The risk of preterm birth and growth restriction in pregnancy after cancer.
ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether cancer and its treatments increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our aim was to examine whether cancer survivors have higher risks of poor outcomes in pregnancies conceived after diagnosis than women without cancer, and whether these risks differ by cancer type and race. Diagnoses from cancer registries were linked to pregnancy outcomes from birth certificates in three U.S. states. Analyses were limited to the first, live singleton birth conceived after diagnosis. Births to women without a previous cancer diagnosis in the registry were matched to cancer survivors on age at delivery, parity, race/ethnicity and education. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios. Cervical cancer survivors had higher risks of preterm birth (Risk ratio?=?2.8, 95% Confidence interval: 2.1, 3.7), as did survivors of invasive breast cancer (RR?=?1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7) and leukemia (RR?=?2.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.5). We observed a higher risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (<10% of weight for age based on a national distribution) in survivors of brain cancer (RR?=?1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8) and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6). We did not see an increased risk of infants born preterm, low birth weight, or SGA in pregnancies conceived after ductal carcinoma in situ, thyroid cancer, melanoma, or Hodgkin lymphoma. While our results are reassuring for survivors of many cancers, some will need closer monitoring during pregnancy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine whether women who conceive soon after treatment for cancer have higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>Vital records data were linked to cancer registry diagnosis and treatment information in 3 US states. Women who conceived their first pregnancy after diagnosis between ages 20 and 45 years with any invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were eligible. Log-binomial models were used to compare risks in cancer survivors who conceived in each interval to the risks in matched comparison births to women without cancer.<h4>Results</h4>Women who conceived ?1 year after starting chemotherapy for any cancer had higher risks of preterm birth than comparison women (chemotherapy alone: relative risk [RR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; chemotherapy with radiation: RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.6); women who conceived ?1 year after starting chemotherapy without radiation or ?2 years after chemotherapy with radiation did not. In analyses imputing the treatment end date for breast cancer survivors, those who conceived ?1 year after finishing chemotherapy with or without radiation had no higher risks than women without cancer. The risk of preterm birth in cervical cancer survivors largely persisted but was somewhat lower in pregnancies conceived after the first year (for pregnancies conceived ?1 year after diagnosis: RR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.2-5.4; for pregnancies conceived >1 year after diagnosis: RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.5).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In women who received chemotherapy, the higher risk of preterm birth was limited to those survivors who had short intervals between treatment and conception.Cancer 2018;124:000-000.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:In 2010, due to a pertussis outbreak and neonatal deaths, the California Department of Health recommended that the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) be administered during pregnancy. Tdap is now recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for all pregnant women, preferably between 27 and 36 weeks' gestation. Limited data exist on Tdap safety during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of adverse obstetric events or adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING:Retrospective, observational cohort study using administrative health care databases from 2 California Vaccine Safety Datalink sites. PARTICIPANTS AND EXPOSURES:Of 123,494 women with singleton pregnancies ending in a live birth between January 1, 2010, and November 15, 2012, 26,229 (21%) received Tdap during pregnancy and 97,265 did not. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Risks of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births (<10th percentile), chorioamnionitis, preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were evaluated. Relative risk (RR) estimates were adjusted for site, receipt of another vaccine during pregnancy, and propensity to receive Tdap during pregnancy. Cox regression was used for preterm delivery, and Poisson regression for other outcomes. RESULTS:Vaccination was not associated with increased risks of adverse birth outcomes: crude estimates for preterm delivery were 6.3% of vaccinated and 7.8% of unvaccinated women (adjusted RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09); 8.4% of vaccinated and 8.3% of unvaccinated had an SGA birth (adjusted RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.06). Receipt of Tdap before 20 weeks was not associated with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (adjusted RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20); chorioamnionitis was diagnosed in 6.1% of vaccinated and 5.5% of unvaccinated women (adjusted RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.26). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this cohort of women with singleton pregnancies that ended in live birth, receipt of Tdap during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or preterm or SGA birth, although a small but statistically significant increased risk of chorioamnionitis diagnosis was observed.
Project description:<h4>Background/objectives</h4>Advances in cancer management have resulted in improved survival rates, particularly in children and young adults. However, treatment may adversely affect reproductive outcomes among female cancer survivors. The objective of this study was to investigate their risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to the general population.<h4>Design/methods</h4>We performed a population-based analysis, including all female cancer survivors diagnosed before the age of 40 years between 1981 and 2012. Pregnancy and perinatal complications were identified through linkage of the Scottish Cancer Registry with hospital discharge records based on the Community Health Index (CHI) database. We compared 1,629 female cancer survivors with a first ever singleton pregnancy after diagnosis, with controls matched on age, deprivation quintile, and year of cancer diagnosis selected from the general population (n = 8,899). Relative risks and 95%-confidence intervals of perinatal risks were calculated using log-binomial regression.<h4>Results</h4>Survivors were more likely to give birth before 37 weeks of gestation (relative risk (RR]) 1.32, 95%-CI 1.10-1.59), but did not show an increased risk of low birth weight (<2.5kg: RR 1.15, 95%-CI 0.94-1.39), and were less likely to give birth to offspring small for gestational age (RR 0.81, 95%-CI 0.68-0.98). Operative delivery and postpartum haemorrhage were more common but approached rates in controls with more recent diagnosis. The risk of congenital abnormalities was not increased (RR 1.01, 95%-CI 0.85-1.20).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Cancer survivors have an increased risk of premature delivery and postpartum haemorrhage, but their offspring are not at increased risk for low birth weight or congenital abnormalities. In recent decades there has been a normalisation of delivery method in cancer survivors, nevertheless careful management remains appropriate particularly for those diagnosed in childhood.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Investigate the relationship between history of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes according to subfertility/fertility treatment.<h4>Methods</h4>Deliveries (2004-2013) from Massachusetts (MA) Registry of Vital Records and Statistics were linked to MA assisted reproductive technology data, hospital discharge records, and Cancer Registry. The relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals of adverse outcomes (gestational diabetes (GDM), gestational hypertension (GHTN), cesarean section (CS), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB), neonatal mortality, and prolonged neonatal hospital stay) were modeled with log-link and Poisson distribution generalized estimating equations. Differences by history of subfertility/fertility treatment were investigated with likelihood ratio tests.<h4>Results</h4>Among 662,630 deliveries, 2,983 had a history of cancer. Women with cancer history were not at greater risk of GDM, GHTN, or CS. However, infants born to women with prior cancer had higher risk of LBW (RR: 1.19 [1.07-1.32]), prolonged neonatal hospital stay (RR: 1.16 [1.01-1.34]), and PTB (RR: 1.19 [1.07-1.32]). We found clinically and statistically significant differences in the relationship between cancer history and SGA by subfertility/fertility treatment (p value, test for heterogeneity = 0.02); among deliveries with subfertility or fertility treatment, those with a history of cancer experienced a greater risk of SGA (RRsubfertile: 1.36 [1.02-1.83]).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Women with a history of cancer had greater risk of some adverse pregnancy outcomes; this relationship varied by subfertility and fertility treatment.
Project description:We investigated the association between maternal zinc level during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a large population-based birth cohort study. In this study, 3187 pregnant women were recruited. For serum zinc level, 2940 pregnant women were sufficient (≥56 μg/dL) and 247 deficient (<56 μg/dL). Of interest, 7.3% newborns were with LBW among subjects with low zinc level (RR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.03, 5.96; P < 0.001). Adjusted RR for LBW was 3.41 (95% CI: 1.97, 5.91; P < 0.001) among subjects with low zinc level. Moreover, 15.0% newborns were with SGA among subjects with low zinc level (RR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.36, 2.88; P < 0.001). Adjusted RR for SGA was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.82; P < 0.001) among subjects with low zinc level. A nested case-control study within above cohort showed that maternal serum zinc level was lower in SGA cases as compared with controls. By contrast, maternal serum C-reactive protein, TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in SGA cases than that of controls. Moreover, nuclear NF-κB p65 was significantly up-regulated in placentas of SGA cases as compared with controls. Taken together, maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy elevates the risks of LBW and SGA infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The impact of autoimmune diseases on pregnancy remains understudied on a population level. Examination of obstetric and neonatal outcomes among women with autoimmune disease and their infants can provide important insights for clinical management. METHODS:Autoimmune diseases and outcomes were identified using medical records. Cesarean delivery, preterm birth, preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), neonatal intensive care (NICU) admission, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and perinatal mortality risk was assessed. Poisson regression with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with adjustment for maternal characteristics and other chronic conditions. RESULTS:Women with T1DM were at increased risk for nearly all outcomes including RDS (RR: 3.62; 95% CI: 2.84, 4.62), perinatal mortality (RR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.91), cesarean delivery (RR: 2.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 2.32) and preterm birth (RR: 3.52; 95% CI: 3.17, 3.91). Women with SLE also had higher risk for preterm delivery (RR: 2.90; 95% CI: 2.42, 3.48) and RDS (RR:2.99; 95% CI: 1.99, 4.51) as did women with Crohn's (cesarean delivery RR:1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60; preterm delivery RR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.49. RA increased risk for SGA (RR:1.66; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.55). CONCLUSION(S):Despite the heterogeneity in autoimmune diseases, we observed elevated preterm birth risk for most women with autoimmune disease. SLE and T1DM appeared to confer increased risk for a wide range of adverse outcomes.
Project description:Female survivors of childhood cancer treated with abdominal radiotherapy who manage to conceive are at risk of delivering premature and low-birthweight offspring, but little is known about whether abdominal radiotherapy may also be associated with additional complications during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the risk of developing pregnancy and labor complications among female survivors of childhood cancer in the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS).Pregnancy and labor complications were identified by linking the BCCSS cohort (n?=?17 980) to the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for England. Relative risks (RRs) of pregnancy and labor complications were calculated by site of radiotherapy treatment (none/abdominal/cranial/other) and other cancer-related factors using log-binomial regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.A total of 2783 singleton pregnancies among 1712 female survivors of childhood cancer were identified in HES. Wilms tumor survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at threefold risk of hypertension complicating pregnancy (relative risk = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29 to 4.71), while all survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR?=?3.35, 95% CI?=?1.41 to 7.93) and anemia complicating pregnancy (RR?=?2.10, 95% CI?=?1.27 to 3.46) compared with survivors treated without radiotherapy. Survivors treated without radiotherapy had similar risks of pregnancy and labor complications as the general population, except survivors were more likely to opt for an elective cesarean section (RR?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.16 to 1.70).Treatment with abdominal radiotherapy increases the risk of developing hypertension complicating pregnancy in Wilms tumor survivors, and diabetes mellitus and anemia complicating pregnancy in all survivors. These patients may require extra vigilance during pregnancy.
Project description:Background: Some disinfection by-products (DBPs) are reproductive and developmental toxicants in laboratory animals. However, studies of trimester-specific DBP exposure on adverse birth outcomes in humans are inconsistent. Objective: We examined whether trimester-specific blood and urinary biomarkers of DBP were associated with small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth. Methods: A total of 4,086 blood and 3,951 urine samples were collected across pregnancy trimesters among 1,660 mothers from Xiaogan City, China. Blood samples were quantified for biomarkers of trihalomethanes (THMs): chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Urine samples were quantified for biomarkers of haloacetic acids (HAA): dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. Birth outcomes were abstracted at delivery from medical records. We used Poisson regression models with log link functions to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SGA, LBW, and preterm birth across tertiles (or categories) of DBP biomarker concentrations measured across pregnancy trimesters. We also examined the relative exposure differences across gestation comparing adverse outcomes with normal births using mixed-effects models. Results: Blood TCM concentrations in the second trimester were associated with an elevated risk of SGA comparing middle vs. lowest (RR, 2.34; 95% CI: 1.02, 5.35) and highest vs. lowest (RR, 2.47; 95% CI: 1.09, 5.58) exposure groups. Third-trimester blood TCM concentrations were also associated with an increased risk of SGA comparing the second tertile with the first (RR, 2.61; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.92). We found that maternal blood TCM concentrations were significantly higher for SGA compared with non-SGA births across the period from 23 to 34 wk gestation. Other blood and urinary DBP biomarkers examined were unrelated to SGA, LBW, or preterm birth. Conclusion: Blood TCM concentrations in mid to late pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SGA, whereas other biomarkers of DBPs examined across pregnancy were not associated with birth outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7195
Project description:During pregnancy, vitamin D supplementation may be a feasible strategy to help prevent low birthweight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) births. However, evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is inconclusive, probably due to heterogeneity in study design and type of intervention. A systematic literature search in the PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on birthweight, birth length, head circumference, LBW, and SGA. The fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to calculate mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR), and 95% Confidence Interval (CI). On a total of 13 RCTs, maternal vitamin D supplementation had a positive effect on birthweight (12 RCTs; MD = 103.17 g, 95% CI 62.29?144.04 g), length (6 RCTs; MD = 0.22 cm, 95% CI 0.11?0.33 cm), and head circumference (6 RCTs; MD:0.19 cm, 95% CI 0.13?0.24 cm). In line with these findings, we also demonstrated that maternal vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of LBW (3 RCTs; RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.22?0.74) and SGA (5 RCTS; RR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.51?0.92). The present systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed the well-established effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on birth size. However, further research is required to better define risks and benefits associated with such interventions and the potential implications for public health.
Project description:To estimate the effect of partner change on risks of pre-eclampsia and giving birth to a small for gestational age infant.Prospective population study.Sweden.Women with their first and second successive singleton births in Sweden between 1990 and 2006 without pregestational diabetes and/or hypertension (n=446 459).Preterm (<37 weeks) and term (?37 weeks) pre-eclampsia, and giving birth to a small for gestational age (SGA) infant. Risks were adjusted for interpregnancy interval, maternal age, body mass index, height and smoking habits in second pregnancy, years of involuntary childlessness before second pregnancy, mother's country of birth, years of formal education and year of birth. Further, when we calculated risks of SGA we restricted the study population to women with non-pre-eclamptic pregnancies.In women who had a preterm pre-eclampsia in first pregnancy, partner change was associated with a strong protective effect for preterm pre-eclampsia recurrence (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.88). Similarly, partner change was also associated with a protective effect of recurrence of SGA birth (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.84). In contrast, among women without SGA in first birth, partner change was associated with an increased risk of SGA in second pregnancy. Risks of term pre-eclampsia were not affected by partner change.There is a paternal effect on risks of preterm pre-eclampsia and giving birth to an SGA infant.