Effective photo-enhancement of cellular activity of fluorophore-octaarginine antisense PNA conjugates correlates with singlet oxygen formation, endosomal escape and chromophore lipophilicity.
ABSTRACT: Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a cellular drug delivery method based on the generation of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to the endosomal membrane and thereby resulting in drug release to the cytoplasm. In our study a series of antisense fluorophore octaarginine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates were investigated in terms of PCI assisted cellular activity. It is found that tetramethylrhodamine and Alexa Fluor 555 conjugated octaarginine PNA upon irradiation exhibit more than ten-fold increase in antisense activity in the HeLa pLuc705 luciferase splice correction assay. An analogous fluorescein conjugate did not show any significant enhancement due to photobleaching, and neither did an Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate. Using fluorescence microscopy a correlation between endosomal escape and antisense activity was demonstrated, and in parallel a correlation to localized formation of ROS assigned primarily to singlet oxygen was also observed. The results show that tetramethylrhodamine (and to lesser extent Alexa Fluor 555) conjugated octaarginine PNAs are as effectively delivered to the cytosol compartment by PCI as by chloroquine assisted delivery and also indicate that efficient photodynamic endosomal escape is strongly dependent on the quantum yield for photochemical singlet oxygen formation, photostability as well as the lipophilicity of the chromophore.
Project description:Cellular uptake and antisense activity of d-octaarginine conjugated peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) is shown to exhibit pronounced cooperativity in serum-containing medium, in particular by being enhanced by analogous mis-match PNA-cell-penetrating peptide (PNA-CPP) conjugates without inherent antisense activity. This cooperativity does not show cell or PNA sequence dependency, suggesting that it is a common effect in cationic CPP conjugated PNA delivery. Interestingly, our results also indicate that Deca-r8-PNA and r8-PNA could assist each other and even other non-CPP PNAs as an uptake enhancer agent. However, the peptide itself (without being attached to the PNA) failed to enhance uptake and antisense activity. These results are compatible with an endosomal uptake mechanism in which the endocytosis event is induced by multiple CPP-PNA binding to the cell surface requiring a certain CPP density, possibly in terms of nanoparticle number and/or size, to be triggered. In particular the finding that the number of endosomal events is dependent on the total CPP-PNA concentration supports such a model. It is not possible from the present results to conclude whether endosomal escape is also cooperatively induced by CPP-PNA.
Project description:We have explored the merits of a novel delivery strategy for the antisense oligomers based on cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a carrier PNA with sequence complementary to part of the antisense oligomer. The effect of these carrier CPP-PNAs was evaluated by using antisense PNA targeting splicing correction of the mutated luciferase gene in the HeLa pLuc705 cell line, reporting cellular (nuclear) uptake of the antisense PNA via luciferase activity measurement. Carrier CPP-PNA constructs were studied in terms of construct modification (with octaarginine and/or decanoic acid) and carrier PNA length (to adjust binding affinity). In general, the carrier CPP-PNA constructs including the ones with decanoyl modification provided significant increase of the activity of unmodified antisense PNA as well as of antisense octaarginine-PNA conjugates. Antisense activity, and by inference cellular delivery, of unmodified antisense PNA was enhanced at least 20-fold at 6 ?M upon the complexation with an equimolar amount of nonamer carrier decanoyl-CPP-PNA (Deca-cPNA1(9)-(D-Arg)8). The antisense activity of a CPP-PNA ((D-Arg)8-asPNA) (at 2 ?M) was improved 6-fold and 8-fold by a heptamer carrier CPP-PNA (cPNA1(7)-(D-Arg)8) and hexamer carrier decanoyl-CPP-PNA (Deca-cPNA1(6)-(D-Arg)8), respectively, without showing significant additional cellular toxicity. Most interestingly, the activity reached the same level obtained by enhancement with endosomolytic chloroquine (CQ) treatment, suggesting that the carrier might facilitate endosomal escape. Furthermore, 50% downregulation of luciferase expression at 60 nM siRNA was obtained using this carrier CPP-PNA delivery strategy (with CQ co-treatment) for a single stranded antisense RNA targeting normal luciferase mRNA. These results indicated that CPP-PNA carriers may be used as effective cellular delivery vectors for different types of antisense oligomers and also allows use of combinations of (at least two) different CPP ligands.
Project description:Transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to daptomycin in wild-type and in a daptomycin resistant mutant. Bacillus subtilis 168, WT (-DAP) vs. DapR1 (-DAP), WT (+DAP) vs. DapR1 (+DAP), DapR1 (+DAP) vs. DapR1 (-DAP). Each experiment was conducted at least twice using two independent total RNA preparations. For daptomycin untreated comparison between 168 WT and DapR1 mutant, DapR1 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and WT was labeled with Alexa Fluor 555. For daptomycin treated experiments between WT and DapR1, DapR1 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and WT with Alexa Fluor 555. For treated vs. untreated DapR1, the DAP treated samples were labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and the untreated with Alexa Fluor 555. For dye swap, untreated DapR1 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and DAP treated with Alexa Fluor 555.
Project description:Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA-octaarginine conjugate upon varying the cell culture transfection volume (and cell density) at fixed PNA concentration. The results show that for all delivery modalities the cellular antisense activity increases (less than proportionally) with increasing volume (in some cases accompanied with increased toxicity), and that this effect is more pronounced at higher cell densities. These results emphasize that transfection efficacy using cationic carriers is critically dependent on parameters such as transfection volume and cell density, and that these must be taken into account when comparing different delivery regimes.
Project description:We have investigated exchange of molecules between different membrane domains on a highly compartmentalized cell, the spermatozoon. Using Alexa Fluor 555-cholera toxin B-subunit we have observed clustering of preexisting GM1 gangliosides which diffused across the anterior acrosome-equatorial segment interface but did not access the postacrosome. By contrast, single lipid and protein molecules readily exchanged between all three domains, although they diffused more slowly on nearing and crossing to the postacrosome. Thus, two types of diffusion interfaces are present on sperm heads, an "open" interface and a "mass filter" interface. The latter seems to be due to a protein-cytoskeleton network.
Project description:Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface-bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor-labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology.
Project description:We demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 633 hydrazide (Alexa Fluor 633) selectively labels neocortical arteries and arterioles by binding to elastin fibers. We measured sensory stimulus-evoked arteriole dilation dynamics in mouse, rat and cat visual cortex using Alexa Fluor 633 together with neuronal activity using calcium indicators or blood flow using fluorescein dextran. Arteriole dilation decreased fluorescence recorded from immediately underlying neurons, representing a potential artifact during neuronal functional imaging experiments.
Project description:Alpha-conotoxins (alpha-CTxs) are small peptides that are competitive inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and have been used to study the kinetics of nAChRs. Alpha-CTx MII, from the venom of Conus magus, has been shown to potently block both rat alpha3beta2 and rat chimeric alpha6/alpha3beta2beta3 cloned nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR), Bodipy FL, Alexa Fluor 488, and terbium chelates (TbCh) are fluorescent molecules that can be reacted with the N-terminus of the conopeptide to produce fluorescent conjugates. TMR and Bodipy FL were individually conjugated to alpha-CTx MII using different succinimidyl ester amine labeling reactions resulting in the formation of carboxamide conjugates. Alexa Fluor 488 succinimidyl ester conjugation reaction yielded low amounts of conjugate. TbCh was also individually reacted with the N-terminus of MII using the isothiocyanate conjugation reaction resulting in the formation of a thiourea conjugate. The conjugates were purified using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and their masses verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS). When tested on target nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, TMR-MII, Bodipy FL-MII, and TbCh-MII potently blocked the response to acetylcholine with slow off-rate kinetics. These fluorescent conjugates can be used to localize specific subtypes of neuronal nAChRs or ligand-binding sites within receptors in various tissue preparations; additionally, they may also be used to study conformational changes in receptors using fluorescence or lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer.
Project description:The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple 'in solution' steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.93±1.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction.
Project description:Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome-lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders-Niemann-Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff's disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies.