR, single crystal XRD, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The fourth, a Cu(i)NHC intermediate, formed by formal reductive elimination from the Cu(NHC)3+ compound, was characterised in situ by 1H/13C-NMR and computational methods.
Project description:N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) have been extensively studied as organocatalysts and ligands for transition metals, but the successful integration of NHCs and late transition metals in cooperative catalysis remains an underexplored area. We have developed a cooperative palladium-catalyzed allylation of NHC-activated aldehydes to access a variety of 3-allyl dihydrocoumarin derivatives. Kinetic experiments support a cooperative pathway for this transformation.
Project description:There have been significant advancements in radical reactions using organocatalysts in modern organic synthesis. Recently, NHC-catalyzed radical reactions initiated by single electron transfer processes have been actively studied. However, the reported examples have been limited to catalysis mediated by alkyl radicals. In this article, the NHC organocatalysis mediated by aryl radicals has been achieved. The enolate form of the Breslow intermediate derived from an aldehyde and thiazolium-type NHC in the presence of a base undergoes single electron transfer to an aryl iodide, providing an aryl radical. The catalytically generated aryl radical could be exploited as an arylating reagent for radical relay-type arylacylation of styrenes and as a hydrogen atom abstraction reagent for α-amino C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-H acylation of secondary amides.
Project description:Regioselective methods for allene hydrosilylation have been developed, with regioselectivity being governed primarily by the choice of metal. Alkenylsilanes are produced via nickel catalysis with larger N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, and allylsilanes are produced via palladium catalysis with smaller NHC ligands. These complementary methods allow either regioisomeric product to be obtained with exceptional regiocontrol.
Project description:N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis has emerged as a versatile tool in modern synthetic chemistry. Further increasing the complexity, several processes have been introduced that proceed via dual catalysis, where the NHC organocatalyst operates in concert with a second catalytic moiety, significantly enlarging the reaction scope. In biological transformations, multiple catalysis is generally used to access complex natural products. Guided by that strategy, triple catalysis has been studied recently, where three different catalytic modes are merged in a single process. In this Communication, direct α-C-H acylation of various alkenes with aroyl fluorides using NHC, sulfinate, and photoredox cooperative triple catalysis is reported. The method allows the preparation of α-substituted vinyl ketones in moderate to high yields with excellent functional group tolerance. Mechanistic studies reveal that these cascades proceed through a sequential radical addition/coupling/elimination process. In contrast to known triple catalysis processes that operate via two sets of interwoven catalysis cycles, in the introduced process, all three cycles are interwoven.
Project description:The present paper is the Supplemental materials for our original paper entitled "highly active, homogeneous catalysis by polyoxometalate-assisted <i>N</i>-heterocyclic carbene gold(I) complexes for hydration of diphenylacetylene. The present article refers to the preparations of several monomeric, <i>N</i>-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene/carboxylate (<i>RS</i>-pyrrld)/gold(I) complexes, [Au(<i>RS</i>-pyrrld)(NHC)] (NHC = IMes (<b>6</b>), BIPr (<b>7</b>), IF<sup>3</sup> (<b>8</b>), I<sup>t</sup>Bu (<b>9</b>)), which were used for homogenous catalysis of the hydration reaction of diphenylacetylene to afford deoxybenzoin. The article also includes the preparations of the precursor complexes, [AuCl(NHC)] (NHC = IPr, IMes, BIPr, IF<sup>3</sup>, I<sup>t</sup>Bu), and novel X-ray crystallography of the separately prepared [Au(IPr)(H<sub>2</sub>O)]<sub>3</sub>[?-PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub>]·7Et<sub>2</sub>O (<b>2</b>), summary of crystal data of (<b>2</b>), and selected bond distances (Å) and angles (deg) of (<b>2</b>). Also presented are Cartesian coordinates of the optimized structures in the quantum-mechanical calculations.