Short-Chain Fatty Acids Differentially Affect Intracellular Lipolysis in a Human White Adipocyte Model.
ABSTRACT: Gut-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, are believed to be involved in the etiology of obesity and diabetes. Previous data from our group showed that colonic infusions of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures attenuated whole-body lipolysis in overweight men. To further study potential mechanisms involved in the antilipolytic properties of SCFA, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of SCFA incubations on intracellular lipolysis and signaling using a human white adipocyte model, the human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells.hMADS adipocytes were incubated with mixtures of acetate, propionate, and butyrate or single SCFA (acetate, propionate and butyrate) in concentrations ranging between 1?µmol/L and 1?mmol/L. Glycerol release and lipase activation was investigated during basal conditions and following ?-adrenergic stimulation.SCFA mixtures high in acetate and propionate decreased basal glycerol release, when compared to control (P?
Project description:Microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate may provide a link between gut microbiota and whole-body insulin sensitivity (IS). In this cross-sectional study (160 participants, 64% male, BMI: 19.2-41.0?kg/m2, normal or impaired glucose metabolism), associations between SCFA (faecal and fasting circulating) and circulating metabolites, substrate oxidation and IS were investigated. In a subgroup (n?=?93), IS was determined using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for sex, age and BMI. Fasting circulating acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were positively associated with fasting GLP-1 concentrations. Additionally, circulating SCFA were negatively related to whole-body lipolysis (glycerol), triacylglycerols and free fatty acids levels (standardized (std) ? adjusted (adj) -0.190, P?=?0.023; std ? adj -0.202, P?=?0.010; std ? adj -0.306, P?=?0.001, respectively). Circulating acetate and propionate were, respectively, negatively and positively correlated with IS (M-value: std ? adj -0.294, P?<?0.001; std ? adj 0.161, P?=?0.033, respectively). We show that circulating rather than faecal SCFA were associated with GLP-1 concentrations, whole-body lipolysis and peripheral IS in humans. Therefore, circulating SCFA are more directly linked to metabolic health, which indicates the need to measure circulating SCFA in human prebiotic/probiotic intervention studies as a biomarker/mediator of effects on host metabolism.
Project description:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35?kg/m2) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200?mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load). Before and for two hours after colonic infusions, indirect calorimetry was performed and blood samples were collected. All three SCFA mixtures increased fasting fat oxidation (P?<?0.01), whilst resting energy expenditure increased after HA and HP compared with PLA (P?<?0.05). In addition, all three SCFA mixtures increased fasting and postprandial plasma peptide YY (PYY) concentrations, and attenuated fasting free glycerol concentrations versus PLA (P?<?0.05). Colonic infusions of SCFA mixtures, in concentrations and ratios reached after fibre intake, increased fat oxidation, energy expenditure and PYY, and decreased lipolysis in overweight/obese men. Human intervention studies are warranted to investigate whether these effects translate into long-term benefits for body weight control and insulin sensitivity in the obese insulin resistant state.
Project description:Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced during bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the human colon. In this study, we applied a stable-isotope dilution method to quantify the in vivo colonic production of SCFA in healthy humans after consumption of inulin. Twelve healthy subjects performed a test day during which a primed continuous intravenous infusion with [1-(13)C]acetate, [1-(13)C]propionate and [1-(13)C]butyrate (12, 1.2 and 0.6 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively) was applied. They consumed 15 g of inulin with a standard breakfast. Breath and blood samples were collected at regular times during the day over a 12 h period. The endogenous rate of appearance of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was 13.3 ± 4.8, 0.27 ± 0.09, and 0.28 ± 0.12 ?mol·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. Colonic inulin fermentation was estimated to be 137 ± 75 mmol acetate, 11 ± 9 mmol propionate, and 20 ± 17 mmol butyrate over 12 h, assuming that 40%, 10%, and 5% of colonic derived acetate, propionate, and butyrate enter the systemic circulation. In conclusion, inulin is mainly fermented into acetate and, to lesser extents, into butyrate and propionate. Stable isotope technology allows quantifying the production of the three main SCFA in vivo and proved to be a practical tool to investigate the extent and pattern of SCFA production.
Project description:The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly reduced the release of several pro-inflammatory chemokines including CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Additionally, butyrate and propionate inhibited the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-12p40 showing a strong anti-inflammatory effect. This work illustrates that bacterial metabolites far from the site of their production can differentially modulate the inflammatory response and generally provides new insights into host-microbiome interactions.
Project description:Background and Aim: Endothelial activation is characterized by excessive production of cytokines and chemokines as well as adhesion molecules expression which is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-induced endothelial activation. Methods and Results: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were pre-treated with acetate (10 mM), butyrate (0.1 mM) or propionate (0.3 mM) for 1, 16, or 24 h and then stimulated with LPS (1 or 10 ?g/ml) or TNF? (100 pg/ml or 1 ng/ml) for 6, 12, or 24 h. Cytokines in the supernatant were measured by ELISA. HUVEC were pre-treated with acetate (10 mM), butyrate (5 mM) or propionate (10 mM) for 24 h and then stimulated with LPS (1 ?g/ml) or TNF? (1 ng/ml) for 8 h. The expression of the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was detected by flow cytometry. The human blood mononuclear cell adhesive level to HUVEC monolayer was measured. LPS and TNF? induced a significant increase in the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. Acetate, butyrate and propionate reduced IL-6 and IL-8 levels and the magnitude was dependent on the incubation times. LPS or TNF? increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Pre-incubation with acetate had no effect. In contrast, butyrate and propionate decreased VCAM-1 expression in TNF? stimulated cells but showed no effects on ICAM-1 expression. Butyrate significantly inhibited the adhesion of mononuclear cells to an endothelial monolayer and propionate was less effective. Conclusion: SCFA, including acetate, butyrate and propionate, influenced LPS- or TNF?-induced endothelial activation by inhibiting the production of IL-6 and IL-8, and reducing the expression of VCAM-1 and subsequent cell adhesion. Results were dependent on the concentrations and pre-incubation time of each SCFA and stimulation time of LPS or TNF?.
Project description:Background: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the main short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced in the colon as a result of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that these SCFA have major health benefits. The composition of the microbiota is altered by dietary fat, and this is believed to impact SCFA production. Currently it is unknown whether host gene expression responses to SCFA are modulated by fat content of the diet. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in colonic gene expression profiles after acetate, propionate and butyrate infusions between a low fat and high fat diet. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed semi-synthetic low fat (10 energy%) or high fat (45 E%) diets starting 2 weeks before the SCFA treatment period. During treatment, mice received a rectal infusion of either an acetate, propionate, butyrate, or a saline (control) solution for 6 consecutive days, after which colon was subjected to gene expression profiling. Unsupervised visualization of the dataset was performed using Independent Principal Component Analysis. For each SCFA, similarities of its effects on a low fat and a high fat diet were assessed using Rank-Rank Hypergeometric Overlap. In addition, differentially expressed genes were identified, and gene set enrichment analysis was performed to determine functional implications of the regulated genes. Results: Taking into account the complete dataset, we observed that more variation in gene expression profiles was explained by fat content of the diet than by SCFA treatment. Gene expression responses to acetate and butyrate were similar on the low fat versus high fat diet, but were opposite for propionate. Functionally the expression changes reflected differential modulation of several metabolic processes; genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, lipid catabolism, lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol transport were suppressed by acetate and butyrate treatment, whereas propionate treatment resulted in changes in fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions: We demonstrated that dietary fat content impacts the colonic gene expression response to propionate, and to a lesser extent to acetate and butyrate. The study demonstrates that knowledge on diet composition is essential when studying effects of SCFAs on metabolism.
Project description:Background and Aim: Previously, we found that short chain fatty acids (SCFA) inhibit LPS or TNF?-induced endothelial inflammatory responses and excessive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, two important steps in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. We hypothesized that the effects of SCFA are associated with activation of G-protein coupled receptor 41/43 (GPR41/43) and/or inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Methods: The expression and location of GPR41/43 and HDAC3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were confirmed. HUVEC were pre-incubated with acetate, butyrate or propionate alone or in combination with GLPG0974 (GLPG, antagonist of GPR43) or ?-hydroxybutyrate (SHB, antagonist of GPR41) and then exposed to LPS or TNF?. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels and VCAM-1 expression were measured. HDAC activity was measured after treatment with butyrate, propionate and trichostatin A (TSA, HDAC inhibitor). The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesive level was also determined after TSA treatment. Results: GPR41/43 were expressed on the membrane of HUVEC and HDAC3 was located in cytoplasm and nucleus. The GLPG and/or SHB treatments restored the inhibitory effects of acetate on IL-6 and IL-8 production and the inhibitory effects of butyrate or propionate on IL-6 production, but not on IL-8. In contrast, GLPG and/or SHB treatments did not affect the inhibitory effects of butyrate or propionate on TNF?-induced VCAM-1 expression. TSA showed similar effects on IL-8 production and VCAM-1 expression as butyrate and propionate. In addition, TSA significantly inhibited the adhesion of PBMC to an endothelial monolayer. Conclusion: Activation of GPR41/43 mediates the effects of acetate on IL-6 and IL-8 production and the effects of butyrate and propionate on IL-6 production. Furthermore, inhibition of HDACs mediates the effects of butyrate and propionate on IL-8 production, VCAM-1 expression, and PBMC adhesion to an endothelial monolayer. These data indicate the beneficial roles of SCFA in preventing vascular inflammation and relevant diseases by activation of GPR41/43 and inhibition of HDACs.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by the gut microbiota and may reflect health. Gut symptoms are common in individuals with depressive disorders, and recent data indicate relationships between gut microbiota and psychiatric health. We aimed to investigate potential associations between SCFAs and self-reported depressive and gut symptoms in young adults.<h4>Methods</h4>Fecal samples from 164 individuals (125 were patients with psychiatric disorders: mean [standard deviation] age = 21.9 [2.6] years, 14% men; 39 nonpsychiatric controls: age = 28.5 [9.5] years, 38% men) were analyzed for the SCFA acetate, butyrate, and propionate by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We then compared SCFA ratios with dimensional measures of self-reported depressive and gut symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>Depressive symptoms showed a positive association with acetate levels (ρ = 0.235, p = .003) and negative associations with both butyrate (ρ = -0.195, p = .014) and propionate levels (ρ = -0.201, p = .009) in relation to total SCFA levels. Furthermore, symptoms of diarrhea showed positive associations with acetate (ρ = 0.217, p = .010) and negative associations with propionate in relation to total SCFA levels (ρ = 0.229, p = 0-007). Cluster analysis revealed a heterogeneous pattern where shifts in SCFA ratios were observed in individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms, elevated levels of gut symptoms, or both.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Shifts in SCFAs are associated with both depressive symptoms and gut symptoms in young adults and may have of relevance for treatment.
Project description:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are bacterial metabolites that can be found in periodontal pockets. The expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) within the epithelium pocket is considered to be a key event for the selective transmigration of leucocytes towards the gingival sulcus. However, the impact of SCFA on ICAM-1 expression by oral epithelial cells remains unclear. We therefore exposed the oral squamous carcinoma cell line HSC-2, primary oral epithelial cells and human gingival fibroblasts to SCFA, namely acetate, propionate and butyrate, and stimulated with known inducers of ICAM-1 such as interleukin-1-beta (IL1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF?). We report here that butyrate but not acetate or propionate significantly suppressed the cytokine-induced ICAM-1 expression in HSC-2 epithelial cells and primary epithelial cells. The G-protein coupled receptor-43 (GPR43/ FFAR2) agonist but not the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, mimicked the butyrate effects. Butyrate also attenuated the nuclear translocation of p65 into the nucleus on HSC-2 cells. The decrease of ICAM-1 was independent of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and phosphorylation of JNK and p38. Nevertheless, butyrate could not reverse an ongoing cytokine-induced ICAM-1 expression in HSC-2 cells. Overall, these observations suggest that butyrate can attenuate cytokine-induced ICAM-1 expression in cells with epithelial origin.
Project description:Environmental factors driving the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still largely unknown. Both animal and human studies have shown an association between altered fecal microbiota composition, impaired production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and T1D onset. However, observational evidence on SCFA and fecal and oral microbiota in adults with longstanding T1D vs healthy controls (HC) is lacking.We included 53 T1D patients without complications or medication and 50 HC matched for age, sex and BMI. Oral and fecal microbiota, fecal and plasma SCFA levels, markers of intestinal inflammation (fecal IgA and calprotectin) and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation were measured.Oral microbiota were markedly different in T1D (eg abundance of Streptococci) compared to HC. Fecal analysis showed decreased butyrate producing species in T1D and less butyryl-CoA transferase genes. Also, plasma levels of acetate and propionate were lower in T1D, with similar fecal SCFA. Finally, fecal strains Christensenella and Subdoligranulum correlated with glycemic control, inflammatory parameters and SCFA.We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels. Future research should disentangle cause and effect and whether supplementation of SCFA-producing bacteria or SCFA alone can have disease-modifying effects in T1D.