Cardiac function during weaning failure: the role of diastolic dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: Cardiac dysfunction is a common cause of weaning failure. Weaning shares some similarities with a cardiac stress test and may challenge active phases of the cardiac cycle-like ventricular contractility and relaxation. This study aimed at assessing systolic and diastolic function during the weaning process and scrutinizing their dynamics during weaning trials.Echocardiography was performed during baseline ventilator settings to assess cardiac function at the initiation of the weaning process and at the start and the end of consecutive weaning trials (performed at day-1, day-2, and before extubation if applicable) to explore the evolution of left ventricle contractility and relaxation in a subset of patients.Among 67 patients included, weaning was prolonged (? 7 days) in 18 (27%) patients and short (< 7 days) in 49 (73%). Prevalence of systolic dysfunction and isolated diastolic dysfunction before the initiation of weaning process were 37 and 17%, respectively. Isolated diastolic dysfunction was more frequent in patients with prolonged weaning as compared to their counterparts. Thirty-one patients were explored by echocardiography during consecutive weaning trials. An increase in filling pressures with an alteration of ventricular relaxation (as assessed by a decrease in tissue Doppler early mitral diastolic wave velocity) was found during failed weaning trials.Isolated diastolic dysfunction was associated with a prolongation of weaning. Increased filling pressures with left ventricle relaxation impairment may be a key mechanism of weaning trial failure.
Project description:Troponin I (TnI) variant Pro82Ser (cTnIP82S) was initially considered a disease-causing mutation; however, later studies suggested the contrary. We tested the hypothesis of whether a causal link exists between cTnIP82S and cardiac structural and functional remodeling, such as during aging or chronic pressure overload. A cardiac-specific transgenic (Tg) mouse model of cTnIP82S was created to test this hypothesis. During aging, Tg cTnIP82S displayed diastolic dysfunction, characterized by longer isovolumetric relaxation time, and impaired ejection and relaxation time. In young, Tg mice in vivo pressure-volume loops and intact trabecular preparations revealed normal cardiac contractility at baseline. However, upon β-adrenergic stimulation, a blunted contractile reserve and no hastening in left ventricle relaxation were evident in vivo, whereas, in isolated muscles, Ca(2+) transient amplitude isoproterenol dose-response was blunted. In addition, when exposed to chronic pressure overload, Tg mice show exacerbated hypertrophy and decreased contractility compared with age-matched non-Tg littermates. At the molecular level, this mutation significantly impairs myofilament cooperative activation. Importantly, this occurs in the absence of alterations in TnI or myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation. The cTnIP82S variant occurs near a region of interactions with troponin T; therefore, structural changes in this region could explain its meaningful effects on myofilament cooperativity. Our data indicate that cTnIP82S mutation modifies age-dependent diastolic dysfunction and impairs overall contractility after β-adrenergic stimulation or chronic pressure overload. Thus cTnIP82S variant should be regarded as a disease-modifying factor for dysfunction and adverse remodeling with aging and chronic pressure overload.
Project description:Diastolic dysfunction develops in response to hypertension and estrogen (E2) loss and is a forerunner to heart failure (HF) in women. The cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to diastolic dysfunction, but its role with respect to E2 and blood pressure remain unclear.We compared the effects of ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery on the cardiac RAS, left ventricular (LV) structure/function, and systemic/intracardiac pressures of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs: n = 6 intact and 6 OVX) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY: n = 5 intact and 4 OVX) controls.WKY rats were more sensitive to OVX than SHRs with respect to worsening of diastolic function, as reflected by increases in Doppler-derived filling pressures (E/e') and reductions in myocardial relaxation (e'). This pathobiologic response in WKY rats was directly linked to increases in cardiac gene expression and enzymatic activity of chymase and modest reductions in ACE2 activity. No overt changes in cardiac RAS genes or activities were observed in SHRs, but diastolic function was inversely related to ACE2 activity.Endogenous estrogens exert a more significant regulatory role upon biochemical components of the cardiac RAS of WKY versus SHRs, modulating the lusitropic and structural components of its normotensive phenotype.
Project description:Impaired cardiac diastolic function occurs with aging in many species and may be difficult to measure noninvasively. In humans, left atrial (LA) volume is a robust measure of chronic diastolic function as the LA is exposed to increased left ventricular filling pressures. We hypothesized that LA volume would be a useful indicator of diastolic function in aging mice. Further, we asked whether pressures were propagated backwards affecting pulmonary arteries (PAs) and right ventricle (RV). We measured LA, PA, and RV infundibulum dimensions with echocardiography and used mouse-specific Doppler systems and pressure catheters for noninvasive and invasive measures. As C57BL/6 mice aged from 3 to 29-31 months, LA volume almost tripled. LA volume increases correlated with traditional diastolic function measures. Within groups of 14- and 31-month-old mice, LA volume correlated with diastolic function measured invasively. In serial studies, mice evaluated at 20 and 24 months showed monotonic increases in LA volume; other parameters changed less predictably. PA diameters, larger in 30-month-old mice than 6-month-old mice, correlated with LA volumes. Noninvasive LA volume and PA diameter assessments are useful and state independent measures of diastolic function in mice, correlating with other measures of diastolic dysfunction in aging. Furthermore, serial measurements over 4 months demonstrated consistent increases in LA volume suitable for longitudinal cardiac aging studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Decompensated heart failure may present with severe hypertension in patients with preserved (PreEF) or reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (RedEF) and is clinically indistinguishable. Previously, we demonstrated that arterial pressure elevation increases LV filling pressures in a canine model of chronic LV dysfunction with PreEF or RedEF. It is not clear whether any differences in hemodynamics, LV volume or performance, or diastolic function can be demonstrated between canines with PreEF or RedEF in response to arterial pressure elevation. We hypothesized that the LV systolic, diastolic, and hemodynamic response to pressure loading would be similar in RedEF or PreEF. METHODS: We studied 25 dogs with chronic LV dysfunction due to coronary microsphere embolization with RedEF (35 +/- 4%) and 20 dogs with PreEF (50 +/- 3%). Arterial pressure was increased with methoxamine infusion and hemodynamics and echo-Doppler parameters of LV size, function, transaortic and transmitral pulsed Doppler prior to and with methoxamine infusion was obtained. RESULTS: Though LV filling pressures were similar at baseline, LV size was larger (p < 0.01) and ejection fraction lower in dogs with RedEF (p < 0.001). With methoxamine, there were similar increases in LV size, LV pressures, and index of myocardial performance with the ejection fraction reduced similarly. Diastolic parameters demonstrated similar tau increases, E/A reduction, and diastolic filling shortening in RedEF and PreEF dogs. A similar extent of isovolumic contraction and relaxation times and index of myocardial performance prolongation occurred with pressure loading. CONCLUSION: Pressure loading in a canine model of LV dysfunction with PreEF and RedEF resulted in similar degrees of LV dilatation, increased filling pressures, and increased index of myocardial performance.
Project description:The Frank-Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G I? (PKGI?) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16-a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGI? knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGI? oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGI? during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). We sought to characterize sickle cell cardiomyopathy using multimodality noninvasive cardiovascular testing and identify potential causative mechanisms.Stable adults with SCD (n=38) and healthy controls (n=13) prospectively underwent same day multiparametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (cine, T2* iron, vasodilator first pass myocardial perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement imaging), transthoracic echocardiography, and applanation tonometry. Compared with controls, patients with SCD had severe dilation of the left ventricle (124±27 vs 79±12 mL/m(2)), right ventricle (127±28 vs 83±14 mL/m(2)), left atrium (65±16 vs 41±9 mL/m(2)), and right atrium (78±17 vs 56±17 mL/m(2); P<0.01 for all). Patients with SCD also had a 21% lower myocardial perfusion reserve index than control subjects (1.47±0.34 vs 1.87±0.37; P=0.034). A significant subset of patients with SCD (25%) had evidence of late gadolinium enhancement, whereas only 1 patient had evidence of myocardial iron overload. Diastolic dysfunction was present in 26% of patients with SCD compared with 8% in controls. Estimated filling pressures (E/e', 9.3±2.7 vs 7.3±2.0; P=0.0288) were higher in patients with SCD. Left ventricular dilation and the presence of late gadolinium enhancement were inversely correlated to hepatic T2* times (ie, hepatic iron overload because of frequent blood transfusions; P<0.05 for both), whereas diastolic dysfunction and increased filling pressures were correlated to aortic stiffness (augmentation pressure and index, P<0.05 for all).Sickle cell cardiomyopathy is characterized by 4-chamber dilation and in some patients myocardial fibrosis, abnormal perfusion reserve, diastolic dysfunction, and only rarely myocardial iron overload. Left ventricular dilation and myocardial fibrosis are associated with increased blood transfusion requirements, whereas left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is predominantly correlated with increased aortic stiffness.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01044901.
Project description:Mitral stenosis (MS) is prevalent in 0.02-0.2% of the population in developed countries. The pathophysiology of MS results in elevated left atrial pressures and over-time results in pulmonary hypertension (HTN) which ultimately affects the right ventricle. In addition, MS restricts the diastolic filling of the left ventricle. Therefore, during induction patients with MS are limited by their ability to increase cardiac output by increasing stroke volume. Anesthesia goals in severe MS are to avoid sudden changes in heart rate, as well as systemic and pulmonary artery pressures. We report a patient who sustained severe hypotension upon induction and intubation which was resistant to conventional medications. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography displayed unique right atrial and right ventricular dilatation. In addition, the leftward inter-ventricular, inter-atrial septal shift and septal bounce were noted as the characteristic findings. Intravenous epinephrine bolus was administered to achieve normo-tension and normal chamber dimensions and interventricular septal position.
Project description:The effects of the nitroxyl donor BMS-986231 on hemodynamics, left ventricular (LV) function, and pro-arrhythmic potential were assessed using canine heart failure models. BMS-986231 significantly (p < 0.05) increased LV end-systolic elastance, pre-load-recruitable stroke work, ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, ratio of early-to-late filling time integrals, and early mitral valve inflow velocity deceleration time. BMS-986231 significantly decreased LV filling pressures, end-diastolic stiffness, the time-constant of relaxation, end-diastolic wall stress, systemic vascular resistance, and myocardial oxygen consumption. BMS-986231 had little effect on heart rate and did not induce de novo arrhythmias. Thus, BMS-986231 has beneficial inotropic, lusitropic, and vasodilatory effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 2016 guidelines for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction diagnosis has been simplified from previous versions; however, multiparametric diagnosis approach still exists indeterminate left ventricular diastolic dysfunction category. Left atrial (LA) strain was recently found useful to predict elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures noninvasively. This study aimed to (1) analyze the diagnostic value of LA strain for noninvasive assessment of LV filling pressures in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF), using invasive hemodynamic assessment as the gold standard, and (2) explore whether LA strain combined with conventional diastolic parameters could detect elevated LV filling pressures alone. METHODS:Sixty-four patients with stable CAD having LVEF >?50% and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to measure LA strain during the reservoir (LASr), conduit, and contraction phases. LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), as a surrogate for LV filling pressures, was invasively obtained by left heart catheterization. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio to predict LV filling pressures. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze associations between echocardiographic parameters and LVEDP. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated to determine the capability of the echocardiographic parameters to detect elevated LVEDP. Inter-technique agreement was analyzed by contingency tables and tested by kappa statistics. RESULTS:LASr and the ratio of early-diastolic transmitral flow velocity (E) to tissue Doppler early-diastolic septal mitral annular velocity (E/E'septal) significantly predicted elevated LV filling pressures. LASr was combined with E/E'septal to generate a novel parameter (LASr/E/E'septal). LASr/E/E'septal had the best predictive ability of elevated LV filling pressures. LVEDP was negatively correlated with LASr and LASr/E/E'septal but positively correlated with E/E'septal. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of LASr/E/E'septal was higher than that of LASr alone (0.83 vs. 0.75), better than all conventional LV diastolic parameters. Inter-technique agreement analysis showed that LASr/E/E'septal had good agreement with the invasive LVEDP measurement, better than the 2016 guideline (kappa?=?0.63 vs. 0.25). CONCLUSIONS:LASr provided additive diagnostic value for the noninvasive assessment of LV filling pressures. LASr/E/E'septal had the potential to be a better single noninvasive index to predict elevated LV filling pressures in patients with stable CAD and preserved LVEF.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a polypeptide ligand promoted glucose homeostasis and lipids metabolism, was recently reported to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of FGF21 in diastolic heart failure. Subjects admitted for coronary angiogram were screened for heart failure, and those with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction?<?45% were excluded. Diastolic dysfunction was defined as functional abnormalities that exist during LV relaxation and filling by echocardiographic criteria. Plasma levels of FGF21 and N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-pro-BNP) were determined. All patients were followed up for 1 year, or till the occurrence of heart failure readmission or death. Totally 95 patients with diastolic dysfunction and 143 controls were enrolled. Circulating FGF21 level was correlated with echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). In multivariate logistic analysis, FGF21 was significantly associated with diastolic dysfunction, either identified by echocardiographic criteria (odds ratio: 2.97, p?=?0.012) or confirmed with LVEDP level (odds ratio: 3.73, p?=?0.030). Both plasma FGF21 (log rank p?<?0.0001) and NT-pro-BNP levels (log rank p?=?0.0057) showed good predictive power to the 1-year adverse cardiac events. This finding suggested FGF21 could be involved in the pathophysiology of diastolic heart failure.