Loneliness in Psychosis: A Meta-analytical Review.
ABSTRACT: Loneliness may be related to psychotic symptoms but a comprehensive synthesis of the literature in this area is lacking. The primary aim of the current study is to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between loneliness and psychotic symptoms in people with psychosis. A search of electronic databases was conducted (PsychINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science). A random effects meta-analysis was used to compute a pooled estimate of the correlation between loneliness and psychotic symptoms. Study and outcome quality were assessed using adapted versions of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) tool and GRADE approach, respectively. Thirteen studies were included, providing data from 15 647 participants. A moderate association between psychosis and loneliness was observed (k = 13, N = 15 647, r = .32, 95% CI 0.20, 0.44; I2 = 97.56%; moderate quality evidence). Whether loneliness was assessed by a single-item or a more comprehensive measure had no moderating effect on the estimate. Results indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between loneliness and psychosis. Further studies are needed to determine the causal status of this relationship, but this robust finding should be considered in clinical practice and treatment provision for those with psychotic disorders.
Project description:Loneliness is common in youth and associated with a significantly increased risk of psychological disorders. Although loneliness is strongly associated with psychosis, its relationship with psychosis proneness is unclear. Our aim in this paper was to test the hypothesis that loneliness and schizotypal traits, conveying risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are similar but separate constructs. Pooling data from two non-clinical student samples (N = 551) we modeled the structure of the relationship between loneliness and trait schizotypy. Loneliness was assessed with the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), whilst negative (Social Anhedonia) and positive (Perceptual Aberrations) schizotypal traits were assessed with the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales-Brief (WSS-B). Fit statistics indicated that the best fitting model of UCLA-3 scores comprises three correlated factors (Isolation, Related Connectedness, and Collective Connectedness), consistent with previous reports. Fit statistics for a two factor model of positive and negative schizotypy were excellent. Next, bi-factor analysis was used to model a general psychopatholgy factor (p) across the three loneliness factors and separate negative and positive schizotypy traits. The results showed that all items (except 1) co-loaded on p. However, with the influence of p removed, additional variance remained within separate sub-factors, indicating that loneliness and negative and positive trait schizotypy are distinct and separable constructs. Similarly, once shared variance with p was removed, correlations between sub-factors of loneliness and schizotypal traits were non-significant. These findings have important clinical implications since they suggest that loneliness should not be conflated with the expression of schizotypy. Rather, loneliness needs to be specifically targeted for assessment and treatment in youth at risk for psychosis.
Project description:Introduction:Childhood trauma is a risk factor for the development of psychosis. Furthermore, a number of theories propose specific mechanisms by which childhood trauma may contribute to more severe positive and negative psychotic symptoms, some of which are supported empirically. The robustness of this empirical evidence is unclear due to mixed results and methodological limitations of individual studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for associations between childhood trauma and severity of hallucinations, delusions, and negative psychotic symptoms in clinical populations with a diagnosed psychotic disorder is needed. Method:A systematic search was conducted. Reference lists of relevant review articles were hand-searched, and authors contacted for data and additional unpublished studies. Study reporting bias and quality was assessed. Results:In total, 6667 studies were identified and of these 41 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these, 29 studies (4680 participants) were meta-analyzed. Among individuals with psychosis, childhood trauma was significantly correlated with severity of hallucinations (r = .199, P < .001) and delusions (r = .172, P < .001) but contrary to our hypothesis, not correlated with severity of negative symptoms (r = .049, P = .095). Severity of childhood neglect was correlated with negative symptoms (r = .142, P = .005). Conclusion:The results lend support for cognitive and biological theories that traumas in childhood may lead to hallucinations and delusions within psychotic disorders and have important implications for clinical practice.
Project description:Loneliness has been repeatedly associated with sleep problems; however, there is a dearth of research examining the prospective relationship between insomnia and loneliness, as well as this association controlling for other psychiatric symptoms. This study evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective relationship between insomnia and loneliness using six samples: 666 undergraduates; 2785 Army recruiters; 208 adults with a history of suicidality and/or depression; 343 adult psychiatric outpatients; 326 young adults at elevated suicide risk; and 183 undergraduates. A meta-analysis also was conducted to examine the magnitude of the relationship between insomnia and loneliness across the six studies. More severe insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with greater feelings of loneliness while accounting for some (e.g., anxiety, nightmares) but not all (i.e., depression) psychiatric covariates. Findings underscore the strength of the association between insomnia and loneliness and suggest that depression may account for this relationship. Additional studies are needed to further establish the temporal relationship between these variables, delineate the role of depression in the association between insomnia and loneliness, and test whether insomnia may confer unique risk for subsequent loneliness.
Project description:Twenty percent of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) develop the disorder within 2 years. Extensive research has explored the factors that differentiate those who develop psychosis and those who do not, but the results are conflicting. The current systematic review and meta-analysis comprehensively addresses the consistency and magnitude of evidence for non-purely genetic risk and protective factors associated with the risk of developing psychosis in CHR-P individuals. Random effects meta-analyses, standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) were used, in combination with an established stratification of evidence that assesses the association of each factor and the onset of psychotic disorders (from class I, convincing evidence to class IV weak evidence), while controlling for several types of biases. A total of 128 original controlled studies relating to 26 factors were retrieved. No factors showed class I-convincing evidence. Two further factors were associated with class II-highly suggestive evidence: attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (SMD = 0.348, 95% CI: 0.280, 0.415) and global functioning (SMD = -0.291, 95% CI: -0.370, -0.211). There was class III-suggestive evidence for negative psychotic symptoms (SMD = 0.393, 95% CI: 0.317, 0.469). There was either class IV-weak or no evidence for all other factors. Our findings suggest that despite the large number of putative risk factors investigated in the literature, only attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, global functioning, and negative psychotic symptoms show suggestive evidence or greater for association with transition to psychosis. The current findings may inform the refinement of clinical prediction models and precision medicine in this field.
Project description:Background: Among individuals experiencing amphetamine psychosis, it may be difficult to rule out schizophrenia. The use of antipsychotics for the treatment of amphetamine psychosis is sparse due to possible side effects. Some arguments disfavor their use, stating that the psychotic episode is self-limited. Without treatment, some individuals may?not fully?recover?from the?psychosis and may develop full-blown psychosis, emotional, and cognitive disturbance. This review aims to investigate the clinical benefits and risks of antipsychotics for the treatment of amphetamine psychosis. Methods: Electronic search on trials on antipsychotic drugs for amphetamine psychosis from their inception to November 2018 was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Cochrane Review Database, Medline Ovid, and EMBASE following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool assessed the risk of bias, the methodological quality of individual trials was assessed by the Oxford Quality Scoring System, and the quality of evidence for recommendations was judged by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE). The results were synthesized qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The investigation of six randomized controlled trials of 314 participants showed that aripiprazole, haloperidol, quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone were able to reduce or control the psychotic episode (positive and negative symptoms) induced by amphetamine use with no adverse event. Although the side-effect profile of these agents varied, no drug was clinically superior to others. Conclusions: This review suggests that antipsychotics seem to be efficacious for amphetamine psychosis on both positive and negative symptoms. Practitioners need to tailor their use based on risks for side effects individually.
Project description:Loneliness has social and health implications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association of loneliness with all-cause mortality.Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched through June 2016 for published articles that measured loneliness and mortality. The main characteristics and the effect size values of each article were extracted. Moreover, an evaluation of the quality of the articles included was also carried out. A meta-analysis was performed firstly with all the included articles and secondly separating by gender, using a random effects model.A total of 35 articles involving 77220 participants were included in the systematic review. Loneliness is a risk factor for all-cause mortality [pooled HR = 1.22, 95% CI = (1.10, 1.35), p < 0.001] for both genders together, and for women [pooled HR = 1.26, 95% CI = (1.07, 1.48); p = 0.005] and men [pooled HR = 1.44; 95% CI = (1.19, 1.76); p < 0.001] separately.Loneliness shows a harmful effect for all-cause mortality and this effect is slightly stronger in men than in women. Moreover, the impact of loneliness was independent from the quality evaluation of each article and the effect of depression.
Project description:Loneliness is a serious concern in aging populations. The key risk factors include poor health, depression, poor material circumstances, and low social participation and social support. Oral disease and tooth loss have a significant negative impact on the quality of life and well-being of older adults. However, there is a lack of studies relating oral health to loneliness. This study investigated the association between oral health-related quality of life (through the use of the oral impact on daily performances-OIDP-measure) and loneliness amongst older adults living in England. Data from respondents aged 50 and older from the third (2006-2007) and fifth (2010-2011) waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were analyzed. In the cross-sectional logistic regression model that adjusted for socio-demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychosocial factors, the odds of loneliness were 1.48 (1.16-1.88; p < 0.01) higher amongst those who reported at least one oral impact compared to those with no oral impact. Similarly, in the fully adjusted longitudinal model, respondents who reported an incident oral impact were 1.56 times (1.09-2.25; p < 0.05) more likely to become lonely. The association between oral health-related quality of life and loneliness was attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms, low social participation, and social support. Oral health-related quality of life was identified as an independent risk factor for loneliness amongst older adults. Maintaining good oral health in older age may be a protective factor against loneliness.
Project description:Background:Study-level meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Limitations of conventional meta-analysis may be addressed using individual-participant-data (IPD). We aimed to determine a) whether results from IPD were consistent with study-level meta-analyses and b) whether demographic and clinical characteristics moderate treatment outcome. Methods:We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and CENTRAL. Authors of RCTs comparing CBTp with other psychological interventions were contacted to obtain original databases. Hierarchical mixed effects models were used to examine efficacy for psychotic symptoms. Patient characteristics were investigated as moderators of symptoms at post-treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for risk of bias, treatment format and study characteristics. Results:We included 14 of 23 eligible RCTs in IPD meta-analyses including 898 patients. Ten RCTs minimised risk of bias. There was no significant difference in efficacy between RCTs providing IPD and those not (p >0.05). CBTp was superior vs. other interventions for total psychotic symptoms and PANSS general symptoms. No demographic or clinical characteristics were robustly demonstrated as moderators of positive, negative, general or total psychotic symptoms at post-treatment. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that number of sessions moderated the impact of treatment assignment (CBTp or other therapies) on total psychotic symptoms (p = 0.02). Conclusions:IPD suggest that patient characteristics, including severity of psychotic symptoms, do not significantly influence treatment outcome in psychological interventions for psychosis while investing in sufficient dosage of CBTp is important. IPD provide roughly equivalent efficacy estimates to study-level data although significant benefit was not replicated for positive symptoms. We encourage authors to ensure IPD is accessible for future research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies report contrasting results regarding the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological, and combined interventions in psychosis and schizophrenia in children, adolescents and young adults. METHODS:Systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL were searched to July 2013 without restriction to publication status. Randomised trials comparing any pharmacological, psychological, or combined intervention for psychosis and schizophrenia in children, adolescents and young adults were included. Studies were assessed for bias, and GRADE criteria were used to describe the quality of the results. RESULTS:Twenty-seven trials including 3067 participants were identified. Meta-analyses were performed for 12 comparisons: symptoms, relapse, global state, psychosocial functioning, depression, weight and discontinuation. Low quality evidence demonstrated that antipsychotics have small beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms (SMD = -0.42, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.26), and a medium adverse effect on weight gain (WMD = 1.61, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.60) and discontinuation due to side effects (RR = 2.44, 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.31). There were no trials of psychological treatments in under-18 year olds. There was no evidence of an effect of psychological interventions on psychotic symptoms in an acute episode, or relapse rate, but low quality evidence of a large effect for family plus individual CBT on the number of days to relapse (WMD = 32.25, 95% CI -36.52 to -27.98). CONCLUSIONS:For children, adolescents and young adults, the balance of risk and benefit of antipsychotics appears less favourable than in adults. Research is needed to establish the potential for psychological treatments, alone and in combination with antipsychotics, in this population.
Project description:Neither environmental nor genetic factors are sufficient to predict the transdiagnostic expression of psychosis. Therefore, analysis of gene-environment interactions may be productive.A meta-analysis was performed using papers investigating the interaction between cannabis use and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) polymorphism Val158Met (COMTVal158Met).PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo.All observational studies assessing the interaction between COMTVal158Met and cannabis with any psychosis or psychotic symptoms measure as an outcome.A meta-analysis was performed using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and forest plots were generated. Thirteen articles met the selection criteria: 7 clinical studies using a case-only design, 3 clinical studies with a dichotomous outcome, and 3 studies analysing a continuous outcome of psychotic symptoms below the threshold of psychotic disorder. The three study types were analysed separately. Validity of the included studies was assessed using "A Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool: for Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions".For case-only studies, a significant interaction was found between cannabis use and COMTVal158Met, with an OR of 1.45 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.05-2.00; Met/Met as the risk genotype). However, there was no evidence for interaction in either the studies including dichotomous outcomes (B = -0.51, 95% Confidence Interval -1.72, 0.70) or the studies including continuous outcomes (B = -0.04 95% Confidence Interval -0.16-0.08).A substantial part of the included studies used the case-only design, which has lower validity and tends to overestimate true effects.The interaction term between cannabis use and COMTVal158Met was only statistically significant in the case-only studies, but not in studies using other clinical or non-clinical psychosis outcomes. Future additional high quality studies might change current perspectives, yet currently evidence for the interaction remains unconvincing.