Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and Extracellular Matrix Interactions in Melanoma Progression.
ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I binds to the ECM protein vitronectin (VN) through IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) to enhance proliferation and migration of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Although evidence exists for the role of individual components of the complex (IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and VN), the cellular functions stimulated by these proteins together as a complex remains un-investigated in melanoma cells. We report here that the IGF-I:IGFBP-3:VN trimeric complex stimulates a dose-dependent increase in the proliferation and migration of WM35 and Sk-MEL28 melanoma cells. In 3D Matrigel™ and hydrogel cultures, both cell lines formed primary tumor-like spheroids, which increased in size in a dose-dependent manner in response to the trimeric complex. Furthermore, we reveal IGFBP-3:VN protein complexes in malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma patient tissues, where the IGFBP-3:VN complex was seen to be predominantly tumor cell-associated. Peptide antagonists designed to target the binding of IGF-I:IGFBP-3 to VN were demonstrated to inhibit IGF-I:IGFBP-3:VN-stimulated cell migration, invasion and 3D tumor cell growth of melanoma cells. Overall, this study provides new data on IGF:ECM interactions in skin malignancies and demonstrates the potential usefulness of a growth factor:ECM-disrupting strategy for abrogating tumor progression.
Project description:The aim of this paper was to determine whether the interaction between IGF, IGFBP, and VN modulates the functions of porcine EOE cells. Enamel organs from 6-month-old porcine third molars were dissociated into single epithelial cells and subcultured on culture dishes pretreated with VN, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 (IGF-IGFBP-VN complex). The subcultured EOE cells retained their capacity for ameloblast-related gene expression, as shown by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Amelogenin expression was detected in the subcultured EOE cells by immunostaining. The subcultured EOE cells were then seeded onto collagen sponge scaffolds in combination with fresh dental mesenchymal cells and transplanted into athymic rats. After 4 weeks, enamel-dentin-like complex structures were present in the implanted constructs. These results show that EOE cells cultured on IGF-IGFBP-VN complex differentiated into ameloblasts-like cells that were able to secrete amelogenin proteins and form enamel-like tissues in vivo. Functional assays demonstrated that the IGF/IGFBP/VN complex significantly enhanced porcine EOE cell proliferation and tissue forming capacity for enamel. This is the first study to demonstrate a functional role of the IGF-IGFBP-VN complex in EOE cells. This application of the subculturing technique provides a foundation for further tooth-tissue engineering and for improving our understanding of ameloblast biology.
Project description:The pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is implicated in tumor growth, metastasis and drug resistance. Here, we investigated the involvement of PTTG1 in melanoma cell proliferation, invasiveness and response to the BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) dabrafenib. We also preliminary assessed the potential value of circulating PTTG1 protein to monitor melanoma patient response to BRAFi or to dabrafenib plus trametinib. Dabrafenib-resistant cell lines (A375R and SK-Mel28R) were more invasive than their drug-sensitive counterparts (A375 and SK-Mel28), but expressed comparable PTTG1 levels. Dabrafenib abrogated PTTG1 expression and impaired invasion of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in A375 and SK-Mel28 cells. In contrast, it affected neither PTTG1 expression in A375R and SK-Mel28R cells, nor ECM invasion in the latter cells, while further stimulated A375R cell invasiveness. Assessment of proliferation and ECM invasion in control and PTTG1-silenced A375 and SK-Mel28 cells, exposed or not to dabrafenib, demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of this drug were, at least in part, dependent on its ability to down-regulate PTTG1 expression. PTTG1-silencing also impaired proliferation and invasiveness of A375R and SK-Mel28R cells, and counteracted dabrafenib-induced stimulation of ECM invasion in A375R cells. Further experiments performed in A375R cells indicated that PTTG1-silencing impaired cell invasiveness through inhibition of MMP-9 and that PTTG1 expression and ECM invasion could be also reduced by the CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011. PTTG1 targeting might, therefore, represent a useful strategy to impair proliferation and metastasis of melanomas resistant to BRAFi. Circulating PTTG1 also appeared to deserve further investigation as biomarker to monitor patient response to targeted therapy.
Project description:The Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in variety cellular biological functions; we previously reported levels of IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) -3 and -5 are increased in dermal and pulmonary fibrosis associated with the prototypic fibrosing disease systemic sclerosis (SSc), induce extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and promote fibrosis. We sought to examine the effects of another member of the family, IGFBP-4, on ECM production and fibrosis using cell-based, ex vivo organ culture and in vivo mouse lung fibrosis models. IGFBP-4 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in pulmonary fibroblasts of patients with SSc. ECM components were significantly reduced by endogenous and exogenous IGFBP-4. IGFBP-4 also blocked TGF?-induced ECM production, and inhibited ECM production ex vivo in human lung and skin in organ culture. In vivo, IGFBP-4 reduced bleomycin-induced collagen production and histologic evidence of fibrosis. Silencing IGFBP-4 expression to mimic levels observed in SSc lung fibroblasts resulted in increased ECM production. IGFBP-4 reduced mRNA and protein levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the pro-fibrotic factor CTGF. Further, CTGF silencing potentiated the anti-fibrotic effects of IGFBP-4. Reduced IGFBP-4 levels in SSc lung fibroblasts may contribute to the fibrotic phenotype via loss of IGFBP-4 anti-fibrotic activity.
Project description:We previously reported that IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a major IGF-binding protein in human serum, regulates angiogenic activities of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. However, the role of IGFBP-3 in cell adhesion is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that IGFBP-3 inhibits the adhesion of HNSCC cells and HUVECs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). IGFBP-3 reduced transcription of a variety of integrins, especially integrin ?4, and suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src in these cells through both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent pathways. IGFBP-3 was found to suppress the transcription of c-fos and c-jun and the activity of AP1 transcription factor. The regulatory effect of IGFBP-3 on integrin ?4 transcription was attenuated by blocking c-jun and c-fos gene expression via siRNA transfection. Taken together, our data show that IGFBP-3 has IGF-dependent and -independent inhibitory effects on intracellular adhesion signaling in HNSCC and HUVECs through its ability to block c-jun and c-fos transcription and thus AP-1-mediated integrin ?4 transcription. Collectively, our data suggest that IGFPB-3 may be an effective cancer therapeutic agent by blocking integrin-mediated adhesive activity of tumor and vascular endothelial cells.
Project description:Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels are recruited to existing ones, is essential for tumor development. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which modulates bioavailability of IGF, has been studied for its potential role in angiogenesis during tissue regeneration and cancer development. In this study, we assessed the role of IGFBP-3 in tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using adenoviral (Ad-BP3) and recombinant (rBP3) IGFBP-3. Using an in vivo orthotopic tongue tumor model, we confirmed that both Ad-BP3 and rBP3 suppress the growth of UMSCC38 HNSCC cells in vivo. Ad-BP3 inhibited vascularization in tongue tumors and chorio-allantoic membrane, and suppressed angiogenesis-stimulating activities in UMSCC38 cells. In HUVECs, Ad-BP3 decreased migration, invasion, and tube formation. rBP3 also suppressed production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HUVECs and UMSCC38 cells. IGFBP-3-GGG, a mutant IGFBP-3 with loss of IGF binding capacity, suppressed VEGF production. In addition, we found that IGFBP-3 suppressed VEGF expression, even in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from an IGF-1R-null mouse. Finally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-3-GGG inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth to the same degree as wild-type IGFBP-3. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that IGFBP-3 has anti-angiogenic activity in HNSCC, at least in part due to IGF-independent suppression of VEGF production from vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells.
Project description:Metastasis is a critical event in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and closely correlates with clinical outcome. We previously showed that the farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 has antitumor activities in HNSCC by inducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), which in turn inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. In our study, we found that SCH66336 at a sublethal dose for HNSCC inhibited the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 was associated with the blockade of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway via suppressing IGF-1R itself and Akt expression. Consistent with previous work, induction of IGFBP-3 by SCH66336 also contributed in part to the anti-invasive effect. SCH66336 treatment also reduced the expression and activity of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), both important regulators of tumor metastasis. The effect of SCH66336 on uPA activity was inhibited partly by knockdown of IGFBP-3 using small interfering RNA. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 on migration or invasion was attenuated partly or completely by knockdown of IGFBP-3, Akt or IGF-1R expression, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the IGF-1R pathway plays a major role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, suggesting that therapeutic obstruction of the IGF-1R pathway would be a useful approach to treating patients with HNSCC.
Project description:Adverse gestational outcomes such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are associated with placental insufficiency. Normal placental development relies on the insulin-like growth factors -I and -II (IGF-I and -II), in part to stimulate trophoblast proliferation and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) migration. The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) modulate the bioavailability of IGFs in various ways, including sequestration, potentiation, and/or increase in half-life. The roles of IGFBP-4 and -5 in the placenta are unknown, despite consistent associations between pregnancy complications and the levels of two IGFBP-4 and/or -5 proteases, pregnancy-associated plasma protein -A and -A2 (PAPP-A and PAPP-A2). The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of IGFBP-4 and -5 on IGF-I and IGF-II in a model of EVT migration. A related objective was to determine the timing and location of IGFBP-4 and -5 expression in the placental villi.We used wound healing assays to examine the effects of IGFBP-4 and -5 on the migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells following 4 hours of serum starvation and 24 hours of treatment. Localization of IGFBP-4, -5 and PAPP-A2 was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of first trimester placental sections.2 nM IGF-I and -II each increased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration with IGF-I increasing migration significantly more than IGF-II. IGFBP-4 and -5 showed different levels of inhibition against IGF-I. 20 nM IGFBP-4 completely blocked the effects of 2 nM IGF-I, while 20 nM IGFBP-5 significantly reduced the effects of 2 nM IGF-I, but not to control levels. Either 20 nM IGFBP-4 or 20 nM IGFBP-5 completely blocked the effects of 2 nM IGF-II. Immunohistochemistry revealed co-localization of IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and PAPP-A2 in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of first trimester placental villi as early as 5 weeks of gestational age.IGFBP-4 and -5 show different levels of inhibition on the migration-stimulating effects of IGF-I and IGF-II, suggesting different roles for PAPP-A and PAPP-A2. Moreover, co-localization of the pappalysins and their substrates within placental villi suggests undescribed roles of these molecules in early placental development.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) signal via the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF-II also activates the insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A). Signalling via both receptors promotes tumour growth, survival and metastasis. In some instances IGF-II action via the IR-A also promotes resistance to anti-IGF-1R inhibitors. This study assessed the efficacy of two novel modified IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) proteins that were designed to sequester both IGFs. The two modified IGFBP-2 proteins were either protease resistant alone or also lacked the ability to bind extracellular matrix (ECM).The modified IGFBP-2 proteins were tested in vitro for their abilities to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and in vivo to inhibit MCF-7 breast tumour xenograft growth.Both mutants retained low nanomolar affinity for IGF-I and IGF-II (0.8-2.1-fold lower than IGFBP-2) and inhibited cancer cell proliferation in vitro. However, the combined protease resistant, non-matrix-binding mutant was more effective in inhibiting MCF-7 tumour xenograft growth and led to inhibition of angiogenesis.By removing protease cleavage and matrix-binding sites, modified IGFBP-2 was effective in inhibiting tumour growth and reducing tumour angiogenesis.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) have mitogenic and antiapoptotic functions, and may be involved in tumor growth. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of IGF components in seminoma compared to normal testis. Normal testicular tissues from autopsy cases and seminoma from surgery cases were obtained for microarray and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF receptor type 1 (IGF-R1), IGF-R2, insulin receptor isoforms A (IR-A) and B (IR-B), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) 1-6. IGF-2 was localized by immunohistochemistry. IGFBP-5 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. mRNA expression in microarray and real-time RT-PCR showed similar tendencies: IGF-1, IGF-R1, IGF-R2, IR-A, and IGFBP-2 were not different in both groups. IGF-2, IR-B, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, and IGFBP-6 mRNA were downregulated in seminoma. IGFBP-3 tended to be upregulated in pT1 seminoma, but downregulated in pT2 stages. IGFBP-5 and IGF-2 protein expression correlated with mRNA expression. In conclusion, downregulation of mainly inhibiting IGFBPs may allow a stimulated tumor growth. The downregulated IGF-2 does not seem to be involved in the growth regulation of seminoma. Constantly expressed genes (e.g., IGF-1, IGF-R1, IR-A, and IGFBP-2) may reflect an involvement in spermatogenesis, but may also play a major role in tumor growth as their expression is not downregulated despite the lack of spermatogenesis in tumor tissue.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a p53 tumor suppressor-regulated protein and a major carrier for IGFs in circulation. Among six high-affinity IGFBPs, which are IGFBP-1 through 6, IGFBP-3 is the most extensively investigated IGFBP species with respect to its IGF/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR)-independent biological actions beyond its endocrine/paracrine/autocrine role in modulating IGF action in cancer. Disruption of IGFBP-3 at transcriptional and post-translational levels has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many different types of cancer including breast, prostate, and lung cancer. Over the past two decades, a wealth of evidence has revealed both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects of IGF/IGF-IR-independent actions of IGFBP-3 depending upon cell types, post-translational modifications, and assay methods. However, IGFBP-3's anti-tumor function has been well accepted due to identification of functional IGFBP-3-interacting proteins, putative receptors, or crosstalk with other signaling cascades. This review mainly focuses on transmembrane protein 219 (TMEM219), which represents a novel IGFBP-3 receptor mediating antitumor effect of IGFBP-3. Furthermore, this review delineates the potential underlying mechanisms involved and the subsequent biological significance, emphasizing the clinical significance of the IGFBP-3/TMEM219 axis in assessing both the diagnosis and the prognosis of cancer as well as the therapeutic potential of TMEM219 agonists for cancer treatment.