The KLF14 transcription factor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice.
ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is a member of the Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins. Despite strong evidence showing that a polymorphism in the Klf14 gene is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, the physiological and metabolic functions of KLF14 still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of KLF14 in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Adenoviruses expressing KLF14 (Ad-Klf14) or KLF14-specific shRNAs (Ad-shKlf14) were injected into normal C57BL/6J, db/db diabetic, or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Gene expression, hepatic glucose production, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance were tested in C57BL/6J, db/db, and DIO mice and primary hepatocytes. Our results demonstrate that KLF14 expression is induced in the livers of normal C57BL/6J mice upon fasting and significantly up-regulated in the livers of db/db mice, suggesting a physiological link between KLF14 and gluconeogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of KLF14 in primary hepatocytes increased both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α, also known as Ppargc1a), thereby stimulating cellular glucose production. Conversely, knockdown of KLF14 expression led to a reduction in PGC-1α, subsequently inhibiting glucose output in primary hepatocytes. Finally, forced expression of KLF14 in the livers of normal mice increased the plasma glucose levels and impaired glucose tolerance; in contrast, KLF14 knockdown in diabetic mouse livers improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, our data strongly indicate that KLF14 modulates hepatic gluconeogenesis.
Project description:Abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis is related to hyperglycemia in mammals with insulin resistance. Despite the strong evidences linking Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) gene mutations to development of Type 2 diabetes, the precise physiological functions of KLF11 in vivo remain largely unknown.In current investigation, we showed that KLF11 is involved in modulating hepatic glucose metabolism in mice. Overexpression of KLF11 in primary mouse hepatocytes could inhibit the expression of gluconeogenic genes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (cytosolic isoform, PEPCK-C) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), subsequently decreasing the cellular glucose output. Diabetic mice with overexpression of KLF11 gene in livers significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance; in contrast, the knockdown of KLF11 expression in db/m and C57BL/6J mice livers impaired glucose tolerance.Our data strongly indicated the involvement of KLF11 in hepatic glucose homeostasis via modulating the expression of PEPCK-C.
Project description:Obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops, in part, via excess insulin-stimulated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which increases, paradoxically, in patients with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) terminates insulin signaling by dephosphorylating Akt; levels of PHLPP2 are reduced in livers from obese mice. We investigated whether loss of hepatic PHLPP2 is sufficient to induce fatty liver in mice, mechanisms of PHLPP2 degradation in fatty liver, and expression of genes that regulate PHLPP2 in livers of patients with NAFLD.C57BL/6J mice (controls), obese db/db mice, and mice with liver-specific deletion of PHLPP2 (L-PHLPP2) fed either normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) were analyzed for metabolic phenotypes, including glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis. PHLPP2-deficient primary hepatocytes or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PHLPP2-knockout hepatoma cells were analyzed for insulin signaling and gene expression. We performed mass spectrometry analyses of liver tissues from C57BL/6J mice transduced with Ad-HA-Flag-PHLPP2 to identify posttranslational modifications to PHLPP2 and proteins that interact with PHLPP2. We measured levels of mRNAs by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in liver biopsies from patients with varying degrees of hepatic steatosis.PHLPP2-knockout hepatoma cells and hepatocytes from L-PHLPP2 mice showed normal initiation of insulin signaling, but prolonged insulin action. Chow-fed L-PHLPP2 mice had normal glucose tolerance but hepatic steatosis. In HFD-fed C57BL/6J or db/db obese mice, endogenous PHLPP2 was degraded by glucagon and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of PHLPP2 (at Ser1119 and Ser1210), which led to PHLPP2 binding to potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 17 (KCTD17), a substrate-adaptor for Cul3-RING ubiquitin ligases. Levels of KCTD17 mRNA were increased in livers of HFD-fed C57BL/6J or db/db obese mice and in liver biopsies patients with NAFLD, compared with liver tissues from healthy control mice or patients without steatosis. Knockdown of KCTD17 with small hairpin RNA in primary hepatocytes increased PHLPP2 protein but not Phlpp2 mRNA, indicating that KCTD17 mediates PHLPP2 degradation. KCTD17 knockdown in obese mice prevented PHLPP2 degradation and decreased expression of lipogenic genes.In mouse models of obesity, we found that PHLPP2 degradation induced lipogenesis without affecting gluconeogenesis. KCTD17, which is up-regulated in liver tissues of obese mice and patients with NAFLD, binds to phosphorylated PHLPP2 to target it for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; this increases expression of genes that regulate lipogenesis to promote hepatic steatosis. Inhibitors of this pathway might be developed for treatment of patients with NAFLD.
Project description:Drug pharmacokinetics can be altered in obese and diabetic subjects. In consideration of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, characterization of transporter expression in mouse models of diabetes and obesity may be a useful tool to aid in prediction of altered drug pharmacokinetics or adverse drug reactions. It has been reported that ob/ob mice, which display a severe obesity and diabetes phenotype, exhibit multiple changes in drug transporter expression in liver and kidney. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression of major drug transporters was determined in livers and kidneys of diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice. The mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (60% fat) from 6 weeks of age and display obesity, fatty liver, and mild hyperglycemia. The HFD diet increased expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins Abcc3 and 4 mRNA and protein in liver by 3.4- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared with that detected in control mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). In contrast, Abcc1 mRNA and protein decreased by 50% in livers of DIO mice compared with those in livers to lean mice. The HFD did not alter transporter expression in kidney compared with the LFD. In summary, unlike ob/ob and db/db mice, DIO mice exhibited a selective induction of efflux transporter expression in liver (i.e., Abcc3 and 4). In addition, diet-induced obesity affects transporter expression in liver but not kidney in the C57BL/6J mouse model. These data indicate that hepatic transporter expression is only slightly altered in a model of mild diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity can play a role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance. Although the molecular mechanism of the association between obesity and hepatic insulin resistance is unclear, it has been reported that obesity leads to hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which can induce the development of insulin resistance in several tissues. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we investigated the associations between hepatic insulin resistance, ER, and inflammation in obesity and the effect of water extract from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) on hepatic insulin resistance induced by ER stress and inflammation in db/db mice. DESIGN:The mice were randomly divided into four groups: a normal control group (C57BL/6J), a control group (C57BL/6J-db/db), a CTL 100 group (C57BL/6J-db/db mice fed a dietary supplement of 100 mg/kg of CTL), and a CTL 300 group (C57BL/6J-db/db mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg of CTL). After 8 weeks, we performed an oral glucose tolerance test and the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS:The C57BL/6J-db/db mice developed obesity and hyperglycemia, and the ER stress response and inflammation were activated in their livers. Interestingly, there was a marked decrease in the activation of the ER stress response and insulin resistance in the livers of the C57BL/6J-db/db mice treated with CTL due to decreases in the phosphorylation of eIF2?, IRE1?, and IRS-1 serine and decreases in the mRNA expression of ATF4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, C/EBP?, and C/EBP homologous protein. Dietary supplementation with CTL also induced a statistically significant decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and NF-?B phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, these results suggest that CTL can improve hepatic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia by controlling obesity-induced ER stress and inflammation in the liver and that CTL may be a useful agent in treating hyperglycemia.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the coordination of anabolic and catabolic processes and is an attractive therapeutic target for T2DM, obesity and metabolic syndrome. We report the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of CNX-012-570 is an orally bioavailable small molecule (molecular weight of 530 Daltons) that directly activates AMPK in DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>Activity and efficacy of the compound was tested in cell based as well as cell free systems in vitro. Male C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) were assigned to either vehicle or CNX-012-570 (3 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 8 weeks (n?=?8). Genetically diabetic db/db mice on chow diet were dosed with vehicle control or CNX-012-570 (2.5 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 6 weeks (n?=?8).<h4>Results</h4>CNX-012-570 is a highly potent and orally bioavailable compound activating AMPK in both cell and cell free systems. It inhibits lipolysis (33%) and gluconeogenesis (28%) in 3T3L1 cells and rat primary hepatocytes respectively. The efficacy of the molecule was translated to both DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes. CNX-012-570 has reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 14%, body weight by 24% and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) by 24%. CNX-012-570 showed a 22% reduction in fed serum cholesterol levels and 19% increase in HDL levels.In db/db mice model, CNX-012-570 has shown 18% decrease in fed glucose and 32% decrease in fasting glucose with a 2.57% reduction in absolute HbA1c. Decrease in serum insulin and glucose AUC indicates the increased insulin sensitivity. Body weight was reduced by 13% with increased browning of adipose tissue and decreased inguinal and mesenteric fat mass. There was significant reduction in liver TG and liver total cholesterol.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CNX-012-570 has the potential to control hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also reduces body weight gain with an additional benefit of minimizing cardiovascular risks in diabetics.
Project description:Liver plays a key role in maintaining glucose homeostasis and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism is associated with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of the livers of diabetic db/db mice as compared to the normal db/+?mice and identified 218 differentially expressed genes. Amongst these, there were 3 lncRNAs that were significantly downregulated and H19 was the most altered lncRNA in the livers of db/db mice. H19 expression significantly correlated with the expression of genes of the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, which suggest that altered hepatic H19 levels can directly or indirectly modulate their expression. Inhibition of H19 using specific siRNA in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes significantly increased the levels of gluconeogenic genes. This was subsequently accompanied by increased hepatic glucose output. Further,H19 depletion in HepG2 cells impaired insulin signaling and increased nuclear localization of FoxO1, an important transcriptional regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression. Our results reveal a novel link between decreased H19 levels and impaired gluconeogenesis via regulation of FoxO1 nuclear levels. These put forth interesting observations on the regulatory role of H19 in altering hepatic physiology during diabetes.
Project description:Gluconeogenesis is critical in maintaining blood glucose levels in a normal range during fasting. In this study, we investigated the role of Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a key transcription factor involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Our data showed that hepatic YY1 expression levels were induced in mice during fasting conditions and in a state of insulin resistance. Overexpression of YY1 in livers augmented gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels in C57BL/6 mice, whereas liver-specific ablation of YY1 using adenoviral shRNA ameliorated hyperglycemia in wild-type and diabetic db/db mice. At the molecular level, we further demonstrated that the major mechanism of YY1 in the regulation of hepatic glucose production is to modulate the expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Therefore, our study uncovered for the first time that YY1 participates in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which implies that YY1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for hyperglycemia in diabetes.
Project description:Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is implicated in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related genes in vitro; however, the effects in vivo have not been studied. We investigated whether SA has antidiabetic effects in a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Diabetic db/db mice were orally intubated with SA (10?mg?kg(-1) body weight/day) for 8 weeks. We examined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood glucose levels, food intake, and body weight. We performed glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests and analyzed glucose production and the expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes in hepatocytes. We analyzed energy metabolism using a comprehensive animal metabolic monitoring system. SA-treated diabetic db/db mice had reduced concentrations of HbA1c and blood glucose levels. Exogenous glucose was quickly cleared in glucose tolerance tests. The mRNA expressions of genes for gluconeogenesis-related enzymes, glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were significantly reduced in the liver of SA-treated diabetic db/db mice. In primary hepatocytes, SA treatment decreased glucose production and the expression of G6Pase, PEPCK, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4?) mRNA. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) mRNA expression was increased in hepatocytes dependent upon the SA concentration. The expression of Sirt1 mRNA and protein was reduced, and acetylated forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) was induced by SA treatment in hepatocytes. In addition, SA-treated diabetic db/db mice showed reduced energy expenditure. Oral intubation of SA ameliorates hyperglycemia in db/db mice by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis through the decrease of Sirt1 expression and increase in acetylated FoxO1.
Project description:Interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) has the capability to take up glucose from the circulation. Despite the important role of BAT in the control of glucose homeostasis, the metabolic fate and function of glucose in BAT remain elusive as there is clear dissociation between glucose uptake and BAT thermogenesis. Interestingly, intracellular glycolysis and lactate production appear to be required for glucose uptake by BAT. Here, we specifically examine whether activation of lactate receptors in BAT plays a key role in regulating glucose homeostasis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). When C57BL/6J mice are given HFD for 5 weeks at 28°C, male, but not female, mice gain body weight and develop hyperglycemia. Importantly, high-fat feeding upregulates expression of the lactate receptor hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1) in female C57BL/6J mice, whereas male C57BL/6J mice show reduced HCAR1 expression in BAT. Treatment with the HCAR1 agonist lowers systemic glucose levels in male DIO mice. This reduction is associated with increased glucose uptake in BAT. Therefore, our results suggest that HCAR1 in BAT may contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in male C57BL/6J DIO mice.
Project description:Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) was shown to participate in multiple cellular processes, including DNA damage response, cell cycle and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated a looming role of PP4 in glucose metabolism. However, whether PP4 is involved in hepatic insulin resistance remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of PP4 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced hepatic insulin resistance. db/db mice and TNF-?-treated C57BL/6J mice were used as hepatic insulin resistance animal models. In vitro models were established in both HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes by TNF-? treatment. We found that increased expression and activity of PP4 occurred in the livers of db/db mice and TNF-?-induced hepatic insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Actually, PP4 silencing and suppression of PP4 activity ameliorated TNF-?-induced hepatic insulin resistance, whereas over-expression of PP4 caused insulin resistance. We then further investigated the prodiabetic mechanism of PP4 in TNF-?-induced insulin resistance. We found that PP4 formed a complex with IRS-1 to promote phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine 307 via JNK activation and reduce the expression of IRS-1. Thus, PP4 is an important regulator in inflammatory related insulin resistance.