Reproducibility of Heart Rate Variability Is Parameter and Sleep Stage Dependent.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep have become increasingly popular as sleep could provide an optimal state for HRV assessments. While sleep stages have been reported to affect HRV, the effect of sleep stages on the variance of HRV parameters were hardly investigated. We aimed to assess the variance of HRV parameters during the different sleep stages. Further, we tested the accuracy of an algorithm using HRV to identify a 5-min segment within an episode of slow wave sleep (SWS, deep sleep). Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) sleep recordings of 3 nights of 15 healthy young males were analyzed. Sleep was scored according to conventional criteria. HRV parameters of consecutive 5-min segments were analyzed within the different sleep stages. The total variance of HRV parameters was partitioned into between-subjects variance, between-nights variance, and between-segments variance and compared between the different sleep stages. Intra-class correlation coefficients of all HRV parameters were calculated for all sleep stages. To identify an SWS segment based on HRV, Pearson correlation coefficients of consecutive R-R intervals (rRR) of moving 5-min windows (20-s steps). The linear trend was removed from the rRR time series and the first segment with rRR values 0.1 units below the mean rRR for at least 10 min was identified. A 5-min segment was placed in the middle of such an identified segment and the corresponding sleep stage was used to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. Results: Good reproducibility within and across nights was found for heart rate in all sleep stages and for high frequency (HF) power in SWS. Reproducibility of low frequency (LF) power and of LF/HF was poor in all sleep stages. Of all the 5-min segments selected based on HRV data, 87% were accurately located within SWS. Conclusions: SWS, a stable state that, in contrast to waking, is unaffected by internal and external factors, is a reproducible state that allows reliable determination of heart rate, and HF power, and can satisfactorily be detected based on R-R intervals, without the need of full PSG. Sleep may not be an optimal condition to assess LF power and LF/HF power ratio.
Project description:In healthy individuals, a reduction in cardiovascular output and a shift to parasympathetic/vagal dominant activity is observed across nocturnal sleep. This cardiac autonomic profile, often measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has been associated with significant benefits for the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the autonomic profile during daytime sleep. Here, we investigated the autonomic profile and short-term reliability of HRV during daytime naps in 66 healthy young adults. Participants took an 80-120 min polysomnographically recorded nap at 1:30 pm. Beat-by-beat RR interval values (RR), high (HF) and low frequency (LF) power, total power (TP), HF normalized units (HF(nu)), and the LF/HF ratio were obtained for 5 min during presleep wakefulness and during nap sleep stages (N2, N3, REM). A subsample of 37 participants took two additional naps with 2 weeks between recordings. We observed lengthening of the RR, higher HF and HF(nu), and lower LF/HF during NREM, compared with REM and wake, and a marked reduction of LF and TP during N3. Intraclass correlation coefficients highlighted a short-term stability of RR and HF ranging across sleep stages between 0.52-0.76 and 0.52-0.80, respectively. Our results suggest that daytime napping in healthy young adults is associated with dynamic changes in the autonomic profile, similar to those seen during nocturnal sleep. Moreover, a reliable intraindividual measure of autonomic cardiac activity can be obtained by just a single daytime nap depending on specific parameters and recording purposes. Nap methodology may be a new and promising tool to explore sleep-dependent, autonomic fluctuations in healthy and at-risk populations.
Project description:Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable technique to evaluate autonomic activity and shows marked changes across a night of sleep. Previous nighttime sleep findings report changes in HRV during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), which have been associated with cardiovascular health benefits. Daytime sleep, however, has been linked with both positive and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Yet, no studies have directly compared HRV profiles during an ecologically-valid daytime nap in healthy, well-rested adults to that of nighttime sleep. Using a within-subjects design, 32 people took a daytime nap and slept overnight in the lab at least one week apart; both sleep sessions had polysomnography, including electrocardiography (ECG), recorded. We measured inter-beat intervals (RR), total power (TP), low frequency power (LF; .04-.15 Hz), and high frequency power (HF; .15-.40 Hz) components of HRV during NREM and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Compared to the nap, we found longer RR intervals and decreased heart rate during the night for both Stage 2 and SWS and increased TP, LF and HF power during nighttime Stage 2 sleep only; however, no differences in the LFHF ratio or normalized HF power were found between the nap and the night. Also, no differences in REM sleep between the nap and night were detected. Similar relationships emerged when comparing the nap to one cycle of nighttime sleep. These findings suggest that longer daytime naps, with both SWS and REM, may provide similar cardiovascular benefits as nocturnal sleep. In light of the on-going debate surrounding the health benefits and/or risks associated with napping, these results suggest that longer daytime naps in young, healthy adults may support cardiac down-regulation similar to nighttime sleep. In addition, napping paradigms may serve as tools to explore sleep-related changes in autonomic activity in both healthy and at-risk populations.
Project description:Dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a substantial risk for abnormal autonomic function and abnormal heart rate variability (HRV). It remains unknown whether HRV changes across sleep stages in patients with different severity of CKD or dialysis dependency. We hypothesized that high-frequency (HF) HRV (vagal tone) will be attenuated from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and then to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in dialysis patients as compared to patients with CKD.In-home polysomnography was performed in 95 patients with stages 4-5 CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HRV was measured using fast Fourier transform of interbeat intervals during wakefulness and sleep. Low-frequency (LF) and HF intervals were generated. Natural logarithm HF (LNHF) and the logarithm LF/HF ratio (sympathovagal tone) were analysed by multivariable quantile regression and generalized estimating equations.Of the 95 patients, 63.2% (n = 60) was male, 35.8% (n = 34) was African American and 20.4% (n = 19) was diabetic. Average age was 51.6 ± 15.1 (range 19-82). HRV variables were significantly associated with diabetic status, higher periodic limb movement indices and lower bicarbonate levels. Patients with advanced CKD did not differ from dialysis patients in their inability to increase vagal tone during sleep. During wakefulness, female gender (P = 0.05) was associated with the increases in the vagal tone.Patients with CKD/ESRD exhibit dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system tone manifesting as a failure to increase HRV during wakefulness and sleep. Different patient characteristics are associated with changes in HRV at different sleep stages.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To assess autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep in patients with sleep related alveolar hypoventilation (SRAH) and to compare it with that of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sleep Unit, University Hospital of University of Navarra. PATIENTS: Fifteen idiopathic and obesity related-SRAH patients were studied. For each patient with SRAH, a patient with OSA, matched in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), minimal oxygen saturation (SatO2), and mean SatO2 was selected. Control patients were also matched in age, sex, and BMI with patients with OSA and those with SRAH, and in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) with patients with SRAH. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Time- and frequency-domain HRV measures (R-R, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR interval [SDNN], very low frequency [VLF], low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], LF/HF ratio) were calculated across all sleep stages as well as during wakefulness just before and after sleep during a 1-night polysomnography. In patients with SRAH and OSA, LF was increased during rapid eye movement (REM) when compared with control patients, whereas HF was decreased during REM and N1-N2 sleep stages. The LF/HF ratio was equally increased in patients with SRAH and OSA during REM and N1-N2. Correlation analysis showed that LF and HF values during REM sleep were correlated with minimal SatO2 and mean SatO2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SRAH exhibited an abnormal cardiac tone during sleep. This fact appears to be related to the severity of nocturnal oxygen desaturation. Moreover, there were no differences between OSA and SRAH, supporting the hypothesis that autonomic changes in OSA are primarily related to a reduced nocturnal oxygen saturation, rather than a consequence of other factors such as nocturnal respiratory events.
Project description:It has not hitherto been clarified whether there is an association between dietary behavior and circadian variation in autonomic nervous system activity among shift workers. This study examines diurnal 24-h rhythm in heart rate variability (HRV) and dietary behavior among rotating shift workers, while taking into account the sleep-wake cycle and physical activity. The subjects were 11 female and 2 male nurses or caregivers working in a rotating 2-shift system at a health care facility. All the subjects were asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings, and to record the time of each meal and the amounts of each food and beverage consumed. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV to derive the total power (TOT: >0.04 Hz) of the periodic components and the integrated power of periodic components in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: >0.15 Hz) ranges. Then the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu) and the ratio of LF power to HF power (LF/HF) were calculated to assess cardiac vagal tone and cardiac sympathovagal balance, respectively. Single cosinor analysis was used to obtain 24-h period variations in both variables of HRV. Acrophases of HF nu and LF/HF expressed in time since awakening were significantly (p<0.05) delayed for subjects having breakfast at a later time after awakening. Multivariable regression analysis indicated that the timing of breakfast, the ratio of energy intake at dinner to total energy intake, and total energy intake were correlated to the acrophases of HF nu and/or LF/HF. These results suggest that the phase angle between circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and the sleep-wake cycle may be associated with dietary behavior in shift workers.
Project description:The very low-frequency (VLF) band of heart rate variability (HRV) has different characteristics compared with other HRV components. Here we investigated differences in HRV changes after a mental stress task. After the task, the high-frequency (HF) band and ratio of high- to low-frequency bands (LF/HF) immediately returned to baseline. We evaluated the characteristics of VLF band changes after a mental stress task. We hypothesized that the VLF band decreases during the Stroop color word task and there would be a delayed recovery for 2 h after the task (i.e., the VLF change would exhibit a "slow recovery"). Nineteen healthy, young subjects were instructed to rest for 10 min, followed by a Stroop color word task for 20 min. After the task, the subjects were instructed to rest for 120 min. For all subjects, R-R interval data were collected; analysis was performed for VLF, HF, and LF/HF ratio. HRV during the rest time and each 15-min interval of the recovery time were compared. An analysis of the covariance was performed to adjust for the HF band and LF/HF ratio as confounding variables of the VLF component. HF and VLF bands significantly decreased and the LF/HF ratio significantly increased during the task compared with those during rest time. During recovery, the VLF band was significantly decreased compared with the rest time. After the task, the HF band and LF/HF ratio immediately returned to baseline and were not significantly different from the resting values. After adjusting for HF and LF/HF ratio, the VLF band had significantly decreased compared with that during rest. The VLF band is the "slow recovery" component and the HF band and LF/HF ratio are the "quick recovery" components of HRV. This VLF characteristic may clarify the unexplained association of the VLF band in cardiovascular disease prevention.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and associates with high mortality after surgery. Since abnormal heart rate variability (HRV) is predictive of postoperative complications, we investigated the relations of HRV with PAD, OSA and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Seventy-five patients (67±9 years) scheduled for sub-inguinal revascularization and 15 controls (63±6 years) underwent polysomnography and HRV analyses. OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ?20/hour was considered significant. HRV was measured during wakefulness, S2, S3-4 and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with time and frequency domain methods including beat-to-beat variability, low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power, and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). MACCE was defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, hospitalized angina pectoris and stroke. RESULTS:Thirty-six patients (48%) had AHI?20/hour. During follow-up (median 52 months), 22 patients (29%) suffered a MACCE. Compared to controls, fractal correlation of HRV (scaling exponent alpha 1 measured with DFA) was weaker during S2 and evening wakefulness in all subgroups (+/-AHI?20/hour, +/-MACCE) but only in patients with AHI?20/hour during morning wakefulness. The LF/HF ratio was lower in all subgroups during S2 but only in patients with AHI ?20/hour during evening or morning wake. In the covariance analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, coronary artery disease and PAD duration, the alpha 1 during morning wakefulness remained significantly lower in patients with AHI?20/hour than in those without (1.12 vs. 1.45; p = 0.03). Decreased HF during REM (p = 0.04) and S3-4 sleep (p = 0.03) were predictive of MACCE. In analyses with all sleep stages combined, mean heart rate as well as very low frequency, LF, HF and total power were associated with OSA of mild-to-moderate severity (AHI 10-20/hour). CONCLUSIONS:HRV is altered in patients with PAD. These alterations have a limited association with OSA and MACCE.
Project description:A paradox regarding the classic power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is whether the characteristic high- (HF) and low-frequency (LF) spectral peaks represent stochastic or chaotic phenomena. Resolution of this fundamental issue is key to unraveling the mechanisms of HRV, which is critical to its proper use as a noninvasive marker for cardiac mortality risk assessment and stratification in congestive heart failure (CHF) and other cardiac dysfunctions. However, conventional techniques of nonlinear time series analysis generally lack sufficient sensitivity, specificity and robustness to discriminate chaos from random noise, much less quantify the chaos level. Here, we apply a 'litmus test' for heartbeat chaos based on a novel noise titration assay which affords a robust, specific, time-resolved and quantitative measure of the relative chaos level. Noise titration of running short-segment Holter tachograms from healthy subjects revealed circadian-dependent (or sleep/wake-dependent) heartbeat chaos that was linked to the HF component (respiratory sinus arrhythmia). The relative 'HF chaos' levels were similar in young and elderly subjects despite proportional age-related decreases in HF and LF power. In contrast, the near-regular heartbeat in CHF patients was primarily nonchaotic except punctuated by undetected ectopic beats and other abnormal beats, causing transient chaos. Such profound circadian-, age- and CHF-dependent changes in the chaotic and spectral characteristics of HRV were accompanied by little changes in approximate entropy, a measure of signal irregularity. The salient chaotic signatures of HRV in these subject groups reveal distinct autonomic, cardiac, respiratory and circadian/sleep-wake mechanisms that distinguish health and aging from CHF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may play an important role in central autonomic control, since its projections connect to (para)sympathetic relay stations in the brainstem and spinal cord. The cardiac autonomic modifications during nighttime may therefore not only result from direct effects of the sleep-related changes in the central autonomic network, but also from endogenous circadian factors as directed by the SCN. To explore the influence of the SCN on autonomic fluctuations during nighttime, we studied heart rate and its variability (HRV) in a clinical model of SCN damage. METHODS:Fifteen patients in follow-up after surgical treatment for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) compressing the optic chiasm (8 females, 26-65 years old) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls (5 females, 30-63 years) underwent overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Eleven patients had hypopituitarism and received adequate replacement therapy. HRV was calculated for each 30-second epoch and corrected for sleep stage, arousals, and gender using mixed effect regression models. RESULTS:Compared to controls, patients spent more time awake after sleep onset and in NREM1-sleep, and less in REM-sleep. Heart rate, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power components and the LF/HF ratio across sleep stages were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the SCN does not play a dominant role in cardiac autonomic control during sleep.
Project description:To investigate the effects of the urinary metabolite profiles of background exposure to the atmospheric pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and Framingham risk score (FRS), which assesses an individual's cardiovascular disease risk, on heart rate variability (HRV).The study conducted from April to May 2011 in Wuhan, China, included 1978 adult residents with completed questionnaires, physical examinations, blood and urine samples, and 5-min HRV indices (including SD of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square successive difference (rMSSD), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and their ratio (LF/HF), and total power) obtained from 3-channel Holter monitor. 12 urinary PAH metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. FRS was calculated by age, sex, lipid profiles, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking status. Linear regression models were constructed after adjusting for potential confounders.Elevated total concentration of hydroxynaphthalene (?OHNa) was significantly associated, in a dose-responsive manner, with decreased SDNN and LF/HF (ptrend=0.014 and 0.007, respectively); elevated total concentration of hydroxyfluorene (?OHFlu) was significantly associated with reduced SDNN, LF and LF/HF (ptrend=0.027, 0.003, and <0.0001, respectively); and elevated total concentration of all PAH metabolites (?OH-PAHs) was associated with decreased LF and LF/HF (ptrend=0.005 and <0.0001, respectively). Moreover, increasing quartiles of FRS were significantly associated with decreased HRV indices, except LF/HF (all ptrend<0.0001). Interestingly, individuals in low-risk subgroups had greater decreases in SDNN, LF and LF/HF in relation to ?OH-PAHs, ?OHNa and ?OHFlu than those in high-risk subgroups (all p<0.05).Environmental PAH exposure may differentially affect HRV based on individual coronary risk profiles.